Sir Louis Hilton Straker, KCMG is a politician and is the Second Deputy Prime Minister of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. He has been Deputy Prime Minister since 2015, he was the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade from 2001 to May 17, 2005 when he was transferred to the Ministry of Transport and Housing during a cabinet reshuffle. He became Foreign Minister again in December 2005, he was made a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George in December 2005. Louis, better known as "The Terminator" was raised in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines by his father Bertram Augustus Straker, he was educated at the Layou Government school to the Emmanuel High school an gained higher education at the Hunger College, New York. In the 2001 general election his party gained 69.2% of the vote. The Unity Labour Party gain government and Louis Straker was elected to house of parliament. In the 2015 general election his party gained 52.28% of the vote with a total of 34,246 of the votes. Louis was once again elected to house of parliament for Central Leeward.
List of foreign ministers in 2017 List of current foreign ministers
Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, she was educated at home, her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; when her father died in February 1952, she became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Ceylon. She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, the decolonisation of Africa. Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and realms, including South Africa and Ceylon, became republics.
Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012 respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee, she is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state, the oldest and longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state. Elizabeth has faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992 and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. However, support for the monarchy has been and remains high, as does her personal popularity. Elizabeth was born at 02:40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V.
Her father, the Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, the Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May, named Elizabeth after her mother, Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier, Mary after her paternal grandmother. Called "Lilibet" by her close family, based on what she called herself at first, she was cherished by her grandfather George V, during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery. Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930; the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford.
Lessons concentrated on history, language and music. Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family; the book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, her attitude of responsibility. Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character, she has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant." Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved". During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young. Many people believed he would have children of his own; when her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, after her father.
That year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Elizabeth's father became king, she became heir presumptive. If her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession. Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College, learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses. A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed so she could socialise with girls her own age, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger. In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured the United States; as in 1927, when her parents had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought her too young to undertake public tours. Elizabeth "looked tearful", they corresponded and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.
In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War. Lord Hailsham suggested that the two princesses should be evacuated to Canada to avoid the frequent aerial bombing; this was rejected by Elizabeth's mother. I won't leave wit
Arnhim Ulric Eustace was a Vincentian politician and economist. He served as the third Prime Minister of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, is the former Leader of the Opposition and former president of the New Democratic Party after resigning in 2016. Eustace is the Member of Parliament for the constituency of East Kingstown in the House of Assembly of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. On 27 October 2000, Eustace a political neophyte, succeeded James Fitz-Allen Mitchell as the leader of the NDP, on 28 March 2001, the NDP was defeated in the 2001 general election in which the party was reduced from 8 to 3 seats, producing a majority government for the Unity Labour Party. In the 7 December 2005 general elections, Eustace's NDP won 3 seats. In the 13 December 2010 general election, Eustace's NDP saw an increase in the popular vote to 48.67%, winning 7 seats in a close election. The number required to form a majority in the House of Assembly of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is 8, the incumbent ULP formed government with a one-seat majority.
Arnhim Eustace is an alumnus of the St Vincent Boys' Grammar School. He attended Sir George William University in Montreal, Canada, where he earned a BSc in Economics and a MSc in Development Economics from University of Windsor in Ontario, Canada. At the age of 27, Eustace became the youngest permanent secretary in St. Vincent and the Grenadines when he was so assigned to the Ministry of Agriculture, his ascendancy was cut short when in 1976 he resigned from the civil service on a point of principle. For one year after his departure he fished the waters off Edinboro, until Sir William Demas flew into St. Vincent to recruit the young economist into the Caribbean Development Bank. In 1977, Eustace and his family relocated to Barbados where, with the exception of one year, they lived for the next 16 years, his full tour of duty with the CDB. There he rose from Administrative Officer through the ranks of the institution becoming Director of Projects, third in the line of seniority at the regional institution, before repatriating to St. Vincent in 1993.
In 1985 Eustace was for 18 months seconded by the CDB to the United Nations Development Programme which assigned him to the Government of St. Vincent and the Grenadines to review and implement changes to the public finance system and to manage government finances as Director General of Finance and Planning. Upon his 1993 return to St. Vincent, Eustace was appointed Fiscal Adviser to the Government of St. Vincent and the Grenadines. In 1998, he resigned from the public service and ran for political office, winning the East Kingstown parliamentary seat. Following the 1998 general elections, he was appointed Minister of Finance and the Public Service; that year he was offered the post of Deputy Secretary General of the British Commonwealth Secretariat in London, which he declined. Fifty-three countries constitute the Commonwealth of Nations. From 1993 to 1998 Eustace was chairman of WIBDECO as well as the Joint Venture Holding Companies in the UK, he headed the Windward Islands negotiating team for the acquisition of GEEST Bananas in a joint venture with Fyffes of Ireland.
Eustace was chairman of the National Insurance Scheme. He was the Government Director on the board of the East Caribbean Group of Companies. In 2000, Eustace was elected leader of the New Democratic Party and upon the October 2000 retirement of Sir James Mitchell, was appointed prime minister of St. Vincent and the Grenadines until the NDP's loss at the March 2001 General Elections. Eustace remains Leader of the Opposition. In the three general elections his party has contested since he took the helm, the NDP has risen from 3–12 to 7–8, within narrow reach of forming government. In 2016 Eustace resigned from leader of the opposition after serving for 15 years. Samuel, Vin G.. The Life and Times of Dr. John Parmenas Eustace. Trafford Publishing. P. 204. ISBN 978-1-55395-298-5. Retrieved 9 May 2010
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Monarchy of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
The monarchy of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is the constitutional system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, forming the core of the country's Westminster-style parliamentary democracy. The Crown is thus is the foundation of the executive and judicial branches of the Vincentian government. While Royal Assent and the royal sign-manual are required to enact laws, letters patent, orders in council, the authority for these acts stems from the Vincentian populace, within the conventional stipulations of constitutional monarchy, the sovereign's direct participation in any of these areas of governance is limited, with most related powers entrusted for exercise by the elected and appointed parliamentarians, the ministers of the Crown drawn from amongst them, the judges and Justices of the Peace; the Vincentian monarchy has its roots in the French and British crowns, from which it has evolved over numerous centuries to become a distinctly Vincentian institution represented by unique symbols.
The Vincentian monarch – since 27 October 1979, Queen Elizabeth II – is today shared with fifteen other countries within the Commonwealth of Nations, all being independent and the monarchy of each distinct. For Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the monarch is titled Queen of Vincent and the Grenadines, she, her consort, other members of the Royal Family undertake various public and private functions across the country. However, the Queen is the only member of the Royal Family with any constitutional role. While several powers are the sovereign's alone, because she lives predominantly in the United Kingdom, most of the royal constitutional and ceremonial duties in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines are carried out by the Queen's representative, the Governor-General. Further information: Commonwealth realm > Relationship of the realmsSaint Vincent and the Grenadines shares the same monarch in personal union with each of 15 other monarchies in the 52-member Commonwealth of Nations, a grouping known informally as the Commonwealth realms.
Upon its independence from the United Kingdom, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines entered into this arrangement that had earlier emerged following the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, since when the pan-national Crown has had both a shared and separate character, the sovereign's role as monarch of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines has been distinct to his or her position as monarch of the United Kingdom. The monarchy thus ceased to be an British institution, though it is still misnomered as "British" in both legal and common language, for reasons historical, of convenience. Effective with the Constitution of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, no British or other realm government can advise the sovereign on any matters pertinent to Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, meaning that on all matters of the Vincentian state, the monarch is advised by Vincentian Ministers of the Crown; as the monarch lives predominantly outside of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, one of the most important of these state duties carried out on the advice of the Vincentian Prime Minister is the appointment of the viceroy, titled as Governor-General, performs most of the Queen's domestic duties in her absence.
The islands had been part of the West Indies Federation from 1958 until its dissolution in 1962, had won home rule in 1969 as part of the West Indies Associated States, achieved full independence in 1979. When the status of association of Saint Vincent with the United Kingdom was due to terminate in 1979, it became necessary to establish a new constitution on its attaining responsible status within the Commonwealth, the House of Assembly had requested the making of the Order in Council which constituted Saint Vincent and the Grenadines as a sovereign democratic state; the Saint Vincent Constitution Order 1979 was made under the West Indies Act 1967 and came into operation on 23 June 1983. Under the new constitution the Oath of Allegiance to the sovereign was to continue. Succession is by male-preference primogeniture governed by both the Act of Settlement, 1701, Bill of Rights, 1689, legislation that limits the succession to the natural, legitimate descendants of Sophia, Electress of Hanover, stipulates that the monarch cannot be a Roman Catholic, nor married to one, must be in communion with the Church of England upon ascending the throne.
Though, via adopting the Statute of Westminster, these constitutional laws as they apply to Saint Vincent and the Grenadines now lie within the full control of the Vincentian parliament, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines agreed not to change its rules of succession without the unanimous consent of the other realms, unless explicitly leaving the shared monarchy relationship. Thus, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines' line of succession remains identical to that of the United Kingdom. Upon a demise of the Crown, the late sovereign's heir and automatically succeeds, without any need for confirmation or further
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines passport
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines passports are issued to citizens of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines to travel outside the country. Since April 2005, the new issued passports comply with the CARICOM common passports; as of 1 January 2017, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 127 countries and territories, ranking the Saint Vincent and the Grenadines passport 36th in terms of travel freedom according to the Henley visa restrictions index. Visa requirements for Saint Vincent and the Grenadines citizens Caribbean passport Visa policy of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Application form - Adults
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and as President from 1976 to 2008. A Marxist–Leninist and Cuban nationalist, Castro served as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba from 1961 until 2011. Under his administration, Cuba became a one-party communist state, while industry and business were nationalized and state socialist reforms were implemented throughout society. Born in Birán, Oriente as the son of a wealthy Spanish farmer, Castro adopted leftist anti-imperialist politics while studying law at the University of Havana. After participating in rebellions against right-wing governments in the Dominican Republic and Colombia, he planned the overthrow of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista, launching a failed attack on the Moncada Barracks in 1953. After a year's imprisonment, Castro traveled to Mexico where he formed a revolutionary group, the 26th of July Movement, with his brother Raúl Castro and Che Guevara.
Returning to Cuba, Castro took a key role in the Cuban Revolution by leading the Movement in a guerrilla war against Batista's forces from the Sierra Maestra. After Batista's overthrow in 1959, Castro assumed military and political power as Cuba's Prime Minister; the United States came to oppose Castro's government and unsuccessfully attempted to remove him by assassination, economic blockade and counter-revolution, including the Bay of Pigs Invasion of 1961. Countering these threats, Castro aligned with the Soviet Union and allowed the Soviets to place nuclear weapons in Cuba, sparking the Cuban Missile Crisis – a defining incident of the Cold War – in 1962. Adopting a Marxist–Leninist model of development, Castro converted Cuba into a one-party, socialist state under Communist Party rule, the first in the Western Hemisphere. Policies introducing central economic planning and expanding healthcare and education were accompanied by state control of the press and the suppression of internal dissent.
Abroad, Castro supported anti-imperialist revolutionary groups, backing the establishment of Marxist governments in Chile and Grenada, as well as sending troops to aid allies in the Yom Kippur and Angolan Civil War. These actions, coupled with Castro's leadership of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1979 to 1983 and Cuba's medical internationalism, increased Cuba's profile on the world stage. Following the Soviet Union's dissolution in 1991, Castro led Cuba through the economic downturn of the "Special Period", embracing environmentalist and anti-globalization ideas. In the 2000s, Castro forged alliances in the Latin American "pink tide" – namely with Hugo Chávez's Venezuela – and signed Cuba up to the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas. In 2006, Castro transferred his responsibilities to Vice President Raúl Castro, elected to the presidency by the National Assembly in 2008; the longest-serving non-royal head of state in the 20th and 21st centuries, Castro polarized world opinion. His supporters view him as a champion of socialism and anti-imperialism whose revolutionary regime advanced economic and social justice while securing Cuba's independence from American imperialism.
Critics view him as a dictator whose administration oversaw human-rights abuses, the exodus of a large number of Cubans and the impoverishment of the country's economy. Castro was decorated with various international awards and influenced different individuals and groups across the world. Castro was born out of wedlock at his father's farm on 13 August 1926, his father, Ángel Castro y Argiz, a veteran of the Spanish–American War, was a migrant to Cuba from Galicia, Northwest Spain. He had become financially successful by growing sugar cane at Las Manacas farm in Birán, Oriente Province. After the collapse of his first marriage he took his household servant, Lina Ruz González – of Canarian origin – as his mistress and second wife. At age six, Castro was sent to live with his teacher in Santiago de Cuba, before being baptized into the Roman Catholic Church at the age of eight. Being baptized enabled Castro to attend the La Salle boarding school in Santiago, where he misbehaved. In 1945, Castro transferred to the more prestigious Jesuit-run El Colegio de Belén in Havana.
Although Castro took an interest in history and debating at Belén, he did not excel academically, instead devoting much of his time to playing sports. In 1945, Castro began studying law at the University of Havana. Admitting he was "politically illiterate", Castro became embroiled in student activism and the violent gangsterismo culture within the university. Passionate about anti-imperialism and opposing U. S. intervention in the Caribbean, he unsuccessfully campaigned for the presidency of the Federation of University Students on a platform of "honesty and justice". Castro became critical of the corruption and violence of President Ramón Grau's government, delivering a public speech on the subject in November 1946 that received coverage on the front page of several newspapers. In 1947, Castro joined the Party of the Cuban People, founded by veteran politician Eduardo Chibás. A charismatic figure, Chibás advocated social justice, honest government and political freedom, while his party exposed corruption and demanded reform.
Though Chibás came third in the 1948 general election, Castro remained committed to working on his behalf. Student violence escalated after Grau employed gang leaders as police officers, Castro soon received a death threat urging him to leave the university. However, he refused to do so an