Republic of Ireland
Ireland, also known as the Republic of Ireland, is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the part of the island. The state shares its land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint Georges Channel to the south-east, and it is a unitary, parliamentary republic. The head of government is the Taoiseach, who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President, the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It was officially declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948, Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955. It joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, after joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth. The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by a financial crisis that began in 2008. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again quickly ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index and it also performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a member of the Council of Europe. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was styled, the Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland. Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland. The 1948 Act does not name the state as Republic of Ireland, because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name Eire, and, from 1949, Republic of Ireland, for the state, as well as Ireland, Éire or the Republic of Ireland, the state is also referred to as the Republic, Southern Ireland or the South. In an Irish republican context it is referred to as the Free State or the 26 Counties. From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, during the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the islands population of over 8 million fell by 30%
Northern Ireland is a constituent unit of the United Kingdom in the north-east of Ireland. It is variously described as a country, province, region, or part of the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland shares a border to the south and west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the total population. Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by an act of the British parliament, Northern Ireland has historically been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, its economy has grown significantly since the late 1990s. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at 17. 2% in 1986, dropping to 6. 1% for June–August 2014,58. 2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year. Prominent artists and sports persons from Northern Ireland include Van Morrison, Rory McIlroy, Joey Dunlop, Wayne McCullough, some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish while others prefer to identify as British. Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, and the rest of the UK are complex, in many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, and people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games. The region that is now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century, the English-controlled Kingdom of Ireland had been declared by the English king Henry VIII in 1542, but Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. Victories by English forces in war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and their intention was to materially disadvantage the Catholic community and, to a lesser extent, the Presbyterian community. In the context of open institutional discrimination, the 18th century saw secret, militant societies develop in communities in the region and act on sectarian tensions in violent attacks. Following this, in an attempt to quell sectarianism and force the removal of discriminatory laws, the new state, formed in 1801, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, was governed from a single government and parliament based in London. Between 1717 and 1775 some 250,000 people from Ulster emigrated to the British North American colonies and it is estimated that there are more than 27 million Scotch-Irish Americans now living in the US. By the close of the century, autonomy for Ireland within the United Kingdom, in 1912, after decades of obstruction from the House of Lords, Home Rule became a near-certainty. A clash between the House of Commons and House of Lords over a controversial budget produced the Parliament Act 1911, which enabled the veto of the Lords to be overturned. The House of Lords veto had been the unionists main guarantee that Home Rule would not be enacted, in 1914, they smuggled thousands of rifles and rounds of ammunition from Imperial Germany for use by the Ulster Volunteers, a paramilitary organisation opposed to the implementation of Home Rule
Bohemian Football Club, more commonly referred to as Bohs, is a professional football club from Dublin, Ireland. Bohemians compete in the Premier Division of the League of Ireland, during that period they won the Irish Cup once and finished runners up 5 times. They share the record for most wins in European competition with archrivals Shamrock Rovers, Bohemians were founded on 6 September 1890 in the Phoenix Park Gate Lodge beside the North Circular Road entrance and played its first games in the Parks Polo Grounds. One of the members of the League of Ireland in 1921. Bohemians dropped their amateur ethos in 1969 and proceeded to win 2 League titles,2 FAI Cups and 2 League cups during the 1970s. They suffered a further decline throughout the 1980s and most of the 1990s before claiming League and Cup doubles in 2001 and 2008, alongside the 2003, Bohemians play their home matches at Dalymount Park in the Northside neighbourhood of Phibsborough. They are owned 100% by the members of the club and their club colours are red and black, which they adopted at the 4th AGM in October 1893. Bohemians supporters often refer to their club by a number of nicknames including Bohs and The Gypsies, seasons Bohemians were founded on 6 September 1890. They were members of the Irish Football League from 1902 to 1911, during this time the clubs greatest success was winning the Irish Cup in 1908. In its first season it finished second in the league, just two points behind St. James Gate, the club won its first league title in 1924. In 1928 the club won its league title and completed a double that season by winning its first FAI Cup also. The club was one of the forces in the early years of the league. The club went 34 seasons without winning a major trophy, in 1969 the club ended its amateur status, and the first player to sign professional terms was Tony OConnell, who signed on 11 March 1969. The club then went on to win two titles, two FAI Cups and two league cups in the 1970s, more trophies than any other club that decade. In 1970 the club entered European competition for the first time where it was beaten in the first qualifying round of the European Cup Winners Cup. The club went through another trophy-less spell after its 1979 league cup victory and it was not until 2001 that it regained the league title, also winning the FAI Cup that season to complete its second double. In September 2009, Bohemians claimed the League Cup for the time in the clubs history with a 3–1 win over Waterford United in the final. On 6 November 2009, Bohemians retained the title after a 1–1 draw against Bray Wanderers and they were already assured of the league title before the final round of matches as they held a three-point lead and 16-goal difference advantage over their nearest rivals Shamrock Rovers
Sligo Rovers F.C.
Sligo Rovers Football Club is a professional Irish football club playing in the Premier Division of the League of Ireland. The club was founded in 1928 and have been in the League of Ireland since 1934, the club is a co-operative venture, owned by the people of Sligo. Rovers have played at The Showgrounds since their inception and they recently won a third FAI Cup in four years and in the season previous to this recent cup win became the 2012 Premier Division Champions, winning the title with two games to spare. In total they have won three titles, five FAI Cups and two League cups. On 27 February 2012 Rovers had announced an international sponsorship deal with local car dealers Connollys Volkswagen. Sligo Rovers Football Club was formed on 17 September 1928 as a result of an amalgamation of two sides, Sligo Town and Sligo Blues. Their first game was a 9-1 victory against Ballyshannon in Donegal on 23 September 1928 in the round of the Connacht Cup. The club, elected to the League of Ireland in 1934, hails from Sligo, the home colours are red with white sleeve uppers, with white shorts and socks while the away colours are white with red sides, red shorts and red socks. The third alternative kit is navy with red sleeve uppers, nacy shorts, the club started well by winning the FAI Junior Cup in their first ever season, beating Grangegorman in the final at the Showgrounds 3-0. The following season also brought silverware in the shape of the Connacht Junior Cup with Rovers beating Galway in the final 1-0 after a replay. After this success the club moved up another level the season by joining the Leinster Senior League and played their first game away to UCD in August 1932. The club performed well in their first season at this level eventually finishing third as Brideville won the league. This season also saw The Bit O Red make their first appearance in the FAI Cup, the next year brought yet more glory with the club winning the Leinster Senior League in only their second year at this level. They did so by beating Distillery in a play-off at Tolka Park 3-2 after the teams had finished the league level on points. Following this achievement the club was elected to the Free State League on 28 June 1934 along with Waterford as both Shelbourne and Cork Bohemians resigned from the league, the team finished a highly credible third in that season with Gerry McDaid finishing as top scorer. During this season local Paddy Monaghan won two caps for the Irish national team and is still the man to have achieved this while at the club. The 1936–37 season began in spectacular fashion with Sligo winning their first 11 games, trainer and captain that year was Jimmy Surgeoner in his only season at the club. Top scorer was Englishman Harry Litherland whose record of 19 league goals that season was surpassed by Eoin Doyle in 2011 season scoring 20 league goals, the club also won the Dublin City Cup this year beating Dundalk in the final
Monaghan United F.C.
Monaghan United F. C. is an Irish association football club based in Monaghan. The club joined the League of Ireland in 1983 and subsequently went on to play in the B Division, the First Division and they resigned from the league midway through the 2012 season. The club continues to field a team in the Dublin Womens Soccer League and, together with the Cavan Monaghan Underage League. Monaghan United were founded in 1979, among the clubs founding members was Sean McCaffrey who was also the manager of the club when they joined the League of Ireland B Division in 1983–84. In 1985–86 Monaghan United became founder members of the League of Ireland First Division, United played eight seasons in the First Division before winning their first promotion. After finishing third in 1992–93 they became the first League of Ireland club to promotion via a promotion/relegation play off. They defeated Waterford United 5–2 on aggregate and were promoted to the 1993–94 Premier Division. They survived just two seasons in the Premier Division before being relegated at the end of the 1994–95 season, Monaghan United gained promotion to the Premier Division for a second time in 2000–01 after finishing second to Dundalk. This time their stay in the Premier Division last just one season, after managing to win just two league games, they finished last and were relegated following the conclusion of the 2001–02 season. Monaghan United reached the final of the 2010 League of Ireland Cup and they also finished third in the 2010 First Division and qualified for the promotion/relegation play off. They subsequently beat Waterford United before losing to Bray Wanderers on penaltes, in 2011, under the management of Roddy Collins, Monaghan United again qualified for the promotion/relegation play off. This time they won promotion after beating Galway United 5–1 on aggregate, however, midway through the 2012 season, Monaghan United withdrew from the league for mainly but not only financial reasons. Statistics Source, Monaghan United formed a football team in 2006. They won Division Four of the Dublin Womens Soccer League in their first season and were promoted to Division Two, in 2007 they again won the league along with the Leinster Junior Cup. In 2008 they won the DWSL Intermediate Cup after defeating Santry 3–1 in the final, in 2012 they reached the semi-finals of the WFAI Intermediate Cup. In 2015 Monaghan United and the Cavan Monaghan Underage League formed the Monaghan United Cavan Football Partnership in order to enter a team in the new League of Ireland U17 Division. Monaghan United originally played their games at Belgium Park which served as their home ground between 1979 and 1987. Since 1987 they have played at Gortakeegan
George Paul OCallaghan, is an Irish former football player and manager. OCallaghan started his career with Port Vale in 1995, he made 41 appearances for the club before joining Cork City in 2002 and he spent five years at his home town club, making 150 league appearances. This was followed by a return to English football with Ipswich Town, in the summer of 2008 he signed with Tranmere Rovers, before brief spells with Dundalk and Yeovil Town in 2009. He then returned to his homeland for short stays at Waterford United and he was briefly with Cambridge United in 2011, before he emigrated to Brunei to briefly play for DPMM FC. He joined Dover Athletic for a stay in September 2012. He began his management career with Malaysian side Sabah in 2014, OCallaghan went on trial with Port Vale at the age of fifteen, and was signed up almost immediately. After two years, he was offered a professional contract, after being named the clubs Young Player of the Year, OCallaghan was on the point of breaking into the first team in the 1998–99 season, until John Rudge was sacked. Brian Horton took over as manager and OCallaghan was put back into the youth squad, thirteen months later he made a return to the senior squad, scoring in a draw with Crewe Alexandra. He stayed in the side for the rest of the season, Port Vale were relegated to the Second Division that year. OCallaghan was top-scorer seven games into the 2000–01 season but was dropped after a 3–0 loss to Cardiff City. It would be his last game for the Valiants and he returned home to Cork in 2002 after his contract ended at Port Vale. Shortly after, he signed for his hometown club Cork City making his debut in the game of the 2002–03 season against Shelbourne in 3–0 home win in which he scored. He went on to form a striking partnership with John OFlynn. Following the arrival of Neale Fenn in 2004, OCallaghan was moved to midfield by then manager Pat Dolan, in 2005, Cork City picked up their first league title in twelve years and OCallaghan picked up a winners medal. He scored eleven goals in all competitions, including in the 2005–06 UEFA Cup and he also played in the 2005 FAI Cup Final defeat to Drogheda United at Lansdowne Road. In July 2006 he was time off due to a falling out between himself and manager Damien Richardson. In September 2006, OCallaghan joined English club Ipswich Town on trial with a view to a permanent deal and he remained training at Ipswich for the following two months, unable to formally sign because of UEFAs transfer window system. In January 2007, the clubs finally negotiated a deal despite strong words on both sides, concluding in a fee which saw him sign an eighteen-month contract with Ipswich
League of Ireland
The League of Ireland, together with the Football Association of Ireland, is one of the two main governing bodies responsible for organising association football in the Republic of Ireland. The term was used to refer to a single division league. However today the League of Ireland features four divisions – the Premier Division, the First Division, an U19 Division, the League of Ireland has always worked closely with the FAI and in 2006 the two bodies formally merged. All the divisions are currently sponsored by Airtricity and as a result the league is known as the SSE Airtricity League. In 2007, it one of the first leagues in Europe to introduce a salary cap. The leagues most successful club is Shamrock Rovers who have won 17 titles, together with Dundalk, Bohemians and Shelbourne they are one of four clubs in the league to feature a golden star above their badge in recognition of winning ten titles. Bohemians are the club in the league to have played every season in the top division. The League of Ireland was founded in 1921 as a division known as the A Division. The first season featured eight teams, all from County Dublin, the teams that competed in the first season were Bohemians, Dublin United, Frankfort, Jacobs, Olympia, St. Jamess Gate, Shelbourne and YMCA. The eight founding members had spent the 1920–21 season playing in the Leinster Senior League, Bohemians and Shelbourne had played in the 1919–20 Irish League. St Jamess Gate were the inaugural champions, Gate also went on to complete a treble having already won both the 1921–22 FAI Cup and 1921–22 Leinster Senior Cup. In 1922–23 the league was expanded to twelve clubs, among the new members were Shamrock Rovers, who finished as champions, and Athlone Town who became the first team from outside of County Dublin to compete in the league. Together with fellow Dublin clubs teams, Bohemians and Shelbourne, Shamrock Rovers would go onto dominate the league during the 1920s, in 1924–25 Bray Unknowns and Fordsons became the second and third teams from outside of County Dublin to join the league. Fordsons also became the first team from Munster to play in the league, the league continued to expand numerically and geographically during its first two decades of existence. In 1926–27 Dundalk were elected to the league and in 1932–33 became the first club from outside of County Dublin to win the title, Dundalk were subsequently joined by Waterford in 1930–31, Cork Bohemians in 1932–33, Sligo Rovers in 1934–35 and Limerick F. C. in 1937–38. In 1936–37, Sligo Rovers became the club from outside of County Dublin to win the title. During The Emergency/Second World War era Cork United emerged as the leagues strongest team, the club won five league titles between 1940–41 and 1945–46, including three in succession. However they subsequently resigned from the league in 1948, the 1950s was marked by the emergence of St Patricks Athletic and the re-emergence of Shamrock Rovers
Letterkenny Rovers F.C.
Letterkenny Rovers Football Club is an association football club from Ireland, currently competing in the Ulster Senior League. The club is based in Letterkenny and the play their home games at Leckview Park. The club work closely with League of Ireland First Division side Finn Harps, Letterkenny Rovers also compete in the FAI Cup. The club was formed in 1936 as Letterkenny Crusaders before being given its current name in 1954, however, in 2010, the club erected a new 200 seater stand at Leckview Park in phase one of the re-development of the venue. The 2015/2016 season saw Rovers, under the guidance of Eamon McConigley, having overcome Derry City Reserves to win the Knockalla Caravans Cup, the first-team went on to reach the final of the FAI Intermediate Cup at the Aviva Stadium, going down 5-0 to Crumlin United. Letterkenny Rovers home kit is white jersey, black shorts, red socks, the away kit are black jersey, white shorts and yellow socks. The club crest is divided into four panels which feature St. Eunans Cathedral, Conwal Parish Church, a fish, there is a football in the centre of the crest. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality
Kerry District League
The Kerry District League is an association football league featuring amateur and junior clubs from County Kerry. The KDL is a winter league running from September to May and its top division, the Premier A, is a seventh level division in the Republic of Ireland football league system. The league is featured in the local newspapers – The Kerryman. The league was formed in 1971 with eight competing in its first season. Its founding members included Tralee Dynamos and Killarney Athletic, both of whom had played in the Limerick Desmond League. Other founding members included St Brendans Park, Tralee Dynamos were the inaugural champions and subsequently became the leagues most successful team. The KDL purchased Mounthawk Park in Tralee in the mid–1990s and it now serves as both the headquarters of the league and as home ground for the Kerry League representative teams. Several KDL clubs, especially those in the greater Tralee area, in August 2015 a new all-weather pitch was opened at Mounthawk Park by Martin ONeill and John Delaney. A senior Kerry League representative team competes in the Oscar Traynor Trophy. In recent seasons they have competed in the League of Ireland Cup. In 2016 a Kerry League U17 team will play in the League of Ireland U17 Division
Shamrock Rovers F.C.
Shamrock Rovers Football Club is an Irish association football club based in Tallaght, South Dublin. The clubs senior team competes in the League of Ireland Premier Division, the club has won the League of Ireland title a record 17 times and the FAI Cup a record 24 times. Shamrock Rovers have supplied more players to the Republic of Ireland national football team than any other club, in All-Ireland competitions, such as the Intercity Cup, they hold the record for winning the most titles, having won seven cups overall. Shamrock Rovers were founded in Ringsend, Dublin, the official date of the clubs foundation is 1899. They won the League title at the first attempt in the 1922–23 season and established themselves as Republic of Ireland most successful club by 1949, winning 44 major trophies. During the 1950s, the club won three League titles and two FAI Cups and became the first Irish team to compete in European competition, playing in the European Cup in 1957. They won the first of four League titles in a row in 1983–84, the club played at Glenmalure Park from 1926 to 1987, when the owners controversially sold the stadium to property developers. Shamrock Rovers spent the next 22 years playing home games at various venues around Dublin and on occasions and they moved into Tallaght Stadium prior to the start of the 2009 season after years of delays and legal disputes, during which time the clubs supporters saved them from extinction. Shamrock Rovers wore green and white striped jerseys until 1926, when adopted the green. Their club badge has featured a football and a shamrock throughout their history, the club has a relatively large support base and shares an intense rivalry with Bohemian Football Club. On 26 August 2011 Rovers became the first Irish side to reach the stages of either of the top two European competitions by beating Partizan Belgrade in the play-off round of the Europa League. The foundation of Shamrock Rovers is disputed amongst supporters of the club, no official documentation of the era exists. Essentially, the dispute is whether the two years of exhibition games were played before or after the registration. In light of the discovery of evidence supporting a date before April 1899 the club opened a 1899 Suite in Tallaght Stadium in February 2017. Shamrock Rovers originate from Ringsend, a Southside inner suburb of Dublin, the name of the club derives from Shamrock Avenue in Ringsend, where the first club rooms were secured. In September 1906, after a few seasons in operation, Rovers withdrew from the First Division of the Leinster Senior League, in 1914, they were resurrected and started playing their matches at Ringsend Park. However, the park became unavailable within two years, the club disbanded and played only exhibition games for the next five years. The following season, the won the League of Ireland title at the first attempt, going 21 games unbeaten
Dundalk Football Club is an Irish professional association football club based in Dundalk, County Louth. The club currently plays in the League of Ireland Premier Division and are the current reigning champions, founded in 1903, it is the second most successful team, in terms of trophies won, in the history of the League of Ireland. The traditional colours of the club are white jerseys with black shorts, because of the white jerseys, the team has been nicknamed The Lilywhites. Home games are played in Oriel Park, a local rivalry is shared with Drogheda United, their Louth neighbours, who entered the League in 1963 as Drogheda FC and later became Drogheda United in 1975. In 2002, the won the FAI Cup for a ninth time. Dundalk celebrated its 2000th league game against Finn Harps on Thursday 8 March 2007 in Oriel Park to a crowd of 3,000 spectators. In 2016, the became the first Irish side to reach the play-off round of the UEFA Champions League after their shock 3–1 aggregate win over FC BATE Borisov. They were beaten by Legia Warsaw in the final play-off round and they became the first Irish side to win a group stage game in European competition when they beat Maccabi Tel Aviv 1–0 at home. The Dundalk team had beaten Institution 2nd XI 1–0, the club continued to exist until the outbreak of the First World War in 1914. However, other clubs began to make their presence felt in the locality. One in particular, the Great Northern Railway Association Club, otherwise known as the Dundalk GNR, founded in September 1903, the Dundalk GNR were located at the Athletic Grounds and competed in the Dundalk and District League from 1905 until 1914, although media coverage remained patchy. Sports coverage was re-instated in the media in 1919, with the Dundalk. Included among the teams was a representing the Dundalk GNR. The club were also partaking in the Newry League at the time, the Dundalk GNR was not involved in the fledgling League of Ireland, which began at the start of the 1921–22 season. It involved only Dublin-based clubs, all of which had stepped up from the Leinster Senior League Senior Division and this ultimately opened the way for the Dundalk GNR to move up to the Leinster Senior League. It was the club from outside the capital to compete in the 1922–23 season. The first game in the League of Ireland ended in a 2–1 loss to Fordsons on 21 August. The club, still known as the Dundalk GNR, and continuing in the black and amber kit from their pre-First World War origins, the match ended in a 2–1 defeat
Sporting Fingal F.C.
Sporting Fingal Football Club was an Irish association football club based in Fingal. Between 2008 and 2010, the club played three seasons in the League of Ireland, during their first two seasons they played in the First Division before winning promotion to the Premier Division. During the 2009 and 2010 seasons, the club entered a team in the A Championship. During their short stay in the League of Ireland, Sporting Fingal were relatively successful, as well as gaining promotion to the Premier Division, they also won both the 2009 FAI Cup and the 2010 A Championship Cup and qualified for the UEFA Europa League on two occasions. In addition to fielding teams in the League of Ireland, Sporting Fingal also organised Powerchair Football, Special Olympics football and their futsal team won the 2010 FAI Futsal Cup and qualified for the 2010–11 UEFA Futsal Cup. Sporting Fingal F. C. was established in 2007 as a joint initiative involving both Fingal County Council and the property developer Gerry Gannon. John OBrien, the executive officer with the council, proposed forming a community football club. Gannon would become the majority shareholder while the council maintained a 26% stake. Liam Buckley was also involved in forming the club and subsequently served as both the director of football and club manager. Sporting Fingal F. C. was set up as a company on 19 November 2007. At its launch the club announced its ambitions to set up an academy. The club also announced details about other backers and sponsors which included Keelings Group Ltd, in addition to fielding teams in the League of Ireland, Sporting Fingal also organised Powerchair Football, Special Olympics football and futsal teams. In 2009 Sporting Fingal EID joined the Emerald Futsal League and in 2010 won the FAI Futsal Cup, Sporting Fingal won the cup after defeating Blue Magic 4–2 in the final. This led to Sporting representing the Republic of Ireland in the 2010–11 UEFA Futsal Cup, Sporting Fingal successfully applied to join the League of Ireland and were initially expected to join the A Championship. However following the demise of Kilkenny City, the club were invited to join the First Division. Sporting Fingal made their League of Ireland debut on 8 March 2008 with a 5–1 defeat against Longford Town at Flancare Park, peter Hynes scored Sportings first goal in a competitive game. Despite their poor start, Sporting eventually finished fourth in the 2008 First Division, robbie Doyle also emerged as the First Division top scorer. Sporting had a very successful 2009 season, after finishing third during the regular season, they gained promotion to the 2010 Premier Division after defeating Bray Wanderers 4–2 on aggregate in a promotion-relegation play-off
Castlebar Celtic F.C.
Castlebar Celtic F. C. is an Irish association football club based in Castlebar, County Mayo. They currently play in the Mayo Association Football League and they have previously fielded teams in the League of Ireland U20 Division, the A Championship and the Connacht Senior League. The club also operates a womens team, according to the club crest, Castlebar Celtic was founded in 1924. However, during the early years there was little activity. The club was reformed in 1928 as Castlebar Corinthians and did not become Castlebar Celtic until 1932, the name change was partly inspired by Celtic F. C. Initially the club played only friendlies as there were no competitions for the club to enter. One the earliest of these friendlies in 1928 saw Westport United visit Castlebar Celtic, in 1937–38 an under–18 team won the clubs first trophy, the Alfie Byrne Cup. This cup was awarded to the winners of a league based in Westport. During the 1940s Castlebar Celtic began to compete in competitions such as the Western League. They won their first major honour in 1946–47 when they won the latter competition, in 1954, together with Westport Town, Barcastle and Quay Hearts, Castlebar Celtic became founder members of the Mayo Association Football League. They finished the season as champions and together with Westport United. Between 1957–58 and 1961–62 they were league champions five times in a row, in 1967–68 a Castlebar Celtic A team were champions while a Castlebar Celtic B team finished as runners up. Between 1980–81 and 1986–87 they completed another five in a row, after winning the league title in 1978–79 and 1980–81, Castlebar Celtic also went on to win the Michael Byrne Cup. In 1987–88 Castlebar Celtic joined the Connacht Senior League and in their first season finished as runners up behind Galway United Reserves, in 1988–89 they went one better when they finished as champions. Castlebar Celtic clinched the title after a draw in their game with second placed Salthill Devon. The game was rescheduled after an assault on the referee by a Salthill Devon fan caused the fixture to be abandoned with Celtic leading 1-0. Castlebar Celtic continued to play in the Connacht Senior League until 1999–2000 when it was dissolved, in 1992–93 Castlebar Celtic also represented the Connacht Senior League in the League of Ireland Cup after finishing second behind Sligo Rovers Reserves in the 1991–92 season. Castlebar Celtic were invited to participate because reserve teams were ineligible to compete in the League of Ireland Cup, after featuring in the 2007 League of Ireland U20 Division, Castlebar Celtic became the first club from County Mayo to play in a national league
Athlone Town A.F.C.
Athlone Town Football Club is an Irish football club from Athlone who are playing in the League of Ireland. The club is the oldest in the League as it was founded in 1887, First elected to the League of Ireland in 1922, they play their home matches in Lissywollen their new stadium which opened in 2007. The clubs colours are blue and black, Athlone first competed in the League of Ireland in the 1922–23 season finishing sixth. They were the first non-Dublin club in the Irish Free State to compete in the national Free State League and they competed in the league until 1928 and not again until the 1969–70 season. Athlone Town won the FAI Cup, their first domestic success in 1924, dinny Hannon scored the only goal of the game, as Athlone went through the whole competition without conceding a goal. Hannon was one of five Athlone Town players chosen to represent the Irish Free State at the 1924 Paris Olympic Games, the other players were Tommy Muldoon, Frank Ghent, John Joe Dykes and Paddy OReilly. The club finished second in the league in the 1974–75 season earning a place in the UEFA Cup and their first round game was against Norwegian side Vålerenga who they beat. Athlones second round tie was against Italian side AC Milan drawing 0–0 in the first leg at St. Mels Park setting an attendance of 9,000 before losing the second leg at the San Siro 3–0. Athlone won their first league title in the 1980–81 season and they played KB in Europe the following season earning a draw in the first leg in Denmark and again at St. Mels Park going out on the away goal rule. In the 1981–82 season Athlone Town won the League Cup for the time beating Shamrock Rovers. However they failed to retain their title that year finishing 4th. Athlone Town were again crowned champions in the 1982–83 season and qualifying for Europe. Their opponents in Europe on this occasion were Belgian outfit Raymond Goethals managed Standard Liège, losing 3–2 at home, in 1985 six new clubs were elected to the league increasing the leagues participation to 22. As a result, the current two division structure was adapted with Athlone Town in Premier Division, in 1987 the club finished last and were relegated to the First Division. Their stay there was short, finishing top of First Division the following season, the club remained in the top flight until the 1991–92 season, when they finished eleventh and were subsequently relegated to the First Division. Athlone Town again gained promotion to the Premier Division in the 1993–94 season, the club were once again relegated in 1996, narrowly missing out on promotion in 2001 by one point to Monaghan United. Since 2001 Athlone have finished each season in the half of the first division. In that time eight different managers have been appointed, in 2007 the club moved from St Mels Park to a new stadium, which was opened on 9 March when the home side hosted Kilkenny City in the opening game of the season
Longford Town F.C.
Longford Town Football Club is an Irish football club playing in the League of Ireland First Division. Club colours are red and black, and the club goes by the nickname De Town, in October 2016, the clubs senior side suffered relegation from the Premier Division at the end of a very disappointing 2016 season. Previously the Town was promoted to the Premier Division at the end of the 2014 season following a stint in the First Division. Longford Town was founded in 1924 but had to wait 60 years for election to the League of Ireland in 1984. In their first season in the league they finished last in the Premier Division and were one of the four sides to be relegated to the newly created First Division for the following season, in their second season they finished bottom of the First Division with only 7 points. They finished in the six of the ten team First Division in each of the next eleven seasons. In the 1998–99 season they missed out a place in the playoff by just four points. The following season saw an improvement when they finished 2nd in the First Division. Longford had a decent season in the Premier Division in 2000–01 finishing in mid-table and that season also saw the club reach the FAI Cup final for the first time where they lost 1–0 to Bohemian. As Bohemian also won the League title that season, Longford Town FC qualified to play in the UEFA Cup in July 2001, a meeting over 2 games with Bulgarian club side PFC Litex Lovech ended in a 3–1 aggregate victory for the Bulgarians. Things were less comfortable in the league during the 2001–02 season after that as they ended up in the relegation/promotion playoff and they had to play Finn Harps and they survived in Premier Division just about. They won in a penalty shootout after the tie ended 3–3 on aggregate, after that tough season the club became an established top division team with four successive top six finishes in the four seasons immediately after that. They also reached three more FAI Cup finals winning two of them, in 2004 they produced a cup double by winning the League of Ireland Cup in addition to retaining the FAI Cup. Because of their back-to-back FAI Cup successes the club entered European competition for two seasons in a row, on both occasions, however, they lost in their opening tie. In 2006 Longford finished in 8th place in the league, the 2007 season was a disappointing one for the midlands club as they finished last in the division and as a result were relegated. That is not the story, though, as the club were deducted six points during the season for failing to comply with club licensing procedures. These six points proved crucial in the end, as without this deduction they would have finished safe from relegation and this cost the club dearly, as there followed six frustrating years in the First Division, before being promoted as champions at the end of the 2014 season. The title was clinched following a resounding 5–0 victory at home to Shamrock Rovers B on October 3,2014, in their first season back in the Premier Division, the Town finished off the 2015 season in 6th position
Shelbourne Football Club is an Irish association football club based in Drumcondra, Dublin, who play in the League of Ireland First Division. Shelbourne were founded in Dublin in 1895, in 1904 the club joined the Irish Football League, which was then an all Ireland competition, before becoming founding members of the League of Ireland in 1921. Shelbourne have won the league 13 times and are one of three clubs to have won both the IFA Cup and the FAI Cup and they play their home matches at Tolka Park, in the Dublin suburb of Drumcondra. The club colours are red and white, with home jerseys being predominantly red. Shels is the clubs most common nickname, an abbreviation of Shelbourne, in the 2004/2005 European season, Shelbourne became the first Irish club to reach the third qualifying round of the UEFA Champions League. Their performances in European competition and former striker Jason Byrne being capped for the Republic of Ireland whilst with the club, the club lost their Premier Division licence for the 2007 season due to the clubs debt situation. Since then, Shelbourne have mainly played in the tier of the League of Ireland. Shelbourne Football Club was formed in 1895 in the Ringsend area of Dublin by a group of men led by Mr. James Rowan, the club took its name from the nearby Shelbourne Road. The clubs first pitch was at Havelock Square just behind the stand at the present day Aviva Stadium. Shelbournes second season was their first in competitive competition, Shelbourne played 28 matches, won 25, drew 2 and lost only 1. Their goal tally was 109 for and 15 against, Shelbourne won the principal junior competitions, the Leinster Junior Cup and League Championship. The club decided to enter the ranks for the 1897–98 Season and reached the Leinster Senior Cup Final at their first attempt. They also finished runners-up in the Leinster Senior League, the club won their first Leinster Senior Cup in 1899/1900, Shelbourne won the competition again in 1901 and 1904. The club made it into the Final of the IFA Cup in 1905 but were beaten by Distillery, in 1906 Shelbourne player Val Harris became the clubs first player to line out for Ireland. Shelbourne reached the IFA Cup Final again in 1907 and 1908 but were beaten on both occasion in replays against Cliftonville and Bohemians, in 1907 Shelbourne were also Irish Football League runners-up to Linfield. They won the Leinster Senior Cup again in 1908 and 1909, in 1909 Shelbourne were City Cup winners and finished 3rd place in the Irish Football League, behind champions Linfield and Glentoran. In 1911 Shelbourne won the IFA Cup for their second time, Shelbourne won the Leinster Senior Cup again in 1913 and 1914. Shelbourne were 1914 Gold Cup runners-up, and then winners in 1915, Shelbourne were Leinster Senior Cup winners again in 1917 and 1919
F. C. Carlow was an Irish association football club based in County Carlow. Between 2009 and 2011 the club played in the A Championship and they were the first and to date so far, the only association football club from County Carlow to play in a senior national level league. During this time, the also competed in the FAI Cup, the League of Ireland Cup. F. C. Carlow developed from the South East Development Academy, the club made debut in the U20 Division with a home game against Cobh Ramblers. Between 2009 and 2011, F. C. Carlow played in the A Championship, on April 5,2009 F. C. Carlow made their debut in the A Championship with a 1–1 home draw against Cork City A. During this time, the also competed the FAI Cup, the League of Ireland Cup. In 2010 they were semi-finalists in the A Championship Cup, losing out after extra time, following the demise of the A Championship, F. C. Carlow subsequently played one season in the new League of Ireland U19 Division. F. C. Carlow played their games at various grounds throughout County Carlow. These included grounds that were used by clubs that played in the Carlow & District Football League. During the 2008–09 season when played in the League of Ireland U20 Division. This was the home of Parkville United, while playing in the A Championship they played at The Valley on Fenagh Road in Ballon at the home of Burrin Celtic. During the 2011 season they played games at The Meadows in Graiguecullen. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality
Waterford Football Club is an Irish association football club based in Waterford. They currently play in the League of Ireland First Division, the club was founded and elected to the league in 1930 Originally the club was based at the greyhound stadium known as Kilcohan Park, but have now moved to the Waterford Regional Sports Centre. Waterford first participated in the league in the 1930–31 season finishing ninth, Waterford re-entered the league in the 1935–36 season along with Sligo Rovers. Waterford won the Shield in their first season, Waterford won the FAI cup for the first time in their history in 1937 beating St. James Gate and also won the Shield. The club were runners up in 1937–38 season and again in the 1940–41 season. At the end of the campaign, the original Waterford resigned from the League of Ireland, only for a new entity, with the name, to be elected in. Waterford won the Shield again in the 1952–53 season and were again runners-up in the League this time to St. Patricks Athletic in the 1954–55 season and again in the 1962–63 season. The club eventually won the title for the first time in the 1965–66 season. The 1965/66 title was the beginning of a successful spell for the club domestically. The following season played in the preliminary round of the Champions cup against Vorwärts Berlin. They won the Shield once again in 1968–69 season, Waterford won the league title three times in a row, in 1968,1969 and in 1970. The title was won by Cork Hibernians in 1971 but returned to Waterford in the 1971–1972 season, the following season Waterford won the League of Ireland Cup, however failed to regain the league title. The Club won the FAI Cup in 1980 beating St. Patricks Athletic with the winner from Brian Gardner, waterfords success in the league brought European football playing against famous clubs such as Manchester United and Celtic. Bobby Charlton had a spell at the club in 1976. In May 1982, the Club changed its name to Waterford United, in 1985 the leagues membership rose to 22 clubs with the election of six new clubs in 1985. This resulted in the introduction of the present two Division structure in 1985/86 of which Waterford was a member of the Premier Division, Waterford were relegated to the First Division in the 1988–89 season. Their stay there was short, gaining promotion and winning the First Division title the following season 1989–90 and they were unable to retain their Premier Division status the following season finishing in eleventh. The club was promoted to the top flight in the 1991–92 season finishing as runners up to Limerick, but again the club were unable to remain in the Premier Division for more than a single season suffering relegation on goal difference to Drogheda United
Limerick Football Club is an association football club based in Limerick, Ireland who play in the League of Ireland Premier Division. The first Limerick Football Club was founded in 1937 and has had a number of guises through its history, known at different times as Limerick, Limerick United, Limerick City, each manifestation of the club has been the sole representative of senior football in Limerick city since 1937. Limerick won the League of Ireland title twice, in the 1959–60 and 1979–80 seasons, and they also won the League of Ireland Cup three times, 1975–76, 1992–93 and 2001–02. The club has competed in European competitions on six occasions, the success of these fixtures prompted the LDMC to form a senior side and attempt to gain entry to the Free State League. Their application was accepted in June 1937 and a Limerick senior team replaced Dolphin who had withdrawn from the league, on 19 July 1937, a new, private company, Limerick Association Football and Sports Co. On 22 August 1937, Limerick played its first match and it was against Shamrock Rovers in the Dublin City Cup, a prominent competition that ran from the 1930s to the 1970s, and won 1–0. During those early seasons, Limerick lined out in red-and-white striped jerseys, when Waterford resigned from the league in 1941, the club purchased their blue jerseys and would wear blue and white for the next 40 years. The latter was the forerunner of the League Cup, the third most important competition after the League and they won the Munster Senior Cup again in 1948–49. It was not until the 1950s that Limerick captured their first national title when they won the Shield in 1953 and they added to this when they captured the Dublin City Cup in 1958–59, beating Drumcondra in the final. Limerick captured their first League of Ireland championship in the 1959–60 season under the management of Limerick man Sonny Price, who had played for Limerick, Waterford and Glentoran. Although they lost their last match 3–2 to St. Patricks Athletic on Sunday,17 April 1960, they still managed to win the league by two points from Cork Celtic. The Limerick board decided they wanted to develop a team and so they brought in Ewan Fenton, then aged 29, from Wrexham to implement their plan. He was a hit with staff, players and fans and his quiet. He also helped build on the success that Sonny Price had gained with the team, Limerick lost FAI Cup finals in 1965 and again in 1966 to Shamrock Rovers before they finally captured the title in 1971, beating Drogheda United 3–0 in a replay. That team included Andy McEvoy, Richie Hall, Kevin Fitzpatrick, Al Finucane, Sean Byrnes, Tony Meaney, Joe O’Mahony, Hughie Hamilton and Paddy Shortt. Fenton also advanced the careers of other notable Limerick players such as Dessie McNamara, Gerry McCarthy, Mick Doyle, Dick O’Connor, Johnny Walsh, Pat Nolan, Limerick had captured a further two Dublin City Cups under Fenton, in 1967 and 1970. Ewan Fenton left Limerick in 1967 to talk up the position with Linfield. The early 1970s saw some turbulent financial times for Limerick coupled with diminishing fortunes on the field, frankie Johnson took over as manager for the 1976–77 season and Limerick were beaten 2–0 by Dundalk in the FAI Cup Final, but this was again coupled with a poor league performance
Cobh Ramblers F.C.
Cobh Ramblers Football Club is an Irish football club in the League of Ireland First Division. The club, founded in 1922 and elected to the league in 1985, hails from Cobh, County Cork, the clubs colours are claret and blue. Stephen Henderson guided them to the First Division title for the first time on 10 November 2007, which saw Cobh promoted to the top flight for the first time in 12 years. Henderson resigned at the end of the 2008 season after Ramblers were relegated from the Premier Division and they subsequently failed to gain a licence for the League of Ireland First Division and thus played in the A Championship. In January 2013, the FAI awarded the club a First Division licence, on 19 January 2009 it was revealed that Dave Hill would return to the club to replace Henderson as manager. The club have a very successful under-19 team and they won the under-19 Southern Division in the 2011–12 season and were promoted to the Elite Division. Ramblers played in the 1976 FAI League Cup, reaching the semi finals, Cobh Ramblers joined the League of Ireland in 1985, after many successful years as a Munster Senior League side. One of the most successful of those teams was the team of 1983, there were 3 replays until Sligo finally won 3–2 and went on to win the Cup. Cobh won promotion to the Premier Division in 1988, after finishing First Division runners-up to Athlone Town, lasting just one season in the top flight, they won promotion again at the end of the 1992–93 season, this time as runners-up to Galway United. A play-off win over Finn Harps saw Ramblers retain their Premier Division status at the end of the 1993–94 season, though even with its lower attendance at home matches, the fans in attendance are loyal and take part in club fund-raisers and events as well as watching the match. Ramblers appeared on television for the first time on Friday,10 November 2006 in an away fixture at Galway United. On 10 November 2007 Cobh Ramblers beat Athlone Town 1–0 in Lissywoollen in what was a tense and this victory gave Cobh Ramblers their first piece of Senior Silverware and crowned them First Division Champions. During the 2007 season, with their squad, they recorded a 27-game unbeaten run. Their points tally of 77 points was also a record for the league, in 2010 Ramblers missed out on gaining promotion back to the League of Ireland losing to Salthill Devon in a play off. The Ramblers most noted past player is former Irish international and Manchester United star Roy Keane, westlife singer Nicky Byrne, also a talented footballer who was on the books at Leeds United, had a spell with the club too. On 18 March 2014, the club parted company with manager Dave Hill by mutual consent after five years and he was replaced by Martin Cambridge on an interim basis. In March 2015 Martin Cambridge tendered his resignation and Stephen Henderson returned to the club as first team manager, in Oct 2015 Stephen Henderson signed a new three-year contract with the club. In 2016 Henderson guided Ramblers to munster senior cup victory and to a 3rd place finish in the first division
Cork City F.C.
Cork City Football Club is an Irish association football club based in Cork. The club currently plays in the League of Ireland Premier Division, the club was founded and elected to the League of Ireland in 1984. It was one of the first clubs in Ireland to field a team of professional footballers, between 2008 and 2010 however, the club suffered financial and management issues and entered a period of examinership. While the clubs holding company was wound up by the courts, fans were awarded a licence under the name Cork City FORAS Co-op, the club subsequently re-acquired rights to the name Cork City Football Club, and were promoted back to the premier division for the 2012 season. Citys traditional colours are green and white with red trim, the club play home games at Turners Cross. The current club are not the first to use the name Cork City, during the 1920s teams referred to as Cork City competed in both the Munster Senior League and the Munster Senior Cup. A team named Cork City finished as Munster Senior Cup runners up in 1924–25, another Cork City F. C. also played in the League of Ireland between 1938 and 1940. Following the bankruptcy of Cork United in 1982, senior football returned to the city with the formation of a new Cork City FC in 1984, founded by officials from several Cork clubs, the new club was elected to the League of Ireland. Bobby Tambling was the first manager appointed to the club, the FAI Cup offered some respite, however Shamrock Rovers knocked City out in the semi-finals – in the last match played at the Lodge. In 1986 the club moved to a new home at Turners Cross, the following year, former Ireland striker Eamon OKeefe arrived as manager, delivering the Munster Senior Cup, and the League of Ireland Cup. By 1988, OMahony was re-installed as manager, and the side finished eighth in the league, while Torpedo Moscow knocked the club out of the 1989–90 European Cup Winners Cup, City earned a fifth-place finish in the Premier Division, and the Munster Senior Cup was reclaimed. The early 1990s saw lengthy unbeaten league runs, high league positions, retention of the Munster Senior Cup through four years, and a number of games in European competition. The most notable European game was a UEFA Cup tie with Bayern Munich,1993 saw Cork City land the League of Ireland Premier Division title for the first time, after a complicated three team play-off. OMahoney resigned and the moved to a new stadium in Bishopstown at the end of the season. Damien Richardson took the helm and the 1993/94 season began with City coming from three goals down to beat Welsh side Cwmbran Town in the UEFA Champions League, in the following round they suffered odd-goal defeats both home and away to Turkish side Galatasaray. City finished in position in the league that year. 1994/95 was a season for Cork City. Noel OMahony was re-appointed as manager but the title challenge collapsed, the club did have successes in the Munster Senior Cup and League of Ireland Cup that season however
Wexford Football Club is an Irish association football club based in Crossabeg, County Wexford. They compete in the League of Ireland First Division, the club joined the league after being awarded a First Division licence for the 2007 League of Ireland season. The opportunity to join the League of Ireland arose as Dublin City became bankrupt before the end of the 2006 season, leaving an uneven number of clubs. The 2007 season coincided with the takeover of the running of the league by the FAI, Limerick was the only existing club refused a licence and so Wexford Youths and Limerick 37 were admitted to the new league. The club alternate their colours between plain black and pink and black, the club rebranded for the start of the 2017 season by dropping the Youths from their title and changing the club crest. Wexford Youths were founded by developer and TD Mick Wallace, who has funded the construction of Ferrycarrig Park, Wallace managed the senior side for the first three seasons, as well as the under-21s, under-18s and under-16s. Before the start of the 2010 season, former Limerick FC manager, pat Dolan acts as an advisor to Mick Wallace and while remaining on as Setanta Sports anchorman for their live TV coverage of Irish domestic soccer. Wexford Youths FC applied for a League of Ireland licence in December 2006, the club has stated an intention to be a unique institution in Irish football in prioritising local players, and has only taken on players from the Wexford area. Wexford Youths first game was away to Monaghan United, on 9 March 2007, the clubs first scorer was Conor Sinnott. The first home match was on 18 March 2007, a 1–0 victory over Cobh Ramblers, tom Elmes was the goal scorer. Wexford Youths first ever League of Ireland Cup fixture saw them play Waterford United at the RSC and this game was the first competitive derby game for Wexford Youths against one of their local rivals, and saw Wexford beaten 3–0. The clubs FAI Cup début arrived on 15 June 2007 with a trip to Jackman Park to face fellow league newcomers Limerick 37, the game produced a 1–1 draw and sent the tie to a replay, with Limerick 37 winning the replay 1–0. Wexford Youths finished their first season in place in the league. On 25 August 2008, the Youths achieved a victory in the League Cup semifinal. However they lost out 6–1 to Derry City in the final at Ferrycarrig Park, Wexford Youths finished the 2008 season in seventh place. Nevertheless, the club had good fortune. During the 2010 season the Youths recorded their first ever win over local rivals Waterford United. More players parted ways with the Youths during the 2010 season, including record appearance holder Paul Patsi Malone, both are former Supporters Player of the Year winners, in 2007 and 2009 respectively
Derry City F.C.
Derry City Football Club is a professional football club based in Derry, Northern Ireland. It plays in the League of Ireland Premier Division and it was reinstated a few weeks later but demoted to the First Division, the second tier. The club are the League of Irelands only participant from Northern Ireland, the clubs home ground is the Brandywell Stadium and the players wear red and white striped shirts from which its nickname, the Candystripes, derives. Others refer to the club as the Red and White Army or abbreviate the name to Derry or City, the club, founded in 1928, initially played in the Irish League, the domestic league in Northern Ireland, and won a title in 1964–65. In 1971, security concerns related to the Troubles meant matches could not be played at the Brandywell, the team played home fixtures 30 miles away in Coleraine. After 13 years in football, it joined the League of Irelands new First Division for 1985–86. Derry won the First Division title and achieved promotion to the Premier Division in 1987, the club won a domestic treble in 1988–89, the only League of Ireland club so far to do so. Derry City was granted entry into the Irish League in 1929 as professionals and was given permission by the Londonderry Corporation to use the municipal Brandywell Stadium, the clubs first significant success came in 1935 when it lifted the City Cup. It repeated the feat in 1937, but did not win major trophy until 1949. This led to the clubs first entry into European competition, in the 1964–65 UEFA Cup Winners Cup, in which it was beaten by Steaua Bucharest 5–0 on aggregate. The club won the 1964–65 Irish League and subsequently became the first Irish League team to win a European tie over two legs, beating FK Lyn 8–6 on aggregate in the 1965–66 European Cup. Derry did not complete the round, as the Irish Football Association declared its ground was not up to standard. Derry suspected sectarian motives, as it played in a mainly nationalist city, the IFA, Belfast-based, was dominated by Protestants and it was widely suspected that it would rather have been represented by a traditionally unionist team. Relations between the club and IFA quickly deteriorated, despite the social and political unrest, Derry reached the Irish Cup final in 1971, in which it was beaten 3–0 by Distillery. As the republican locality surrounding the Brandywell saw some of the worst violence and this situation lasted from September 1971 until October 1972 when, faced with dwindling crowds and dire finances, the club formally requested permission to return to the Brandywell. Continuing without a ground was seen as unsustainable and on 13 October 1972 Derry withdrew from the league amidst a perception that it was forced out. The club continued as a team during the 13-year-long flim flam years, playing in the local Saturday morning league. Each time, the club nominated the Brandywell as its home ground
Galway United F.C.
Galway United Football Club is an Irish association football club based in Galway. They play in the League of Ireland Premier Division and they were founded as Galway Rovers F. C. during the 1930s. They made their League of Ireland debut in 1977–78 and changed their name to Galway United in 1981–82. After suffering financial difficulties, the club dropped out of the League of Ireland after the 2011 season, Galway United F. C. were founded as Galway Rovers F. C. in the Claddagh district of Galway. The clubs website claims the club was founded in 1937, however, according to a Galway Advertiser report, the club was active in 1933, winning a local junior competition known as the Celtic Shield. By 1937 Rovers were fielding youth teams as well as a junior side, Rovers won the Connacht Junior Cup in 1958 and they also played in the Western League. Rovers first gained attention when they were invited to play in the 1976–77 League of Ireland Cup. In 1977–78 they made their debut in the League of Ireland and they played their first League of Ireland game on 28 August 1977 at Terryland Park against St. Patricks Athletic. Eamonn Deacy scored Rovers first League of Ireland goal on 2 October 1977, in 1980–81 Rovers reached the final of the League of Ireland Cup, but lost on penalties to Dundalk. In the 1981–82 season, Galway Rovers changed their name to Galway United and under their new name, United made their first appearance in an FAI Cup final in 1984–85 but lost 1–0 to Shamrock Rovers. In 1985–86 United became founder members of the League of Ireland Premier Division, in 1985–86 United won its first major trophy after defeating Dundalk 2–0 in the League of Ireland Cup final. Denis Bonner and Paul McGee scored the vital goals, Galway United made a good start to 1990s, winning their first FAI Cup and qualifying for Europe for a third time. However they spent much of the decade in the League of Ireland First Division, in the 1990–91 FAI Cup final at Lansdowne Road, United defeated Shamrock Rovers 1–0. With five minutes to go on the clock, Johnny Glynn scored a late goal, in 1995–96 United were relegated for a second time. In 1996–97 United won the League of Ireland Cup and the First Division Shield and it was the second time United had won both trophies. United remained in the First Division until 1998–99 when, under Don ORiordan, the 2000s were not a successful decade for Galway United. Ten different managers took charge of United during this era and, in 2001–02 United were relegated to the League of Ireland First Division and they did not return to the Premier Division until 2007 In April 2005 United appointed Nick Leeson as commercial manager. He then became manager in late November 2005 and by July 2007 he had become the clubs CEO
Finn Harps F.C.
Finn Harps Football Club are an Irish football club playing in the Premier Division of the League of Ireland. The club was founded in 1954 and elected to the league in 1969 and they hail from Ballybofey, County Donegal and play their home matches at Finn Park. The clubs colours are blue and white, and they go by the nickname the Harps, the main successes of the club include winning an FAI Cup in 1973–74 and the First Division title in 2004. Finn Harps share a rivalry with Derry City with whom they contest the Northwest Derby. Finn Harps was formed in 1954 as a junior club, the clubs name derives from the river that runs through Ballybofey — the River Finn — and a traditional Irish symbol — the harp. They first came to prominence by winning the 1968 FAI Junior Cup. This enabled them to compete in the 1969 FAI Intermediate Cup, after they were knocked out of that competition, club directors Fran Fields and Patsy McGowan decided to apply to the League of Ireland for membership. The club was admitted into the ranks in May 1969. After initial worries that the club were not of sufficient standard the club became a force during the 1970s. Two years later, Dalymount Park was again the scene of the clubs only FAI Cup win, two goals from Brendan Bradley and one by Charlie Ferry saw off the challenge of St. Patricks Athletic. Finn Harps qualified for European competitions on four occasions during the 1970s, the club was again runner-up in the League of Ireland Cup finals of 1974 and 1975 to Waterford and Bohemians respectively. Through the 1970s, the club never finished in the bottom half of the table and were widely respected for their attractive. The 1980s saw a decline of the club in terms of competing with the best in Ireland. A series of changes were effected over the next few years in an attempt to raise the club. Patsy McGowan took over as manager for the time at the start of the 1992–93 season. The next three seasons saw the finish in the play-off position twice, although they were beaten both times, once by Cobh Ramblers and once by Athlone Town. McGowan was let go by the club before his aim of promotion could be completed, nevertheless, Finn Harps went on to win promotion at the end of the 1995–96 season to end their 11-season spell in the First Division. Charlie McGeever was appointed manager and despite time being against him, by the seasons conclusion, he had ensured that the clubs Premier Division status was retained
Mervue United A.F.C.
Mervue United A. F. C. is an Irish association football club based in Mervue, Galway. Their senior mens team plays in the Galway & District League. The club has fielded teams in the Connacht Senior League, the League of Ireland U21 Division, the A Championship. Mervue United was formed in 1960 by a group of residents in the McDonagh Avenue area of Mervue, in 1964–65 the club won its first trophy, the Murphy Cup, a competition for under–13 boys teams. By the early 1970s Mervue United were playing in the Galway & District League and they subsequently began to regularly win the leagues two league cups, the Joe Ryan Cup and the Lillis Cup. In 1976–77 they also won a Galway & District League and Michael Byrne Cup double, by 1980 the Mervue United B team had also gained promotion to the Premier Division. However Galway Football Association rules insisted that two teams from the club could not play in the same division. As a result, Mervue Celtic was founded as a club and, like United, they also found success in the Joe Ryan Cup. In 1981–82 they also won the Galway area FAI Junior Cup competition, between 1981 and 2000 Mervue United played in the Connacht Senior League. In 1981–82, together with Sligo Rovers Reserves, Castlerea Celtic, Salthill Devon, Ballina Rovers, Tuam Celtic and UCG, in its first season Mervue United finished as runners-up behind Sligo Rovers. They also won a cup double, winning both the Connacht Senior League Cup and the Connacht Senior League Challenge Cup. Mervue United won the league for the first time in 1982–83 and subsequently went on to one of the leagues most successful teams. In 1982–83 and 1983–84 they completed two successive trebles winning the title, the Challenge Cup and the Connacht Senior Cup. In 1992–93 they went one better and won a quartet of trophies, winning the title, the Connacht Senior League Shield, Connacht Senior Cup. Between 1996–97 and 1999–2000 Mervue United were also Connacht Senior League champions four times in a row, in 1999–2000 Mervue United completed another treble by also winning the League Cup and the Challenge Cup. In 1984–85 Mervue United first came to prominence when they became the first CSL club to take part in the FAI Cup, losing 2–1 in the first round to the holders. In the 1986–87 FAI Cup they defeated Longford Town 1–0 in the first round, in 1997–98 Mervue United made a third appearance in the FAI Cup but were knocked out in the first round after a replay by Sligo Rovers. As Connacht Senior League champions, United were also invited to play in the League of Ireland Cup, in 2008, together with local rivals, Salthill Devon, Mervue United were founder members of the A Championship
University College Dublin A.F.C.
University College Dublin Association Football Club, known commonly as UCD, is the football team of University College Dublin. They play in the League of Ireland, the club, founded in 1895 was elected to the league in 1979 under the management of Dr. Tony ONeill. Since the 2008 season they have played at the UCD Bowl, the Students play in sky blue and navy. University College Dublin A. F. C. was founded in 1895 as the Catholic University Medical School Football Club and they began playing regular games the following year. A First XI played College games against other Universities and a Second XI entered outside competitions, the club was founder members of the Leinster Junior League in 1896 and reached the semi-finals of the Leinster Senior Cup in 1897. The club became University College Dublin when the new University annexed the Medical school in 1908, UCD won the inaugural Intervarsities competition, the Collingwood Cup, in 1914 and added the Irish Intermediate Cup the following year beating Portadown 2–1 in a replayed final. The game took place in Windy Arbour and the Hoops won 6–2, in 1945 they won the FAI Intermediate Cup when UCD beat fellow future League of Ireland members Cobh Ramblers 4–2 in the final. UCD appeared in the FAI Cup in the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s, a second invitation to join the League of Ireland was accepted on 22 July 1979, when Cork Celtic were expelled for not having their financial affairs in order. Their first competitive game was on 26 August losing to Drogheda United 2–1 in the FAI League Cup. Theo Dunne was appointed first team coach, and apart from a spell at Home Farm 1990–1994. Dr. Tony ONeill who was manager when the club joined the League remained in that role until his untimely death from cancer in October 1999. However, important changes within the club in 1983 marked an upturn in fortunes. The previously amateur club turned semi-pro, and players outside of the college were allowed to represent the first team and this is still the situation today, although in practice most of the players are either students or ex-students. By the end of the 1983–84 season, UCD had won the FAI Cup, Shamrock Rovers werent to lose another game in the competition for over three years – until they lost to UCD in 1988. That win saw UCD qualify for European competition – the European Cup Winners Cup – for the first time. The draw pitted them against Everton, then one of the sides in England and boasting players of the calibre of Neville Southall, Kevin Sheedy, Graham Sharp, Peter Reid. The home leg was played in Tolka Park and a crowd of 9,000 – many times UCD’s average league crowd – saw the Students come away with a scarcely believable 0–0 draw. Another remarkable performance was to two weeks later as a solitary Graham Sharp goal gave Everton a 1–0 win
Drogheda United F.C.
Drogheda United Football Club is an Irish association football club based in Drogheda, County Louth. The club are members of the League of Ireland First Division and they play their home matches at United Park. The current club is the amalgamation of two clubs in the town, Drogheda United, a non-league club founded in 1919. In their first season there they finished tenth and also in each of the three seasons finished in the bottom three. In the 1967–68 season they achieved a respectable fifth-place finish and the season finished in sixth place. They did, however, get to FAI Cup final that season where they were beaten 3–0 by Limerick, for the next three seasons, quite the opposite at what had happened before, they finished in third place. During these seasons Drogheda United also achieved two club records - their biggest league victory and Cathal Muckian scoring 21 league goals in a season and they did win their first ever trophy during these seasons also, the League of Ireland Cup in the 1983–84 season. They remained in the First Division until the 1988–89 season when they went up as First Division Champions and their joy was short-lived, however, as the following season they were relegated although this time they achieved promotion at the first time of asking. In the next two seasons Drogheda battled bravely against relegation surviving by one point and on goal difference in the respective seasons, however, they were relegated for the third time in the 1993–94 season. Paul Doolin took over and upped the standard of training and fitness levels, however, he found that to compete with the big clubs like Bohemians and Shelbourne he would need a professional squad. In 2004, he made the fully professional and gave part-time players the option to turn professional or leave the club. The change to full-time saw the clubs fortunes drastically improve and they won their first FAI Cup in 2005, beating Cork City in the final and won back-to-back Setanta Cups in 2006 and 2007. They also qualified for the UEFA Cup for the 2006–07 season thanks to their 2005 FAI Cup success and they were also in the UEFA Cup Qualifying stages for the 2007–08 campaign, losing to Helsingborgs IF in the second round. United finally won the League Of Ireland for the first time in 2007, guy Bates scored the winning goal for Drogheda that day, shooting himself into Drogs folklore. Drogheda were dominant in the league, only losing three games and winning the title by seven points, the league win meant that Drogheda would be playing in the Champions League Qualifiers for the first time in their history in the 2008–09 season. They succeeded in their first qualifier against Levadia Tallinn, beating them 3–1 on aggregate and they played the Second Qualifying Round against Dynamo Kyiv which, they ended up losing 4–3 on aggregate. In the first a goal for Kiev secured a 2–1 victory at Dalymount Park. In the second game, an early Kiev goal after 13 minutes seemed to have finished the tie, Shane Robinson stepped up and slotted home the spot-kick
Bray Wanderers F.C.
Bray Wanderers Football Club are an Irish association football club playing in the League of Ireland Premier Division. The club in its present form was founded in 1942 in Bray and it was elected to the League in 1985, and plays its home matches at the Carlisle Grounds. Club colours are Green and White, and it goes by the nickname Seagulls, in 1922, some members of St Kevins Gaelic football club in Bray left the club as a result of a dispute and formed a soccer club called Bray Wanderers. They won the Miller Cup, which at the time was one of the most prestigious junior cups in the country, in 1927–28. Through the 1930s and 1940s, however, Bray Unknowns were the team in the town. Bray Wanderers went into decline in the mid-thirties but was reformed in 1942–43, by the 1948–49 season Wanderers had reached Division 1 of the AUL but the period in between did not pass without controversy. In 1944 the club reached the Leinster Football Association Shield final but was disqualified for fielding a player in the semi-final. When in Division 2 of the AUL in 1946–47 the club was expelled from the due to the B team not fulfilling a league fixture. In 1950–51 Wanderers won the FAI Junior Cup, defeating Drogheda United 2–1, Wanderers also reached the Leinster Junior Final that season, but were defeated by Rathfarnham in the final. Wanderers won the Junior Cup again in 1953–54, defeating Ierne 1–0 in the Final, the following season Wanderers left the AUL and joined the Leinster Senior League In 1955–56 Wanderers won the FAI Intermediate Cup, defeating Workmens Club 2–1 in the final. There was also a first appearance in the FAI Cup against Longford Town in 1956 and they won the FAI Intermediate Cup again two years later, defeating Chapelizod 2–1 in the final. In 1958–59, Wanderers clinched the Leinster Senior League, setting a new club and they went on to win three league titles in a row. In 1960–61 Wanderers withdrew from the LSL and returned to the AUL, in 1964–65 they were founder members of the League of Ireland B Division. However they left after just one season and once went into decline. By 1973 Bray Unknowns were playing in the LSL and the management changed the name to Bray Wanderers in a successful effort to amalgamate the two. In 1975–76 the new Wanderers won the Metropolitan Cup for the first time since 1924, Bray Wanderers were elected to the League of Ireland when it was expanded to two Divisions for the 1985–86 season. The Wanderers secured promotion to the Premier Division by winning the League of Ireland First Division Championship that year and they were relegated back down to the First Division in the 1987–88 season. Wanderers did not regain Premier Division status until the 1990–91 season but had their first major success during their spell in the First Division
Tralee Dynamos A.F.C.
Tralee Dynamos A. F. C. is an Irish association football club based in Tralee, County Kerry. Their senior team plays in the Kerry District League. They have previously fielded teams in the League of Ireland U19 Division, the A Championship, the Munster Senior League, according to the club crest, Tralee Dynamos were founded in 1961. However some sources list a Tralee Dynamos as founder members of the Limerick Desmond League in 1955, other founder members of this league included Newcastle West A. F. C. In 1971 Tralee Dynamos and Killarney Athletic left the Desmond League to become members of the Kerry District League. Tralee Dynamos were the champions of the KDL and subsequently became the leagues most successful team. In 1997–98 the club won its first national trophy when they won the FAI Youth Cup defeating Stella Maris in the final, in 1999–2000 the club also entered a team in the Munster Senior League. Between 2009 and 2011, Tralee Dynamos played in the A Championship and they were the first and to date so far, the only association football club from County Kerry to play in a senior national level league. They made their A Championship debut on 5 April 2009 with a 1–0 defeat against Sporting Fingal A. Sporting Fingal A, following the collapse of the A Championship, Tralee Dynamos applied to join League of Ireland First Division for the 2012 season. However this was unsuccessful and their senior team subsequently rejoined the Kerry District League and they also entered a team in the League of Ireland U19 Division
St Patrick's Athletic F.C.
St Patricks Athletic F. C. is an Irish association football club based in Inchicore, Dublin, that plays in the Irish Premier Division. Founded in May 1929, they played originally in the Phoenix Park, St Patricks Athletic have won numerous trophies in Irish Club Football, including nine League Titles, the fifth most in Irish Football, as well as three FAI Cups and two League Cups. The current manager is Liam Buckley, who is in his spell in charge at the club after replacing Pete Mahon in 2011. The club graduated through the ranks of the Leinster Senior League and duly took their place in the League of Ireland in 1951, the clubs glory years came in the 1950s and 1990s when they won 7 of their 9 league titles. The club also have the record for never having been relegated from the Premier Division, the club play in red and white colours, and their nicknames include The Saints, Supersaints and Pats. The Saints also have a lot of Dublin Derby games with the likes of Shelbourne, Shamrock Rovers, during the late 1940s and 1950s St Pats played in the Leinster Senior League. During this period won the league title on six occasions. This included four successive titles between 1947–48 and 1950–51, in 1947–48 St Pats completed a treble after also winning both the FAI Intermediate Cup and Leinster Senior Cup. The 1948–49 season would see St Pats win a Leinster Senior League / FAI Intermediate Cup double, in 1950–51 a young Shay Gibbons helped St Pats win the Leinster Senior League title for a fourth time. After St Pats first team joined the League of Ireland in 1951–52, in 1951–52 the club was admitted, along with Cork side Evergreen United, to the League of Ireland. St Pats made an impact, winning the league championship at their first attempt. Two more league championship successes followed in 1954–55 and 1955–56, the club had to wait until 1959 before their first FAI Cup success, repeating the feat in 1961. and Willie Peyton are players who contributed greatly during this era. St Pats struggled throughout the late 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s with only the odd cup final or young star emerging to brighten things for long suffering Pats fans, among those players to emerge was Noel Campbell. Campbell spent a number of years with St Pats before moving to SC Fortuna Köln where he would play 8 seasons, perhaps the brightest star to play for St Pats was Paul McGrath. McGrath was signed by Saints manager Charlie Walker from junior side Dalkey United, within a year he had won the PFAI Player of the Year award and earned himself a move to Manchester United. The World cup Winning goalkeeper Gordon Banks also played one match for St Pats, the appointment of Brian Kerr as manager in 1986 was a major turning point in the fortunes of the club. Kerr worked on limited resources to create team capable of challenging the best, at the end of the 1988/89 season St Pats left Richmond Park for what the board of directors called a short time while redevelopment work was done. Playing in Harolds Cross, Kerrs blend of players and experienced campaigners disregarded by other clubs won the clubs first league championship in 34 years on Easter Monday 1990
Irish Standard Time
Ireland uses Irish Standard Time in the summer months and Greenwich Mean Time in the winter period. In Ireland, the Standard Time Act 1968 legally established that the time for purposes in the State shall be one hour in advance of Greenwich mean time throughout the year. This act was amended by the Standard Time Act 1971, which legally established Greenwich Mean Time as a time period. Ireland therefore operates one hour behind standard time during the winter period and this is defined in contrast to the other states in the European Union, which operate one hour ahead of standard time during the summer period, but produces the same end result. The instant of transition to and from saving time is synchronised across Europe. In Ireland, Winter time begins at 02,00 IST on the last Sunday in October, the Statutes Act,1880 defined Dublin Mean Time as the legal time for Ireland. T. M. Healy opposed the reading on the basis that while the Daylight Saving Bill added to the length of your daylight. After the Irish Free State became independent in 1922, subsequent developments tended to mirror those in the United Kingdom and this avoided having different times on either side of the border with Northern Ireland. Summer time was provided on a basis by acts in 1923 and 1924. The 1925 act provided a summer time period, which could be varied by ministerial order. Double summer time was considered but not introduced during the Emergency of World War II, from 1968 standard time was observed all year round, with no winter time change. This was an experiment in the run-up to Irelands 1973 accession to the EEC, in those years, time in Ireland was the same as in the six EEC countries, except in the summer in Italy, which switched to Central European Summer Time. From the 1980s, the dates of switch between winter and summer time have been synchronised across the European Union. The statutory instruments that have been issued under the Standard Time Acts are listed below, in format year/SI-number, except where stated, those issued up to 1967 were called Summer Time Order <year>, while those issued from 1981 are Winter Time Order <year>. In November 2012, Tommy Broughan introduced a members bill to permit a three-year trial of advancing time by one hour, to CET in winter. In July 2014, the joint committee issued an invitation for submissions on the bill, closing time in Irish public houses was half an hour later during summer time. In 2000, the closing hours were simplified by removing summer/winter time changes. Between 1933 and 1961, lighting-up time was an hour before/after sunrise/sunset in summer-time, since 1961, it has been half-an-hour in all cases
Matthew David Blinkhorn is an English semi-professional footballer who plays as a striker for AFC Fylde. Born in Blackpool, Lancashire, Blinkhorn started his career with hometown club Blackpool and he played as a substitute in the victorious 2004 Football League Trophy Final. On 22 November 2006 he was loaned to Bury, but Blackpool manager Simon Grayson included a 24-hour recall clause in the contract, the loan period was due to end on 22 February 2007, but Blackpool cut it short and he returned on 9 February. He was loaned to Morecambe of the Conference National for a month on 2 March 2007, Blinkhorn made an immediate impact, scoring the first goal in a 2–0 victory over St Albans City. By the end of his stint he had scored eight goals in 12 games. Blinkhorn joined Morecambe on a permanent basis on 28 June 2007, for a fee of tribunal-set fee of £15,000 and he was released by Morecambe in May 2009, and joined League of Ireland Premier Division side Sligo Rovers two months later. After the signing of Shamrock Rovers striker Pádraig Amond in the pre-season of 2010, on 25 September 2010, Blinkhorn scored the winner for Sligo in a 1–0 win against Monaghan United in the 2010 League of Ireland Cup Final. He had to sit out Sligos penalty shoot-out win over Shamrock Rovers in the 2010 FAI Cup Final on 14 November through suspension, along with recently confirmed PFAI Player of the Year, Richie Ryan. Following the expiration of his Sligo contract, Blinkhorn returned to England after signing for Conference Premier side York City on a contract until the end of the 2011–12 season on 10 January 2012. He scored four minutes into his debut against Salisbury City in the FA Trophy second round on 14 January 2012, having entered as a 65th-minute substitute, with Yorks fifth goal in a 6–2 victory. His first and only goal for York came with the winner in the sixth minute of stoppage time at home to Stockport County on 18 February 2012 after heading in Jamie Reeds bicycle kick. Having been uninvolved for York in their games, which concluded with League Two promotion. He was released on 3 July 2012, after trials with Barrow and Chester, Blinkhorn signed for Conference Premier side Hyde on 17 August 2012. He scored on his debut for the later that day. He finished the season with Hyde having scored seven goals in 30 games, in April 2013, he joined AFC Fylde on loan. Scoring two goals in three games including the goal against Hednesford Town in the Northern Premier League Premier Division play-off semi-final. On 25 June 2013, Blinkhorn signed a permanent one-year deal with Fylde, as of match played 4 May 2013. Blackpool Football League Trophy,2004 Sligo Rovers FAI Cup,2010,2011 League of Ireland Cup,2010 Matthew Blinkhorn at Soccerbase
Sligo is a coastal seaport and the county town of County Sligo, Ireland, within the western province of Connacht. With a population of approximately 20,000 in 2014, it is the second largest urban centre in the West of Ireland, the Sligo Borough District constitutes 61% of the countys population of 63,000. Sligo is a historic, cultural, commercial, industrial, retail, served by rail, port and road links, Sligo exerts a significant influence on its hinterland. Sligo is also a popular tourist destination, being situated in an area of outstanding beauty, with many literary. Sligo is the anglicisation of the Irish name Sligeach, meaning abounding in shells or shelly place and it refers to the abundance of shellfish found in the river and its estuary, and from the extensive shell middens in the vicinity. The river now known as the Garavogue meaning little one was originally called the Sligeach. It is listed as one of the seven rivers of Ireland in the 9th century AD tale The Destruction of Da Dergas Hostel. The river Slicech is also referenced in the Annals of Ulster in 1188, the Ordnance Survey letters of 1836 state that cart loads of shells were found underground in many places within the town where houses now stand. The whole area, from the estuary at Sligo, around the coast to the river at Ballysadare Bay, is rich in marine resources which were utilised as far back as the Mesolithic period. The importance of Sligos location in prehistory is demonstrated by the abundance of ancient sites close by, for example, Sligo towns first roundabout was constructed around a megalithic passage tomb at Abbeyquarter North in Garavogue Villas. This is an outlier of the group of monuments at Carrowmore on the Cuil Irra peninsula on the western outskirts of the town. The area around Sligo town has one of the highest densities of archaeological sites in Ireland. It is the place in which all classes of Irish megalithic monuments are to be found together. Knocknarea mountain, capped by the cairn of Miosgan Maeve. Cairns Hill on the edge of the town also has two very large stone cairns. This is the oldest causewayed enclosure so far discovered in Britain or Ireland and it consists of a large area enclosed by a segmented ditch and palisade, and was perhaps an area of commerce and ritual. These monuments are associated with the coming of agriculture and hence the first farmers in Ireland, during the early medieval period the site of Sligo was eclipsed by the importance of the great Columban monastery 5 miles to the north at Drumcliff. By the 12th century there was a bridge and small settlement in existence at the site of the present town, the annalists refer to this Sligo as a sraidbhaile which seems to have consisted of the castle and an attached defensive bawn
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can also be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers also respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It. Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing. The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network