England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon. The country lies within the temperate zone and has a changeable. Welsh national identity emerged among the Celtic Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Llywelyn ap Gruffudds death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of Englands conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr briefly restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century. The whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh Liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism, Welsh national feeling grew over the century, Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925 and the Welsh Language Society in 1962. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, two-thirds of the population live in south Wales, mainly in and around Cardiff, Swansea and Newport, and in the nearby valleys. Now that the countrys traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales economy depends on the sector, light and service industries. Wales 2010 gross value added was £45.5 billion, over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, and the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west. From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the land of song, Rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Celtic Britons in particular, the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, and Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales and these words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning fellow-countrymen. The use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, in particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage, culture, and language to the Welsh. The word came into use as a self-description probably before the 7th century and it is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh, until c.1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of names, Cambrian, Cambric and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales, Welsh
The FA Cup, known officially as The Football Association Challenge Cup, is an annual knockout association football competition in mens domestic English football. First played during the 1871–72 season, it is the oldest association football competition in the world and it is organised by and named after The Football Association. For sponsorship reasons, from 2015 through to 2018 it is known as The Emirates FA Cup. A concurrent womens tournament is held, the FA Womens Cup. A record 763 clubs competed in 2011–12, the tournament consists of 12 randomly drawn rounds followed by the semi-finals and the final. The last entrants are the Premier League and Championship clubs, into the draw for the Third Round Proper, in the modern era, only one non-league team has ever reached the quarter finals, and teams below Level 2 have never reached the final. As a result, as well as who wins, significant focus is given to those minnows who progress furthest, especially if they achieve an unlikely giant-killing victory. Winners receive the FA Cup trophy, of which there have two designs and five actual cups, the latest is a 2014 replica of the second design. Winners also qualify for European football and a place in the FA Community Shield match, in 1863, the newly founded Football Association published the Laws of the Game of Association Football, unifying the various different rules in use before then. On 20 July 1871, in the offices of The Sportsman newspaper, the inaugural FA Cup tournament kicked off in November 1871. After thirteen games in all, Wanderers were crowned the winners in the final, Wanderers retained the trophy the following year. The modern cup was beginning to be established by the 1888–89 season, following the 1914–15 edition, the competition was suspended due to the First World War, and did not resume until 1919–20. The 1922–23 competition saw the first final to be played in the newly opened Wembley Stadium, due to the outbreak of World War II, the competition was not played between the 1938–39 and 1945–46 editions. Having previously featured replays, the modern day practice of ensuring the semi-final and final matches finish on the day, was introduced from 2000 onwards. Redevelopment of Wembley saw the final played outside of England for the first time, the final returned to Wembley in 2007, followed by the semi-finals from 2008. The competition is open to any club down to Level 10 of the English football league system which meets the eligibility criteria, all clubs in the top four levels are automatically eligible. Clubs in the six levels are also eligible provided they have played in either the FA Cup. Newly formed clubs, such as F. C. United of Manchester in 2005–06 and also 2006–07, all clubs entering the competition must also have a suitable stadium
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Hallam Football Club is an English football club based in Crosspool, Sheffield, South Yorkshire. They play in the Northern Counties East League Division One, at level 10 of the English football league system, founded in 1860, it is second only to local rivals Sheffield F. C. in the list of the oldest association football clubs in the world. Games between these two clubs are known as the Rules derby, in 1867 the club made history by winning the worlds first ever football tournament, the Youdan Cup. The club still possess this historic trophy, the club had in excess of 300 members by the 1850s, and in 1860 it decided to form a football club to oppose Sheffield F. C. formed three years earlier. On Boxing Day 1860 the two played each other on Sandygate Road for the first time. The match report for the game in the Sheffield Daily Telegraph states that the game was played between 16 of Sheffield and 16 of Hallam and Stumperlowe. Shaw was directly instrumental, with Charles Alcock of the London-based Football Association, shaw and Alcock were the respective captains in the first game between a Sheffield XI and a London XI, in 1871, in which the preferred rules were experimented. In 1867, Hallam won the first ever football competition, the Youdan Cup. The trophy was subsequently lost by the club, and didnt resurface again until 1997 when a Scottish antiques collector who had come into possession of the silver trophy sold it to the club for £2,000. In 2014 the trophy featured on the BBC programme Antiques Roadshow, Club chairman Chris Taylor subsequently said the club had no plans to sell the trophy. Although professionalism began to creep into the game during the 1870s and 80s and they also reached the final of the Sheffield and Hallamshire Senior Cup for the first time in 1904, but lost 1–6 to Barnsley reserves at Bramall Lane. In 1911 the club first competed in an FA cup competition, eventually, in 1917, Hallam decided they could no longer keep playing, and suspended playing operations, only re-joining the Sheffield Amateur League after hostilities had ended, in 1919. In 1924 Hallam pulled off one of their greatest ever results when they knocked out five-time Amateur Cup winners Bishop Auckland in front of over 2,000 at Sandygate Road, two years later the club entered the FA Cup for the first time. After winning the Sheffield Amateur League for the time in 1927. At the end of the 1932–33 season the landlord of the Plough Inn public house decided to lease the Sandygate Road ground to other teams as Hallam werent providing enough bar takings. Although the club retained its affiliation with the local FA, Hallams eviction from their ground saw them refrain from playing any football for a period of 15 years. A year later Hallam won the Sheffield Senior Cup for the first time when they beat Stocksbridge Works at Hillsborough in front of 7,240 spectators, and in 1952 they entered the Yorkshire League. That same season an Amateur Cup tie with Dulwich Hamlet was switched to Hillsborough stadium because of increased ticket demands – the attendance of over 13,000 proving to be a club record
Thackley F. C. are a football club based in Thackley, north Bradford, West Yorkshire, England. The club plays in the Northern Counties East Football League Premier Division, Thackley FC was formed in 1930, spending much of their early years in local football before joining the West Riding County Amateur League in 1939. The club then moved into county-wide leagues, spending 25 years in the West Riding County Amateur League, the club has never been relegated from that division throughout the Leagues 30-year history. Thackleys best efforts in national cup competitions have been in the FA Vase, the club has never progressed beyond the second qualifying round of either the FA Cup or the FA Trophy
Yorkshire Amateur A.F.C.
Yorkshire Amateur Association Football Club are a football club based in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England. They were formed in 1918, and two later became founding members of the Yorkshire Football League. For the 2015–16 season, Yorkshire Amateur are members of the Northern Counties East League Division One, the club was founded as Yorkshire Amateur A. F. C. by a local man called Kolin Robertson in Leeds during November 1918. The club became one of the founding members of the Yorkshire Football League in 1920–21. For the second time in their history, the reached the FA 1st Round. Yorkshire Amateur pulled off a 1–0 victory at against their Football League opposition, Yorkshire Amateur became a founder member of the Northern Counties East League in 1982, where they still remain. Graham stood down in 2010 after taking over as the Barkston Ash Rep Side manager, capacity,1550, Covered walkway,160, covered Seats,200 Attendance,4,000 v Wimbledon, FA Amateur Cup QF,1932
The Football Association
The Football Association, also known simply as the FA, is the governing body of association football in England, and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man. Formed in 1863, it is the oldest football association in the world and is responsible for overseeing all aspects of the amateur, the FA sanctions all competitive football matches within its remit at national level, and indirectly at local level through the County Football Associations. It runs numerous competitions, the most famous of which is the FA Cup, the FA is a member of both UEFA and FIFA and holds a permanent seat on the International Football Association Board which is responsible for the laws of the game. As the first football association, it not use the national name English in its title. The FA is based at Wembley Stadium, London, the FA is a member of the British Olympic Association, meaning that the FA has control over the mens and womens Great Britain Olympic football team. All of Englands professional football teams are members of the Football Association, although it does not run the day-to-day operations of the Premier League, it has veto power over the appointment of the League Chairman and Chief Executive and over any changes to league rules. The English Football League, made up of the three professional divisions below the Premier League, is self-governing, subject to the FAs sanctions. Another set of rules, the Sheffield Rules, was used by a number of clubs in the North of England from the 1850s, eleven London football clubs and schools representatives met on 26 October 1863 to agree on common rules. The founding clubs present at the first meeting were Barnes, Civil Service, Crusaders, Forest of Leytonstone, many of these clubs are now defunct or play rugby union. Civil Service FC, who now plays in the Southern Amateur League, is the one of the original eleven football clubs still in existence. There are only three institutions which have been members of the F. A. since 1863, those being Civil Service, Forest School and Kings College. Central to the creation of the Football Association and modern football was Ebenezer Cobb Morley and he was a founding member of the Football Association in 1863. In 1862, as captain of Barnes, he wrote to Bells Life newspaper proposing a governing body for the sport led to the first meeting at The Freemasons Tavern that created the FA. He was the FAs first secretary and its president and drafted the Laws of the Game generally called the London Rules at his home in Barnes. As a player, he played in the first ever match in 1863, the first version of the rules for the modern game was drawn up over a series of six meetings held in The Freemasons Tavern from October till December. Of the clubs at the first meeting, Crusaders, Surbiton and Charterhouse did not attend the subsequent meetings, replaced instead by the Royal Navy School, Wimbledon School, at the final meeting, F. M. Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA, the term soccer dates back to this split to refer to football played under the association rules. The Richmond side were obviously unimpressed by the new rules in practice because they helped form the Rugby Football Union in 1871
English Football League
The English Football League is a league competition featuring professional football clubs from England and Wales. Founded in 1888 as the Football League, the league is the oldest such competition in world football and it was the top-level football league in England from its foundation in the 19th century until 1992, when the top 22 clubs split away to form the Premier League. The league has 72 clubs evenly divided into three divisions, which are known as the Championship, League One and League Two, with 24 clubs in each division, the Football League has been associated with a title sponsor between 1983 and 2016. As this sponsor changed over the years the league too has been known by various names, the English Football League is also the name of the governing body of the league competition, and this body also organises two knock-out cup competitions, the EFL Cup and the EFL Trophy. The operations centre of the Football League is in Preston, while its commercial office is in London, the commercial office was formerly based in Lytham St Annes, after its original spell in Preston. The Football League consists of 70 professional association football clubs in England and 2 in Wales and it runs the oldest professional football league competition in the world. It also organises two knockout cup competitions, the Football League Cup and Football League Trophy, the Football League was founded in 1888 by then Aston Villa director William McGregor, originally with 12 member clubs. Steady growth and the addition of more divisions meant that by 1950 the League had 92 clubs, the Football League therefore no longer includes the top 20 clubs who belong to this group, although promotion and relegation between the Football League and the Premier League continues. In total,136 teams have played in the Football League up to 2013, the Football Leagues 72 member clubs are grouped into three divisions, the Football League Championship, Football League One, and Football League Two. Each division has 24 clubs, and in any season a club plays each of the others in the same division twice, once at their home stadium. This makes for a total of 46 games played each season, clubs gain three points for a win, one for a draw, and none for a defeat. At the end of the season, clubs at the top of their division may win promotion to the higher division. At the top end of the competition, three Championship clubs win promotion from the Football League to the Premier League, with the bottom three Premier League clubs taking their places, reserve teams of Football League clubs usually play in the Central League or the Football Combination. Since the 2004–05 season, penalties have existed for clubs entering financial administration during the season and it is also required that a club exiting administration agree a Creditors Voluntary Agreement, and pay in full any other footballing creditors. Failure to do either of these result in a second. The other main situation in which is a club may lose points is by fielding an improperly registered or otherwise ineligible player. If a club is found to have done this, then any points earned from any match that player participated in will be deducted, the EFL organises two knock-out cup competitions, the EFL Cup and the EFL Trophy. The EFL Cup was established in 1960 and is open to all EFL and Premier League clubs, the EFL Trophy is for clubs belonging to EFL League One and EFL League Two
Askern Football Club is a football club based in Askern, Doncaster, South Yorkshire, England. They are currently members of the Central Midlands League North Division, the club was established as Askern Welfare in 1924, playing in local Doncaster leagues for several decades. In 1967 Welfare won the Doncaster & District Senior League title for the time in the clubs history. In 1992 they finished as runners-up and chose to take promotion to the Central Midlands Football League and they won promotion to the Supreme Division in 2001, and in 2008 the club won the CMFL Supreme Division title. Winning the CMFL earned the promotion to the Northern Counties East League. In their first NCEL campaign Askern finished third in Division One and they made their FA Vase debut in 2010 and made their one and only appearance in the FA Cup a year later, losing to Thackley in the Extra Preliminary Round. In 2013 the club finished bottom of the NCEL Division One and they were relegated back to the Central Midlands League and changed their name again, this time to Askern. In their first season back in the CMFL, Askern finished second bottom of the North Division. Players that have played in the Football League either before or after playing for Askern – Morgan Hunt The club plays at the Welfare Ground, on Doncaster Road, Askern, Doncaster Rovers, pre-season friendly, 2010–11 Official website
North Shields F.C.
North Shields Football Club is a football club based in North Shields, England. They have reached the 2nd round of the FA Cup twice in their history – in 1933–34, following their promotion from Northern League Division Two, they currently compete in Northern League Division One. They also won the FA Amateur Cup at Wembley in 1969, in the 2014–15 season, North Shields repeated their 1969 success by defeating Glossop North End at Wembley in the final of the FA Vase. The club was formed in 1896 as North Shields Athletic playing initially in the South Shields and they subsequently became members of the Northern Combination and were runners-up of this league in the 1900–01 season. The club moved to the Appleby Park ground at Hawkeys Lane, after eight seasons as a Northern Combination club, in 1904 North Shields Athletic joined the Northern Alliance. They soon were successful, winning the league for two seasons in 1906–07 and 1907–08. Following this the team were admitted to the North Eastern League, at least two players, Alan Grenyer and Harry Chambers went on to play for the full England team after starting their careers with North Shields Athletic. After the First World War the club emerged as Preston Colliery, the following season they competed in the Northern Alliance and from 1921 they were re-admitted to the North Eastern League. Success proved elusive for the Preston Colliery team and after a next to finish to the 1927–28 campaign they were relegated to Division 2. North Shields achieved their best to date performance in the FA Cup in reaching the second round proper in 1933–34, in the first round Shields defeated Midland League Scarborough 3–0 at Appleby Park. They were drawn away in the round to local rivals Football League Third Division North club Gateshead who won the tie 1–0. A few years prior to the cessation, in 1936 the club saw their record attendance at Appleby Park of 12,800 in a local derby match against South Shields. In 1944–45 following the post war resumption of the league Shields won the league cup, shortly afterwards in 1949–50 the team won the North Eastern League championship, achieved a second-placed finish in 1951–52 and took the League Cup winners crown again five years later. That season, 1956–57, was to be temporarily their penultimate as members of the North Eastern League as that league disbanded after the 1957–58 campaign, the disbandment was caused by the withdrawal of Football League clubs reserve teams - a fate that also befell the Midland League. The remaining teams from both leagues combined into a single Midland League, North Shields were runners-up of this grouping in 1959–60. This league arrangement was short-lived and from 1960 the north-eastern teams organised themselves into a ten team Northern Counties League, North Shields were champions of this league in its inaugural 1960–61 season. The league was renamed the North Eastern League in 1962 but only survived a further two seasons, upon the folding of that league, North Shields joined the Northern League from the 1964–65 campaign and shortly thereafter achieved success. Shields were a goal down after four minutes but won 2–1 with second half strikes from Richie Hall and Brian Joicey
Ashington Association Football Club is a football club based in Ashington, Northumberland, England. They are currently members of the Northern League Division One and play at Woodhorn Lane and they were a founding member of the Football League Third Division North in 1921 and are the northernmost team to have played in the Football League. The club were founder members of the Northern Premier League in 1968 and have been in the Northern League since 1970. The club was established in 1883 and began entering the FA Cup in 1887 and they joined the Northern Alliance at the start of the 1892–93 season when the league was expanded to twelve clubs. However, the league was reduced to ten club the following season, the club then ceased activities, but were brought back following a large meeting, joining the East Northumberland League in 1895. They went on to win the title in 1897–98. Ashington applied to rejoin the Northern Alliance in 1901, but were rejected, however, the following season they were elected back into the league, finishing second in the vote to admit three clubs. They won the league in 1913–14 and moved up to the North Eastern League, when football resumed after World War I the club rejoined the North Eastern League, where they remained until being elected into the new Third Division North of the Football League in 1921. After all the applications had been considered by the League, Ashington were one of fourteen clubs marked out for admission in a single bloc, which they duly were. In 1926–27 the club recorded its best performance in the FA Cup, reaching the third round, after finishing bottom of the division in 1928–29 the club lost their bid for re-election, receiving only 14 votes to the 24 received by non-League York City. Ashington subsequently dropped into Division Two of the North Eastern League as Division One had no spaces, with only two clubs eligible for promotion, Ashington appeared to have missed out after finishing third. However, runners-up White-le-Head declined the opportunity of promotion, allowing Ashington to move up to Division One, alongside several other former North Eastern League clubs, Ashington switched to the Midland League. In 1960 they were members of the Northern Counties League. The North Eastern League was re-established in 1962, but lasted two seasons. Ashington spent the 1964–65 season in the Wearside League before joining the North Regional League and they remained in the league for three seasons, before becoming founder members of the Northern Premier League in 1968. In the first season of the league, the club finished third-from-bottom and they spent a single season back in the Northern Alliance, before joining the Northern League in 1970. In 1973–74 they reached the semi-finals of the last-ever FA Amateur Cup, in 1981 a second division was added to the league, with Ashington remaining in Division One. However, after finishing second-from-bottom in 1983–84 they were relegated to Division Two, in 2000–01 they won Division Two, earning promotion to Division One