Team Lotus (2010–11)
Team Lotus Lotus Racing, was a Malaysian licensed Formula One racing team and constructor, based in Hingham, Norfolk, UK, which competed during the 2010 and 2011 Formula One seasons, the team scored no championship points in the two years it competed. The team was set up by a group of Malaysian businessmen led by Tony Fernandes using a licence from Lotus Cars owner Proton, for the use of the Lotus name in Formula One; the team gained its entry after the withdrawal of the BMW team in 2009. After having that licence terminated for further seasons, the team bought the historic Team Lotus brand in the 2011 season; the Caterham Group was set up after Fernandes purchased British sportscar manufacturer Caterham Cars. Team Lotus, although forming part of the group, continued to compete under the Lotus name for the 2011 Formula One season; the team's name was changed to "Caterham F1 Team" at the end of 2011, it competed under the Caterham brand in conjunction with the Caterham Racing Junior Team which competed in the GP2 Series.
The FIA announced its intention to open up the grid, aiming for a total of 13 teams, in July 2009 selected three new teams from 15 new applicants, as well as confirming the entry of all 10 existing teams. The existing F1 teams, under the FOTA organisation, are understood to have agreed a system of technical support to assist new teams; this compromise proposal would involve the supply of parts and design knowledge to the new entrants, but not full customer cars, in return for which the budget cap idea was dropped. Following the 1994 collapse – but before the end of that season – the rights to the name Team Lotus were purchased by David Hunt, brother of former F1 champion James Hunt. In 2009, when the FIA announced an intention to invite entries for a budget-limited championship in 2010, Litespeed acquired the right to submit an entry under the historic name Lotus Cars; the sister company of the original Team Lotus, distanced itself from the new entry and announced its willingness to take action to protect its name and reputation if necessary.
When the 2010 entry list was released on 12 June 2009, the Litespeed Team Lotus entry was not one of those selected. The Litespeed F3 team approached Malaysian entrepreneur Tony Fernandes, who sponsored the Williams team through his AirAsia airline. Litespeed F3 had made their own bid to enter the 2010 season with the Team Lotus name, but were not awarded an entry. Lotus Racing's debut marked the return of the Lotus name as a constructor to Formula One for the first time since 1994, when the original British company Team Lotus stopped competing in Formula One. Founded as Lotus Racing, the team is operated by 1Malaysia Racing Team Sdn. Bhd. a funded project jointly owned by Tune Group and Naza Group, in partnership with the Malaysian Government and a consortium of Malaysian entrepreneurs. Proton, the Malaysian car company which owns Lotus Cars, gave permission for the team to use the Lotus brand in Formula One; the Malaysian Government emphasised that the government itself is not going to invest in the team and that the Malaysian government's investment is only through Proton.
The project is part of the 1Malaysia initiative, intended to promote unity amongst Malaysians. Fernandes, founder and CEO of the Malaysian-based Tune Group, owner of the AirAsia airline, started as the team principal. Having planned to stand down from the role once the season begins, he indicated that he would carry on in this position; the team's technical director was Mike Gascoyne, who had teamed up with Litespeed F3 for their initial application. Team shareholders SM Kamarudin Meranun were appointed as deputy team principals. Riad Asmat was appointed as the Chief Executive Officer of 1Malaysia F1 Team Sdn. Bhd. Asmat was working in the managing director's office of Proton Holdings Berhad as General Manager. In Proton Holdings Berhad in 2006, Riad was tasked with the development of its motorsports programme, including the company's involvement in A1 Team Malaysia. Keith Saunt was appointed as Chief Operating Officer of the team and has been selected to manage the technical organisation in Britain reporting directly to Mike Gascoyne.
Saunt was tasked with overseeing technical operations on a day-to-day basis at the team's facility in Hingham, Norfolk. His previous experience included senior roles with the original Team Lotus, Benetton Formula, Renault F1 and most Red Bull Racing, where he held the role of chief operating officer and director of Red Bull Technology; the team was based at the RTN facility in UK, 10 miles from the Lotus Cars factory. The team's future design, R&D, manufacturing and technical centre was to be a purpose-built facility at Malaysia's Sepang International Circuit, but Fernandes stated that the team would in fact remain in Norfolk. Being Malaysian-owned, the team promoted and respected Malaysian customs including the serving of Halal food and Malaysian cuisine by dedicated chefs, including celebrity Malaysian chef Norman Musa. Following the team's late acceptance into F1 following BMW Sauber's departure Gascoyne said "We've got a great heritage that we've got to live up to", he said they wanted to rival the debut of Brawn GP but said that would be a greater challenge as the Brawn team had a car ready for racing and all they needed was financing.
He mentioned the main objective was to have a car on the grid in Bahrain at 2010. Development of the 2010 car started late. On the 14th of September 2009, the first four people started work, with the factory being bare and old; when Kovalainen first visited
2011 Formula One World Championship
The 2011 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 65th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. The original calendar for the 2011 Formula One World Championship consisted of twenty rounds, including the inaugural running of the Indian Grand Prix before the cancellation of the Bahrain Grand Prix. Pirelli returned to the sport as tyre supplier for all teams, taking over from Bridgestone, marking their return to Formula One for the first time since the 1991 season. Red Bull Racing was the reigning Constructors' Champion. Red Bull Racing's Sebastian Vettel was the defending Drivers' Champion, one of five World Champions appearing on the grid. Vettel won his second World Championship at the 2011 Japanese Grand Prix, becoming the youngest driver, at 24 years and 98 days, to do so. Red Bull Racing won the Constructors' Championship. After a dispute between the Formula One Teams Association and the FIA in the first half of 2009, a new Concorde Agreement was signed on 1 August 2009 by the FIA president Max Mosley and all of the existing teams at the time.
The new agreement provides for a continuation of the terms of the 1998 agreement, runs until 31 December 2012. The FIA published a provisional entry list on 30 November 2010, revised on 2 December 2010. Teams competed with tyres supplied by Pirelli. Following USF1's inability to make the grid in 2010, the FIA opened a new selection process to find an additional team to occupy the empty slot, as well as possible reserve entrants for the event of other withdrawals. Fifteen entry bids were reported to have been received, including ART Grand Prix, winners of several championships in feeder series. However, the number of applicants declined, as ART Grand Prix and Cypher, the renamed USF1 operation, withdrew their entries, the FIA decided ahead of the 2010 Italian Grand Prix that none of the prospective entrants met the minimum funding or engineering requirements, leaving the grid slot vacant. Following the confirmation that there would be no new additions to the grid for 2011, Joan Villadelprat of Epsilon Euskadi and Jacques Villeneuve of the combined Villeneuve-Durango teams both announced that they would still attempt to join the grid for 2011, exploring the possibilities of taking over an existing team.
Villeneuve admitted to considering possibilities outside of Formula One, including extending his NASCAR Nationwide Series campaign, or moving to Australia to pursue opportunities in the V8 Supercars. At the British Grand Prix, Scuderia Ferrari announced they would remove Marlboro from their official team name in response to what they described as "recent concerns" regarding their association with the tobacco brand. In the week before the Korean Grand Prix, Force India announced that the Lucknow-based Sahara India Pariwar conglomerate had purchased a 42.5% stake in the team, giving them co-ownership with team principal Vijay Mallya. The team was subsequently renamed Sahara Force India Hispania announced several major partnerships in November 2010. Chief among these was an arrangement that saw Williams supply the Murcia-based team with transmission systems for the 2011 season, whilst forming a partnership with Spanish businessman Juan Villalonga, affiliated with Minardi as CEO of Telefónica.
In July 2011, Thesan Capital, a Madrid-based investment company purchased a controlling stake in the team from owner José Ramón Carabante. Thesan Capital announced the team's operations would continue as they had before the purchase, that they had no plans to change the team name or alter its operational structure. In a statement released to the media, Thesan Capital described their intentions as making the team "more Spanish" and settling the team within Spain. Lotus Racing team principal Tony Fernandes purchased the rights to the Team Lotus name from David Hunt, with the intention of renaming the team to reflect its historical counterpart for the 2011 season; the use of the Team Lotus name led to a naming dispute with Lotus Cars. The team announced. On 8 December 2010, Lotus Cars announced a partnership with Renault F1 that saw the British sports car manufacturer become title sponsor of the team, with a view to taking full control over the next few years. Confusion over the exact status over ownership of the team led team principal Éric Boullier to clarify that Genii Capital has full ownership of the team, with former owners Renault retreating to a position as engine supplier.
The team was known as Lotus Renault GP, the chassis and constructor still known as Renault for reasons related to the Concorde Agreement, similar to Sauber retaining the "BMW Sauber" name in 2010 despite the departure of BMW at the end of 2009. In March 2011, it was announced that Infiniti, the luxury brand of Japanese car manufacturer Nissan of whom Renault own a 44% stake, would become a major sponsor of Red Bull Racing. However, contradictory to early reports, the arrangement with Infiniti had not extended to an engine re-branding. BMW Sauber announced in July 2010 that it will revert to the name Sauber in 2011; the team was forced to retain the BMW naming for 2010 due to issues involving television rights money that would not have been paid had the team changed their name. After a Williams demonstration run in Caracas, it was confirmed that Venezuelan state-controlled oil compa
Paul di Resta
Paul di Resta is a British racing driver from Scotland who drove in Formula One from 2011 to 2013, became a reserve driver for the Williams F1 team in 2016 driving a single race for them as a substitute driver in 2017. A former DTM and Formula 3 Euroseries champion, di Resta did not secure a Formula One drive for 2014, rejoined Mercedes to race again in the DTM. Di Resta was born in Uphall, Livingston and grew up in Bathgate, West Lothian, went to Bathgate Academy, he now lives in Monaco, is a cousin of racing drivers Dario and Marino Franchitti. His step-father was Scottish footballer Dougie McCracken, his younger brother, has raced at an amateur level. Di Resta and Laura Jordan became engaged in December 2013 and married on 28 August 2014, he started his career in karting, racing in various competitive series of karts from 1994 until 2002. In 2001 he won the British JICA Championship, he stepped up to single-seaters at the end of 2002, when he competed in the British Formula Renault Winter Series.
He raced in British Formula Renault full-time in 2003 with the Eurotek Motorsport team, finishing seventh in the standings with one race win. He switched to Manor Motorsport for 2004, finishing third in the championship standings with four wins, he entered some races of Eurocup Formula Renault 2.0 with the Manor team. He won the McLaren Autosport BRDC Young Driver of The Year Award in 2004; the award had been won by his cousin Dario Franchitti in 1992. Di Resta switched to the Formula Three Euroseries with Manor Motorsport in 2005, finishing tenth in the standings. For 2006 he moved to the ASM Formule 3 team, winning the championship with five wins, beating teammate and future Formula One World Drivers' Champion, Sebastian Vettel. Di Resta won the 2006 BP Ultimate Masters at Circuit Park Zandvoort. In 2007, di Resta switched from single-seaters to race in the Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters touring car racing series, for Mercedes. In the championship, he finished 5th overall behind drivers Mattias Ekstrom, Bruno Spengler, Martin Tomczyk and Jamie Green.
Di Resta was the highest driver in the standings to drive a non-2007 car. His performances earned him a 2008 Mercedes C Klasse for the 2008 season, in which he won two races and finishing second in the points, four points behind eventual champion Timo Scheider of Audi. In 2009, he finished third overall, behind compatriot Gary Paffett. In 2010, he won three races in a row on the way to winning the championship. Di Resta tested for the McLaren Formula One team, was in the frame for a drive with the Force India team for the 2009 season due to the teams' shared engine supplier, Mercedes-Benz. However, Force India chose to retain Giancarlo Fisichella and Adrian Sutil, with Vitantonio Liuzzi as reserve driver. In December 2009, with Fisichella having moved to Ferrari and Liuzzi being promoted to the race team, di Resta took part in a test with the team at the Jerez circuit alongside J. R. Hildebrand. At the Autosport International show in January 2010, he was said to be close to a deal as the team's test and reserve driver for the 2010 season.
The deal was duly announced on 2 February. Di Resta made his Formula One race meeting début at the 2010 Australian Grand Prix, where he took part in the first free practice session in place of Sutil and placed 11th, he drove in the first practice sessions of all the following races until Monaco Grand Prix, where he did not take part. He resumed driving for the team at the following British Grand Prix. After sitting out the German Grand Prix he returned for the Hungarian Grand Prix. Di Resta subsequently sat out the Belgian Grand Prix as Tonio Liuzzi and Adrian Sutil needed as much track-time as possible to get the feeling of the new parts, he participated in practice for the Italian Grand Prix, but did not participate in the Singapore or Japanese Grands Prix. The team elected that di Resta should miss the Korean Grand Prix to allow Liuzzi and Sutil to get used to the new track for the race. Di Resta joined Adrian Sutil in the Force India Formula One racing team for the 2011 season, replacing Vitantonio Liuzzi.
He scored his first championship point at his first race, the Australian Grand Prix, after both Saubers were disqualified. This was followed by another 10th place in Malaysia, 11th in China, a retirement in Turkey, where he left the pits with a loose wheel, he was running fifth in Canada until a collision with Nick Heidfeld left him with a damaged car and a drive-through penalty, crashed out of the race on lap 67. He finished 15th after a long pitstop due to a tyre mix-up, his third points-scoring finish of the season came in Hungary, where he finished seventh in changeable conditions. In the Italian Grand Prix, he finished 8th, this was followed by a career-best sixth-place finish in Singapore, ahead of teammate Sutil, who finished eighth, he finished tenth in Korea, ninth in Abu Dhabi and eighth in Brazil. On 16 December 2011, it was announced that he was to be retained by Force India for the 2012 season, with Nico Hülkenberg taking the place of Sutil as his teammate, he qualified 15th for the season opener in Australia and finished 10th in the race, passing Jean-Éric Vergne and Nico Rosberg on the final lap.
He qualified 14th for the Malaysian Grand Prix, finished seventh in the wet race. He was 12th in China. In Bahrain he qualified inside the top ten, having missed the second free practice session after several members of the team were caught up in a petrol bomb incident. Using a two-stop strategy he took sixth place in the race, which equalled his previous career-best result, he was 14th in a lap behind winner Pastor Maldonado.
Pirelli & C. S.p. A. is a multinational company based in Milan, listed on the Milan Stock Exchange since 1922, with a temporary privatization period by the consortium led by the Chinese state-owned enterprise ChemChina. The company is the 5th largest tyre manufacturer behind Bridgestone, Michelin and Goodyear, is focused on the consumer business, it is present in Europe, Latam, Nafta and C. I. S. Operating commercially in over 160 countries, it has 19 manufacturing sites in 13 countries and a network of around 14,600 distributors and retailers. Pirelli has been sponsoring sport competitions since 1907 and is the exclusive tyre supplier for the FIA Formula One World Championship for 2011–2023 and for the FIM World Superbike Championship. Pirelli's headquarters are located in Milan's Bicocca district. Pirelli is now a pure tyre manufacturing company. In the past it has been involved in fashion and operated in renewable energy and sustainable mobility. On October 4, 2017, Pirelli returned to the Milan Stock Exchange after focusing its business on pure consumer products and related services, separating the business of industrial tyre.
Pirelli has published its Pirelli Calendar since 1964, which has featured the contribution of famous photographers over the years like Helmut Newton, Steve McCurry, Peter Lindbergh, Richard Avedon, Bruce Weber, Herb Rits and Annie Leibovitz. Founded in Milan in 1872 by Giovanni Battista Pirelli, the company specialised in rubber and derivative processes and made scuba diving rebreathers. Thereafter, Pirelli's activities were focused on the production of tyres and cables. In 2005, Pirelli sold its cable division to Goldman Sachs, which changed the new group's name to Prysmian. In the 1950s, Alberto Pirelli commissioned the building of a skyscraper, Pirelli Tower, in the same Milanese area that housed the first Pirelli factory during the 19th century. In 1974, Pirelli invented the "wide radial tyre", upon a request from the Lancia rally racing team for a tyre strong enough to withstand the power of the new Lancia Stratos. At that time, racing tyres were either slick tyres made with the cross ply technique, or radial tyres, which were too narrow to withstand the Stratos' power and did not provide enough grip.
Both were unusable for the Lancia Stratos, as the radials were destroyed within 10 km, the slicks too stiff. Lancia asked Pirelli for a solution, in 1975 Pirelli created a wide tyre with a reduced sidewall height like a slick, but with a radial structure. Subsequently, Porsche started using the same tyres with the Porsche 911 Turbo. In 1988, Pirelli acquired the Armstrong Rubber Company, headquartered in New Haven, for $190 million. In 2000, Pirelli sold its terrestrial fibre optic cables business to Cisco and its optical components operations to Corning, for 5 billion euro, it invested - through Olimpia -part of the resulting liquidity to become a majority shareholder in Telecom Italia in 2001, maintaining this position until 2007. In 2002 the company started a range of Pirelli branded clothing and eyewear. In 2005, Pirelli sold its Cables, Energy Systems and Telecommunications assets to Goldman Sachs and the newly formed company was named Prysmian. In the same year, 2005, Pirelli opened its first tyre production plant in China.
This was the beginning of the group's production complex in the country. In 2006, Pirelli chose Slatina for its first tyre production plant in Romania, extending the facility in 2011. In 2010, Pirelli completed its conversion to a pure tyre company by selling Pirelli Broadband Solutions and spinning off the real estate assets of Pirelli Re. Fondazione Pirelli was established in the same year to safeguard and celebrate the company's past and to promote business culture as an integral part of Italy's national cultural assets. In March 2015, it was announced that Pirelli shareholders had accepted a €7.1 billion bid from ChemChina, together with Camfin and LTI, for the company. The transaction was completed and the company was delisted in November 2015. In May 2017, it was announced that Pirelli returns to the world of cycling with a new road cycling tyre range, Pzero Velo. In September 2017, the company announced the will to sell up to 40 percent of its equity capital in an initial public offering as it plans to return to the Milan stock exchange in October.
Pirelli is focused on the consumer business, producing tyres for cars and bicycles. PZero: tyres for ultra-high performance cars. Cinturato: tyres for high end cars. Winter: tyres for low temperatures and snow. Scorpion: tyres for SUV and cross-over Diablo: road and track tyres. Scorpion: road and off-road tyres. PZero Velo: road racing. Cycl-e: urban and electric; the list of Pirelli shareholders as of September 2018: The list of Pirelli Board of Directors: As of March 2016. *The performance takes into account, as well as the deconsolidation of Venezuela, a non-recurring fiscal impact of 107.6 million euro linked to the devaluation of active deferred taxation by the Parent Group as a consequence of Pirelli’s new financial status after its merger with Marco Polo Industrial Holding. The Pirelli Calendar is published annually, features famous actresses and fashion models; the calendar features the work of many of the most respected fashion photographers in the world, including Herb Ritz, Richard Avedon, Mert & Marcus, Peter Lindbergh, Annie Leibovitz, Patrick Demarchelier.
The Pirelli Internetional Award is given annually for the best international multimedia involving the communication of science and technology conducted on the Internet. "Power is nothing wit
Italian unification known as the Risorgimento, was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century. The process began in 1815 with the Congress of Vienna and was completed in 1871 when Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy; the term, which designates the cultural and social movement that promoted unification, recalls the romantic and patriotic ideals of an Italian renaissance through the conquest of a unified political identity that, by sinking its ancient roots during the Roman period, "suffered an abrupt halt of its political unity in 476 AD after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire". However, some of the terre irredente did not join the Kingdom of Italy until 1918 after Italy defeated Austria–Hungary in World War I. For this reason, sometimes the period is extended to include the late 19th-century and the First World War, until the 4 November 1918 Armistice of Villa Giusti, considered the completion of unification.
This view is followed, at the Central Museum of Risorgimento at the Vittoriano. Italy was unified by Rome in the third century BC. For 700 years, it was a kind of territorial extension of the capital of the Roman Republic and Empire, for a long time, a privileged status and so it was not converted into a province. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Italy remained united under the Ostrogothic Kingdom and disputed between the Kingdom of the Lombards and the Byzantine Empire. Following conquest by the Frankish Empire, the title of King of Italy merged with the office of Holy Roman Emperor. However, the emperor was an absentee German-speaking foreigner who had little concern for the governance of Italy as a state. Southern Italy however was governed by the long-lasting Kingdom of Sicily or Kingdom of Naples established by the Normans. Central Italy was governed by the Pope as a temporal kingdom known as the Papal States; this situation persisted through the Renaissance but began to deteriorate with the rise of modern nation-states in the early modern period.
Italy, including the Papal States became the site of proxy wars between the major powers, notably the Holy Roman Empire and France. Harbingers of national unity appeared in the treaty of the Italic League, in 1454, the 15th century foreign policy of Cosimo De Medici and Lorenzo De Medici. Leading Renaissance Italian writers Dante, Boccaccio and Guicciardini expressed opposition to foreign domination. Petrarch stated. Machiavelli quoted four verses from Italia Mia in The Prince, which looked forward to a political leader who would unite Italy "to free her from the barbarians"; the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 formally ended the rule of the Holy Roman Emperors in Italy. However, the Spanish branch of the Habsburg dynasty, another branch of which provided the Emperors, continued to rule most of Italy down to the War of the Spanish Succession. A sense of Italian national identity was reflected in Gian Rinaldo Carli's Della Patria degli Italiani, written in 1764, it told how a stranger entered a café in Milan and puzzled its occupants by saying that he was neither a foreigner nor a Milanese.
"'Then what are you?' they asked.'I am an Italian,' he explained." The Habsburg rule in Italy came to an end with the campaigns of the French Revolutionaries in 1792–97, when a series of client republics were set up. In 1806, the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved by the last emperor, Francis II, after its defeat by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz; the Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars destroyed the old structures of feudalism in Italy and introduced modern ideas and efficient legal authority. The French Republic spread republican principles, the institutions of republican governments promoted citizenship over the rule of the Bourbons and Habsburgs and other dynasties; the reaction against any outside control challenged Napoleon's choice of rulers. As Napoleon's reign began to fail, the rulers he had installed tried to keep their thrones further feeding nationalistic sentiments. Beauharnais tried to get Austrian approval for his succession to the new Kingdom of Italy, on 30 March 1815, Murat issued the Rimini Proclamation, which called on Italians to revolt against their Austrian occupiers.
After Napoleon fell, the Congress of Vienna restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments. Italy was again controlled by the Austrian Empire and the Habsburgs, as they directly controlled the predominantly Italian-speaking northeastern part of Italy and were, the most powerful force against unification. An important figure of this period was Francesco Melzi d'Eril, serving as vice-president of the Napoleonic Italian Republic and consistent supporter of the Italian unification ideals that would lead to the Italian Risorgimento shortly after his death. Meanwhile and literary sentiment turned towards nationalism.
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Sébastien Olivier Buemi is a Swiss professional racing driver, who competed for Scuderia Toro Rosso in Formula One. In F1, Buemi is a reserve driver for Scuderia Toro Rosso's sister team, Red Bull Racing. Buemi has competed in the FIA World Endurance Championship with Toyota Gazoo Racing since 2012, he became the 2014 World Endurance Champion in the LMP1 class. He won the 2018 24 Hours of Le Mans. Buemi has raced FIA Formula E Championship with e.dams Renault since 2014. He won the Formula E Championship in 2015-16. Born in Aigle, Buemi graduated from karting and spent 2004 and 2005 in German Formula BMW, finishing third and second in the championship respectively, he was runner up in the 2005 FBMW World Final. Following a single race in Spanish Formula Three in 2005, Buemi moved up to the Formula Three Euroseries for 2006, finishing 12th in the championship, ceding 11th place to Charlie Kimball on countback, he remained in the series for 2007, finished second in the championship, behind Romain Grosjean.
He has competed in the special Masters of Formula 3 and Macau Grand Prix races. For the 2006–07 A1 Grand Prix season, Buemi shared driving duties for A1 Team Switzerland with Neel Jani and Marcel Fässler; the team finished eighth in the championship. Buemi was drafted in at short notice to replace the injured Michael Ammermüller at ART Grand Prix for the Monaco round of the 2007 GP2 Series season, he performed creditably on his GP2 début, finishing seventh. He joined the Arden International team for the 2008 GP2 Asia Series, finished as runner-up with a win and four second places, he continued with the team for the main 2008 season. He scored his first win in the French sprint race, starting 21st on the grid on slick tyres on a drying track and benefitting as most rivals had to pit for slicks, he ended the season sixth in the championship. On 18 September 2007 he drove the Red Bull RB3 at the F1 test session in Jerez, he was third quickest on the day, behind Timo Glock and Vitantonio Liuzzi but ahead of names such as Rubens Barrichello and Nelson Piquet Jr..
On 16 January 2008 Red Bull Racing confirmed Buemi as their test and reserve driver for the 2008 season. At the 2008 Japanese Grand Prix, Buemi drove the medical car as usual driver Dr Jacques Tropenat had been suffering from an ear problem. Scuderia Toro Rosso confirmed its signing of Buemi as one of its race drivers on 9 January 2009, he was the first Swiss driver to take part in an F1 race since Jean-Denis Délétraz drove for Pacific at the 1995 European Grand Prix. In his first race, the 2009 Australian Grand Prix, Buemi outqualified his teammate Sébastien Bourdais and scored a point in the race by finishing in eighth position, he was promoted to seventh place as a result of Lewis Hamilton being disqualified. At the Chinese Grand Prix, he scored another point, this time in the wet, finishing eighth after starting tenth. After a mid season dip in the Toro Rosso's form, Buemi rounded off a good weekend to finish 7th in the 2009 Brazilian Grand Prix, he followed this with a third top ten qualification in a row and another points finish at the season finale in Abu Dhabi.
Buemi finished the year sixteenth with 6 points as the best rookie. On 9 November 2009, it was confirmed. During the first free practice session of the 2010 Chinese Grand Prix, a front suspension wishbone broke under braking on Buemi's Toro Rosso as he braked for Turn 14; the two front wheels flew off. One wheel went over the safety fence and landed in a spectator area, missing a camera man on its way. Buemi's car continued to travel forward, veering to the left and sliding along an Armco barrier, knocking off the front wing. Neither Buemi nor any spectators were injured as a result of the incident. Toro Rosso blamed a failure of a new front right upright for the incident. Buemi completed 2010 with eight points to teammate Alguersuari's five, he was sixteenth again in the drivers' championship. Buemi, along with his teammate from 2009 and 2010 – Jaime Alguersuari, continued to race for Scuderia Toro Rosso in 2011. On 14 December 2011 it was announced that both Buemi and Alguersuari had been dropped by the team, would be replaced by Daniel Ricciardo and Jean-Éric Vergne for the 2012 season.
In January 2012 it was announced that Buemi would rejoin Red Bull Racing as a test and reserve driver for the 2012 season, as well as acting as Toro Rosso's reserve driver. Buemi continued as Red Bull's reserve driver for the 2013 and 2014 seasons. Buemi was again announced as reserve driver for 2019 for Red Bull Racing. Buemi signed a deal to contest the 24 Hours of Le Mans with Toyota Motorsport GmbH, driving a Toyota TS030 Hybrid with Anthony Davidson and Hiroaki Ishiura. After a strong performance, the car was running in third position in the early evening when Davidson collided with a GT Ferrari and crashed heavily. In 2013, Buemi continued driving with Toyota for a full season and ended with third place in the drivers' championship. For the 2014 season, he drove Toyota's new car – the Toyota TS040 Hybrid. With four wins and seven podiums from the eight races, Buemi became World Endurance Drivers' Champion with teammate Anthony Davidson. Buemi is the most successful driver in the series' history having claimed more wins, fastest laps and points than any other driver in the series.
Buemi raced in the inaugural Formula E season for e.dams alongside Frenchman Nicolas Prost. Buemi's season did not start