The "Weimar Triangle" is, loosely, a grouping of Poland and France. The group is intended to promote co-operation between the three countries in crisis zones, it exists in the form of summit meetings between the leaders of these three countries, the most recent of which occurred on 7 February 2011. Previous meetings took place in Poznań, Nancy, Hambach and Nancy, France; the Weimar Triangle involves lower-level connections, such as the annual meeting between Foreign Ministers. The most recent leaders' summit was hosted by President Bronisław Komorowski of Poland and attended by President Nicolas Sarkozy and Chancellor Angela Merkel. Issues of renewing regular Weimar Triangle meetings, the Egyptian situation and improving relations with Russia were discussed. Both Germany and France urged Poland to join the pact for competitiveness; the Weimar Triangle was established in the German city of Weimar in 1991, aimed at assisting Poland's emergence from Communist rule. Attending the meeting were the Foreign Ministers of each state: Roland Dumas of France, Hans-Dietrich Genscher of Germany, Krzysztof Skubiszewski of Poland.
Genscher chose Weimar for the inaugural meeting. At the 1992 meeting of the Weimar Triangle in France, Poland won agreement from Germany and France that it should have special association status at the Western European Union, the European arm of NATO. On 5 July 2011, Poland and Germany signed an agreement in Brussels to put together a unit of 1,700 soldiers, called the Weimar Battlegroup, that will be ready to deploy in crisis zones starting in 2013; the EU business newsletter reports that Poland will command the group, providing the core combat troops and a mechanised battalion, Germany will provide logistical support, France will contribute medical support. The operational command centre will be based in Mont Valerien, located in a Paris suburb. Shortly after the referendum on the status of Crimea held on March 16, 2014, the chairpersons of the Weimar Triangle parliaments's committees on foreign affairs – Elisabeth Guigou of France, Norbert Röttgen of Germany and Grzegorz Schetyna of Poland – visited Kyiv to express their countries’ firm support of the territorial integrity and the European integration of Ukraine.
This was the first time that parliamentarians of the Weimar Triangle had made a joint trip to a third country. In April 2016, Poland's foreign minister Witold Waszczykowski told daily newspaper Gazeta Wyborcza that the Weimar Triangle had lost its relevance for his country. On 28 August 2016, representatives of the three countries vowed to "reinvigorate" the Weimar Triangle. German foreign minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier said the group would meet before the end of 2016, French foreign minister Jean-Marc Ayrault said France would host a summit in November 2016; the stated reasoning for this reinvigoration were the decision of the United Kingdom to leave the European Union, as well as the ongoing European migrant crisis. 28–29 August 1991 in Weimar, Germany 23–24 April 1992 in Bergerac, France 11–12 November 1993 in Warsaw, Poland 14–15 September 1994 in Bamberg, Germany 26 October 1995 in Paris, France 19 December 1996 in Warsaw, Poland 19 November 1997 in Frankfurt/Oder, Germany 6 January 1999 in Paris, France 30 August 1999 in Weimar, Germany 7 June 2000 in Kraków, Poland 16 January 2002 in Paris, France 15 May 2004 in Berlin, Germany 27 June 2005 in Nancy, France 2005 in Warsaw, Poland June 2008 in Paris, France June 2009 in Weimar, Germany 26–27 April 2010 in Bonn, Germany 20 May 2011 in Bydgoszcz, Poland 29 February 2012 in Berlin, Germany 23 June 2012 in Warsaw, Poland 31 March-1 April 2014 in Berlin and Weimar, Germany 3 April 2015 in Wrocław, Poland 28–29 August 2016 in Weimar and Berlin, Germany 21 September 1993 in Gdańsk, Poland 21 February 1998 in Poznań, Poland 7 May 1999 in Nancy, France 27 February 2001 in Hambach, Germany.
9 May 2003 in Wrocław, Poland. Held a few days before the referendum on the entry of Poland in the European Union. 19 May 2005 in Nancy, France 5 December 2006 in Mettlach, Germany 7 February 2011 in Warsaw, PolandSummit on 3 July 2006 in Weimar, Germany was postponed due to alleged indisposition of the Polish president Lech Kaczyński. 25 July 2006 in Wieliczka, Poland 18 December 2007 in Berlin, GermanyIn March 2015, Germany's Minister of Defence Ursula von der Leyen hosted her counterparts Jean-Yves Le Drian of France and Tomasz Siemoniak of Poland to revive a meeting format intended to promote co-operation between the three countries in crisis zones. 30 September 2015 in Paris, France 14 November 2014 in Berlin, Germany 2013 in Gdańsk, Poland 2012 in Paris, France Visegrád Group Benelux
Donald Franciszek Tusk is a Polish politician, the President of the European Council since 2014. He served as Prime Minister of Poland from 2007 to 2014 and was a co-founder and chairman of the Civic Platform political party. Tusk has been involved in Polish politics since the early 1990s, having founded several political parties and held elected office continuously since 1991. Tusk was one of the co-founders of the free-market-oriented Liberal Democratic Congress party, he entered the Sejm in 1991, but lost his seat in the 1993 election which went badly for the Congress. In 1994, the Congress merged with the Democratic Union to form the Freedom Union. In 1997, Tusk was elected to the Senate, became its deputy speaker. In 2001, he co-founded another centre-right party, Civic Platform, he was again elected to the Sejm, became its deputy speaker, he was elected Prime Minister in 2007 and with his party's victory in the 2011 Polish parliamentary election, he became the first Prime Minister to be re-elected since the fall of Communism in Poland.
In 2014, he became President of the European Council, was re-elected to this position in 2017. He resigned as Polish Prime Minister to take the role, having been the longest-serving Prime Minister of the Third Polish Republic. Tusk was born in Gdańsk in northern Poland, he has German and Kashubian ancestry. His father named Donald Tusk, was a carpenter, his mother, Ewa Tusk, was a nurse, his grandfather, Józef Tusk, was a railway official, imprisoned at the Neuengamme concentration camp. On, he was successful in joining the Polish Armed Forces in the West. Tusk has described the city of his youth as "a typical frontier town" with "many borders... between ethnicities". This, together with his Kashubian ethnic ancestry and multilingual family, meant that he grew up with an awareness that "nothing is simple in life or in history", which informed his adult political view that it is "best to be immune to every kind of orthodoxy, of ideology and most nationalism", he has described his young life under communism as "so hopeless" due to the boredom and monotony, with "no hope for anything to change".
His young self was a "typical hooligan" who got into fights - "we would roam the streets, you know, cruising for a bruising". Tusk credits his interest in politics to watching clashes between striking workers and riot police when he was a teenager, he enrolled at the University of Gdańsk to study history, graduated in 1980. While studying, he was active in the Student Committee of Solidarity, a group that opposed Poland's communist rule at the time. Tusk was one of the founders of the Liberal Democratic Congress, which in the 1991 elections won 37 seats in the lower house of parliament; the KLD merged with the Democratic Union to become the Freedom Union. Tusk became deputy chairman of the new party, was elected to the Senate in the next election in 1997. In 2001, he co-founded the Civic Platform, became deputy speaker in parliament after the party won seats in the year's election. In 2005, Tusk was defeated in the presidential election by Lech Kaczyński, the Civic Platform lost Parliament to the Law and Justice party.
Tusk and his Civic Platform party emerged victorious in the 2007 Polish parliamentary election, defeating incumbent Prime Minister Jarosław Kaczyński's Law and Justice party with about 42% of the vote to Law and Justice's 32%. Tusk and his assembled cabinet were sworn in on 16 November, as he became the fourteenth prime minister of the Third Polish Republic. In the 2011 Polish parliamentary election, Civic Platform retained their Parliamentary majority, giving Tusk a second term as Prime Minister and making him Poland's first PM to win reelection since the fall of communism. In September 2014, Tusk resigned his position as Prime Minister of Poland in order to take the position of President of the European Council. In the 2007 parliamentary election campaign and at an early stage of his rule Tusk promised to continue the free-market policies, streamline the bureaucracy, enact long-term stable governance, cut taxes to attract greater foreign business ventures, lure foreign-working Poles back to Poland, privatise state-owned companies.
On in his rule, Tusk changed his views on the role of taxation in the functioning of the state and his government never cut any taxes. Instead, it raised the value-added tax from 22% to 23% in 2011, increased the excise imposed on diesel oil, alcoholic beverages and coal, eliminated many tax exemptions; the number of people employed in public administration grew considerably. By 2012, the value of foreign investments in Poland had not reached its heights attained in 2006–2007, before Tusk's take-over; the number of Poles staying abroad in 2013 was the same as in 2007. The construction of a more adequate and larger national road network in preparation for the UEFA 2012 football championships was a stated priority for the Tusk government. On 27 October 2009, Tusk declared that he wanted to outlaw gambling. During the 2009 swine flu pandemic, Tusk defended his government's decision not to purchase swine flu vaccine, citing the lack of testing by pharmaceutical companies and its unavailability to be purchased through the market.
Tusk criticised other nations' responses to the pandemic. "The eagerness of some countries seems to be excessive and disproportionate to the real epidemiological situatio
Polish People's Party
The Polish People's Party (Polish: Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe, abbreviated to PSL shortened to ludowcy is an agrarian and Christian democratic political party in Poland. It has four Members of the European Parliament, it was the junior partner in a coalition with Civic Platform. It is a member of the European People's Party and the European People's Party group in the European Parliament; the party was formed in 1990 as a left-wing party. The PSL formed a coalition with the Democratic Left Alliance after winning 132 seats in the Sejm at the 1993 election, with PSL leader Waldemar Pawlak as Prime Minister until 1995; the party fell to 27 at the next election, moved towards the centre at the end of the 1990s. In 2001, the party re-entered a coalition with the SLD, but withdrew in 2003. After the 2007 election, the PSL entered a coalition with the centrist liberal Civic Platform; the party's name traces its tradition to an agrarian party in Austro-Hungarian-controlled Galician Poland, which sent MPs to the parliament in Vienna.
Until the 2014 local election, the PSL formed self-government coalition in fifteen to sixteen regional assemblies. The party was formed in 1895 in the Polish town of Rzeszow under the name Stronnictwo Ludowe; the party changed its name in 1903 to. The party was led by Wincenty Witos and was quite successful, seating representatives in the Galician parliament before the turn of the 19th century, it was one of the most important political parties in the Second Polish Republic until it was removed by the Sanacja regime. During this time there were two parties using the term "Polish People's Party": Polish People's Party "Piast" and Polish People's Party "Wyzwolenie". During World War II, PSL took part in forming the Polish government in exile. After the war, Stanisław Mikołajczyk, a PSL leader, Prime Minister of the Polish government in exile, returned to communist-dominated Poland, where he joined the provisional government and rebuilt PSL; the party hoped to win the Yalta Conference-mandated elections and help establish a parliamentary system in Poland.
The communists formed. The 1947 parliamentary election was rigged, with the communist-controlled bloc claiming to have won 80 percent of the vote. Many neutral observers believe. Mikołajczyk was soon compelled to flee Poland for his life; the communists forced the remains of Mikołajczyk's PSL to unite with the pro-communist People's Party to form the United People's Party. The ZSL was a governing partner in the ruling coalition. Around the time of the fall of communism several PSLs were recreated, including: Porozumienie Ludowe, Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe - Odrodzenie, Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe. In 1989 most merged into one party and took part in forming the first postwar noncommunist government in Poland with the Solidarity grouping, in 1990 changed its name to PSL, it remained on the left of Polish politics in the 1990s, entering into coalitions with the postcommunist Democratic Left Alliance. However, in the 2001 parliamentary elections PSL received 9% of votes and formed a coalition with the Democratic Left Alliance, an alliance which broke down.
Since PSL has moved towards more centrist and conservative policies. The party ran in the 2004 European Parliament election as part of the European People's Party and received 6% of the vote, giving it 4 of 54 Polish seats in the European Parliament. In the 2005 general election the party received 7% of votes, giving it 25 seats in the Sejm and 2 in the Senate. In the 2007 parliamentary elections the party placed fourth, with 8.93% of the vote and 31 out of 460 seats, entered into a governing coalition with the victor, the centre-right conservative Civic Platform. In European parliament elections PSL received 7.01% of votes in 2009. In 2011 national parliamentary election Polish People's Party received 8.36% votes which gave them 28 seats in the Sejm and 2 mandates in the Senate. At the 2015 parliamentary election, the PSL dropped to 5.13 percent of the vote, just over the 5 percent threshold. With 16 seats, it is the smallest of the five factions in the Sejm; the party's platform is based on agrarianism.
The party advocates economic protectionism by the state, "slower privatization". On social and ethical issues, PSL opposes abortion, same-sex marriage/civil unions, soft drug decriminalization and death penalty, it supports mandatory public education and publicly funded health care. Party traditionally representing farmers and rural voters generally. Voters are more social conservative than voters of Civic Platform. Regionally, it has more support in western parts of country; the party has mining areas of the Silesian Voivodeship. Chairman: Roman Bartoszcze Waldemar Pawlak Jarosław Kalinowski Janusz Wojciechowski Waldemar Pawlak Janusz Piechociński Władysław Kosiniak-Kamysz List of Polish People's Party politicians Official website
History of Poland
The history of Poland has its roots in the migrations of Slavs, who established permanent settlements in the Polish lands during the Early Middle Ages. The first ruling dynasty, the Piasts, emerged by the 10th century AD. Duke Mieszko I is considered the de facto creator of the Polish state and is recognized for the adoption of Western Christianity that followed his baptism in 966. Mieszko's duchy of Poland was formally reconstituted as a medieval kingdom in 1025 by his son Bolesław I the Brave, known for military expansion under his rule; the most successful of the Piast kings was the last one, Casimir III the Great, who presided over a brilliant period of economic prosperity and territorial aggrandizement before his death in 1370 without male heirs. The period of the Jagiellonian dynasty in the 14th–16th centuries brought close ties with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, a cultural Renaissance in Poland and continued territorial expansion that culminated in the establishment of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569.
In its early phases, the Commonwealth was able to sustain the levels of prosperity achieved during the Jagiellonian period, while its political system matured as a unique noble democracy. From the mid-17th century, the huge state entered a period of decline caused by devastating wars and the deterioration of its political system. Significant internal reforms were introduced during the part of the 18th century in the Constitution of 3 May 1791, but neighboring powers did not allow the reform process to advance; the independent existence of the Commonwealth ended in 1795 after a series of invasions and partitions of Polish territory carried out by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy. From 1795 until 1918, no independent Polish state existed, although strong Polish resistance movements operated. After the failure of the last military uprising against the Russian Empire, the January Uprising of 1863, the nation preserved its identity through educational initiatives and a program of "organic work" intended to modernize the economy and society.
The opportunity to regain independence only materialized after World War I, when the three partitioning imperial powers were fatally weakened in the wake of war and revolution. The Second Polish Republic, established in 1918, existed as an independent state until 1939, when Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union destroyed it in their invasion of Poland at the beginning of World War II. Millions of Polish citizens perished in the course of the Nazi occupation of Poland between 1939 and 1945 as Germany classified ethnic Poles and other Slavs and Romani as subhuman. Nazi authorities targeted the last two groups for extermination in the short term, deferring the extermination and/or enslavement of the Slavs as part of the Generalplan Ost conceived by the Nazi régime. A Polish government-in-exile nonetheless functioned throughout the war and the Poles contributed to the Allied victory through participation in military campaigns on both the eastern and western fronts; the westward advances of the Soviet Red Army in 1944 and 1945 compelled Nazi Germany's forces to retreat from Poland, which led to the establishment of a communist satellite state of the Soviet Union, known from 1952 as the Polish People's Republic.
As a result of territorial adjustments mandated by the victorious Allies at the end of World War II in 1945, Poland's geographic centre of gravity shifted towards the west and the re-defined Polish lands lost their historic multi-ethnic character through the extermination and migration of various ethnic groups during and after the war. By the late 1980s, the Polish reform movement Solidarity became crucial in bringing about a peaceful transition from a communist state to a capitalist economic system and a liberal parliamentary democracy; this process resulted in the creation of the modern Polish state: the Third Polish Republic, founded in 1989. In prehistoric and protohistoric times, over a period of at least 500,000 years, the area of present-day Poland was intermittently inhabited by members of the Homo genus, it went through the Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age stages of development, along with the nearby regions. The Neolithic period ushered in the Linear Pottery culture, whose founders migrated from the Danube River area beginning about 5,500 BC.
This culture was distinguished by the establishment of the first settled agricultural communities in modern Polish territory. Between about 4,400 and 2,000 BC, the native post-Mesolithic populations would adopt and further develop the agricultural way of life. Poland's Early Bronze Age began around 2300–2400 BC, whereas its Iron Age commenced c. 700–750 BC. One of the many cultures that have been uncovered, the Lusatian culture, spanned the Bronze and Iron Ages and left notable settlement sites. Around 400 BC, Poland was settled by Celts of the La Tène culture, they were soon followed by emerging cultures with a strong Germanic component, influenced first by the Celts and by the Roman Empire. The Germanic peoples migrated out of the area by about 500 AD during the great Migration Period of the European Dark Ages. Wooded regions to the north and east were settled by Balts. According to mainstream archaeological research, Slavs have resided in modern Polish territories for over 1500 years. Recent genetic studies, determined that people who live in the current territory of Poland include the descendants of people who inhabited the area for thousands of years, beginning in the early Neolithic period.
Slavs on the territory of Poland were organized into tribal units, of which the larger ones were known as the Polish tribes.
Nowe Brzesko is a town in Proszowice County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland. It is the seat of the gmina called Gmina Nowe Brzesko, it lies 10 kilometres south-east of Proszowice and 33 km east of the regional capital Kraków. According to 2011 official census Nowe Brzesko has population of 1662, it lost that status in 1870 by decree of the Russian tsar. It became a town again on 1 January 2011. Nowe Brzesko was first mentioned in the first half of the 13th century; the village belonged to the Bishops of Kraków, who handed it to the Norbertine abbey from nearby Hebdów. On October 6, 1279, it became a town, its first known wójt was Gotfryd, the son of Arnold from Ślesin in Greater Poland. Due to several privileges, the town developed, but in the first half of the 15th century it declined, due to a catastrophic flood of the Vistula. Furthermore, in 1444-45 it was ransacked by the unpaid royal soldiers, returning to Poland after the defeat in the Battle of Varna; as a result, Nowe Brzesko, while still a town, did not differ from local villages.
Artisans were few, fairs were not organized. In 1522, King Zygmunt Stary ordered local authorities to mark boundaries of Nowe Brzesko, create a street system, together with a market place. Town’s residents were in constant conflict with abbots from Hebdów, who tried to get rid of their privileges. In the late 16th century, the population of Nowe Brzesko was app. 1,000. The town developed, but wars of the mid-17th century destroyed it and decimated the population. Polish, Swedish and Transilvanian soldiers stayed here and stealing. Poverty and hunger were common, the population declined by 50%. Furthermore, conflicts with the Hebdów abbots did not end, residents of the town were forced to work for the abbey. In 1761, a group of inhabitants rebelled against the authority of the abbot, asked King Stanisław August Poniatowski to support them. In the late 18th century, Nowe Brzesko was annexed by the Austrian Empire. In 1815, it became part of the Russian-controlled Congress Poland. In 1818, the abbey was dissolved, the town, with its 151 houses and 900 residents, became state property.
Located away from main roads, near the border with Austrian Galicia, the town lost its charter in 1869, becoming a village. In the Second Polish Republic, it belonged to Kielce Voivodeship. Nowe Brzesko once again became a town in 2011. Jewish Community in Nowe Brzesko on Virtual Shtetl
Law and Justice
Law and Justice is a national-conservative, Christian democratic political party in Poland. With 237 seats in the Sejm and 66 in the Senate, it is the largest party in the Polish parliament; the party was founded in 2001 by the Kaczyński twins and Jarosław. It was formed from part of the Solidarity Electoral Action, with the Christian democratic Centre Agreement forming the new party's core; the party won the 2005 election. Jarosław served as Prime Minister, before calling elections in 2007, in which the party came in second to Civic Platform. Several leading members, including sitting president Lech Kaczyński, died in a plane crash in 2010; the party programme is dominated by the Kaczyńskis' conservative and order agenda. It has embraced economic interventionism, while maintaining a conservative stance that in 2005 moved towards the Catholic Church; the party is solidarist and mildly Eurosceptic, shares similar political tactics with Hungary's Fidesz but with anti-Russian stances. PiS is a member of the Alliance of Reformists in Europe European political party.
The current sixteen PiS MEPs sit, as well as three other people elected from the PiS register, in the European Conservatives and Reformists group in the European Parliament. The party was created on a wave of popularity gained by late president of Poland Lech Kaczyński while heading the Polish Ministry of Justice in the AWS-led government, although local committees began appearing from 22 March 2001; the AWS itself was created from a diverse array of many small political parties. In the 2001 general election PiS gained 44 seats in the lower chamber of the Polish Parliament with 9.5% of votes. In 2002, Lech Kaczyński was elected mayor of Warsaw, he handed the party leadership to his twin brother in 2003. In the 2005 general election, PiS took first place with 27.0% of votes, which gave it 155 out of 460 seats in the Sejm and 49 out of 100 seats in the Senate. It was universally expected that the two largest parties, PiS and Civic Platform, would form a coalition government; the putative coalition parties had a falling out, related to a fierce contest for the Polish presidency.
In the end, Lech Kaczyński won the second round of the presidential election on 23 October 2005 with 54.0% of the vote, ahead of Donald Tusk, the PO candidate. After the 2005 elections, Jarosław should have become Prime Minister. However, in order to improve his brother's chances of winning the presidential election, PiS formed a minority government headed by Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz as prime minister, an arrangement that turned out to be unworkable. In July 2006 PiS formed a right-wing coalition government with the agrarian populist Self-Defense of the Republic of Poland and nationalist League of Polish Families, headed by Jarosław Kaczyński. Association with these parties, on the margins of Polish politics affected the reputation of PiS; when accusations of corruption and sexual harassment against Andrzej Lepper, the leader of Self Defense, surfaced, PiS chose to end the coalition and called for new elections. In the 2007 general election PiS managed to secure 32.1% of votes. Although an improvement over its showing from 2005, the results were a defeat for the party, as Civic Platform gathered 41.5%.
The party won 166 out of 39 seats in Poland's Senate. On 10 April 2010, its former leader crash. Jarosław Kaczyński becomes the sole leader of the party, he was the presidential candidate in the 2010 elections, lost again in the 2011 general election. The party won the 2015 parliamentary election, this time with an outright majority—something no Polish party had done since the fall of Communism. In the normal course of events, this should have made Jarosław Kaczyński prime minister for a second time. However, Beata Szydło, perceived as being somewhat more moderate than Kaczyński, had been tapped as PiS' candidate for prime minister; the Law and Justice government has been accused of posing a threat to the Polish liberal democratic system by majority of opposition groups. PiS' 2015 victory prompted creation of a cross-party opposition movement, the Committee for the Defence of Democracy. Law and Justice has supported controversial reforms carried out by the Hungarian Fidesz party, with Jarosław Kaczyński declaring in 2011 that "a day will come when we have a Budapest in Warsaw".
Proposed 2017 judicial reforms, which according to the party were meant to improve efficiency of the justice system, sparked protest as they were seen as undermining judicial independence. As of December 2017, the draft bill is being amended following a veto from President Andrzej Duda. In January 2010, a breakaway faction led by Jerzy Polaczek split from the party to form Poland Plus, its seven members of the Sejm came from the centrist, economically liberal wing of the party. On 24 September 2010, the group was disbanded, with most of its Sejm members, including Polaczek, returning to Law and Justice. On 16 November 2010, MPs Joanna Kluzik-Rostkowska, Elżbieta Jakubiak and Paweł Poncyljusz, MEPs Adam Bielan and Michał Kamiński formed a new political group, Poland Comes First. Kamiński said that the Justice party had been taken over by far-right extremists; the breakaway party formed following dissatisfaction with the leadership of Kaczyński. On 4 November 2011, MEPs Zbigniew Ziobro, Jacek Kurski, Tadeusz Cymański were e
2013 in Poland
Events from the year 2013 in Poland. March 19 - Two football fans were killed and 52 injured in a bus crash in central Poland. January 23 - Józef Glemp, 83, Polish Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. April 11 - Hilary Koprowski, 96, Polish virologist and immunologist. October 28 - Tadeusz Mazowiecki, 86, 1st Prime Minister of Poland. 2013 in Polish television