Grand Slam (tennis)
The Grand Slam tournaments, called majors, are the four most important annual tennis events. They offer the most ranking points, prize money and media attention, the greatest strength and size of field, and greater number of best of sets for men. The Grand Slam itinerary consists of the Australian Open in mid January, the French Open in May and June, Wimbledon in June and July, each tournament is played over a period of two weeks. The Australian and United States tournaments are played on courts, the French on clay. Wimbledon is the oldest, founded in 1877, followed by the US in 1881, the French in 1891, however, of these four, only Wimbledon was a major before 1924/25, the time when all four became designated Grand Slam tournaments. In doubles, one team may accomplish a Grand Slam playing together or one player may achieve it with different partners, the term Grand Slam without qualification refers to winning the four majors in a single calendar year. Winning the gold medal at the Summer Olympic Games in addition to the four majors in a one year is known as a Golden Grand Slam or more commonly the Golden Slam.
Also, winning the Year-End Championship in the period is known as a Super Slam. Together, all four Majors in all three disciplines are called a set of Grand Slam titles. No male or female player has won all events in one calendar year. The term slam for winning all of the tricks in the whist family card games is attested early in the 17th century. Grand slam for all of the tricks, in contrast to small slam or little slam for all but one and this use was inherited by contract bridge, a modern development of whist defined in 1925 that became very popular in Britain and America by 1930. Grand slam has been used in golf since 1930, when Bobby Jones won the four major championships, before that time only three events, the World Hard Court Championships and the World Covered Court Championships were considered the premier international tennis events by the ILTF. Tony Wilding of New Zealand won all three of those majors in one year –1913. It has been possible to complete a Grand Slam in most years, phil Dent has pointed out that skipping Grand Slam tournaments—especially the Australian Open—was not unusual then, before counting Grand Slam titles became the norm.
Nevertheless, except for the 1969 and 1971 tournaments, many of the best players missed this championship until 1982, because of the remoteness, the inconvenient dates, the tournament was won by Arthur Ashe. The first definitive Grand Slam, of the current four majors, was accomplished when Don Budge won all four mens singles Majors in 1938, to date,17 players have completed a Grand Slam, though only six in the most prestigious singles titles. The four Junior disciplines and girls singles and doubles, Players are only eligible from age 13 to 18, with 18-year-olds likely to hold a physical advantage
Big Four (tennis)
In tennis, the term Big Four refers to the quartet of mens singles players comprising Roger Federer, Rafael Nadal, Novak Djokovic, and Andy Murray. Federer was the first to come to prominence after winning Wimbledon in 2003, Nadal followed in 2005 after a French Open triumph including a win over Federer, and they occupied the top two places in the ATP rankings for 211 consecutive weeks from July 2005 to August 2009. In 2011, Nadal declared that his and Federers period of joint dominance had ended, owing to the ascent of other players, notably Djokovic and Murray. They have regularly occupied the top four places in the year-end rankings between 2008 and 2013 and they continue to own the top 2 spots since 2005, All four having reached a career high No.1. Federer was world No.1 for a record 302 weeks, Djokovic was ranked No.1 for 223 weeks, Nadal was No.1 for 141 weeks, and Murray, who is the current No. Federer leads among them with 5 year-end No.1, followed by Djokovic with 4, Nadal with 3 and they have ranked year-end world top 4 for five times.
Since this time the term Big Four, while used previously, became popular with the media and in tennis literature. The Big Four were a part of what has, since 2006, often been labelled a new Golden Era in tennis, that term is applied to the mid-1970s to 1980s. Of the four, Federer leads with a record 18 Grand Slam tournament titles followed by Nadal, Djokovic, in the three Olympic Games between 2008 and 2016, the four have 5 gold medals,2 silver medals and a bronze medal. Furthermore, at ATP Masters 1000 tournaments, they are all in the top-10 list, Djokovic leads with a record 30 titles, followed by Nadal and Murray. The early 2000s were seen as a time of transition in tennis, with players retiring. His breakthrough came in 2003 when he won his first Grand Slam tournament, the following two years he had almost complete solo dominance, winning five of eight majors and losing just ten matches in 2004 and 2005. Between Wimbledon 2005 and US Open 2007 Federer captured 8 of 10 majors with a record of 67–2 in those tournaments.
Nadal had won his first ATP Tour match aged 15 years and 10 months in April 2002, the period between 2005 and 2007 was subsequently dominated by the Federer–Nadal rivalry. They won 11 consecutive majors, meeting in every French Open, Federer won 2 Grand Slams on 2005, and 3 out 4 Slams in 2006 and 2007, reaching 10 consecutive finals from the 2005 Wimbledon Championships through to the 2007 US Open Final. During this period Nadal won 3 consecutive Roland Garros Championships, from 2005–2010 they ended every year as the worlds top two players. Novak Djokovic and Andy Murray were born a week apart, played each other as juniors, Djokovic made his ATP tour debut in 2004, while Murrays was in 2005, a time when many bright youngsters joined the ATP tour. They both reached the world top 100 in 2005, and the world top 20 in 2006, however, began to excel ahead of Murray, reaching one major final and two semifinals in 2007 and began to challenge Federer and Nadal regularly
2010 Novak Djokovic tennis season
The 2010 Novak Djokovic tennis season officially commenced on January 4 with the start of the 2010 ATP World Tour. Djokovic eased through the four rounds of the first Grand Slam of the year. In a repeat of the 2008 final, Djokovic faced Jo-Wilfried Tsonga in the quarter-finals, Tsonga gained revenge with an absorbing – albeit error-strewn – victory against the third seed in a match lasting almost four hours. Djokovic had convincingly won the third set 6–1 but soon left the court having told the umpire that he was about to vomit. After the medical time out, Djokovic returned to the court but quickly found himself 5–0 down, Tsonga eventually progressed by way of a 7–6 6–7 1–6 6–3 6–1 victory. Despite the loss, Djokovic attained a career-high ranking of world no.2, Djokovic entered the French Open seeded third. He defeated Evgeny Korolev, Kei Nishikori, Victor Hănescu, and Robby Ginepri en route to the quarter-finals, no.22 seed Melzer overcame Djokovic in 4 hours and 15 minutes with Djokovic having had a two sets to love advantage.
Despite suffering from symptoms, Djokovic managed to save two match points before eventually relinquishing the match. It was the first time Melzer reached the last four of a Grand Slam event, again seeded third, Djokovic defeated Olivier Rochus, Taylor Dent and Albert Montañés to set up a fourth round encounter with former Wimbledon champion Lleyton Hewitt. A 7–5 6–4 3–6 6–4 victory over the Australian meant that Djokovic progressed to his second Wimbledon semi-final against Tomáš Berdych, the Czech having upset Roger Federer in the previous round. Djokovic had won both the matches between the two and as the world no.3 was the higher-ranked player, far more experienced at this level. Nevertheless, Berdych overcame Djokovic in straight sets, setting up a final with Rafael Nadal, Djokovic came very close to losing in his opening round against Viktor Troicki in extreme heat. He defeated Philipp Petzschner, James Blake and Mardy Fish, in the semifinals, Djokovic defeated Roger Federer in five sets after saving 2 match points with forehand winners while serving to stay in the match at 4–5 in the 5th set.
It was Djokovics first victory over Federer at the US Open in four attempts, Djokovic lost to Nadal in the final, a match that saw Nadal complete his career Grand Slam. This table chronicles all the matches of Djokovic in 2010, including walkovers which the ATP does not count as wins and they are marked ND for non-decision or no decision. 2009 source 2010 source Novak Djokovic had a 4–8 record against the top 10, a 38–15 record against the top 50, ordered by number of wins Novak Djokovic earned $4.3 million throughout the season
Boris Franz Becker is a German former world No.1 professional tennis player. He is a major singles champion, having been the youngest Wimbledon mens champion when he was 17. He has won 3 Wimbledon titles and he won 13 Masters Series titles, five elite indoor titles. He is the player to have won all 3 Open era season end finals ATP Tour Finals, WCT Finals. Becker won Olympic gold medal in doubles, Tennis magazine ranked Becker the 11th best male player of the period 1965–2005. He coached Novak Djokovic for three years beginning in 2013, Boris Becker was born in Leimen, the only son of Elvira and Karl-Heinz Becker. His mother was Catholic, and they raised him as a Catholic and his father Karl-Heinz, an architect, founded a tennis centre in Leimen, where Becker learned the game. Becker turned professional in 1984, under the guidance of Romanian-born coach Günther Bosch and Romanian manager Ion Ţiriac, and won his first professional doubles title that year in Munich. As a German teenager, Becker won the Tennis World Young Masters at the NEC in Birmingham in 1985, two weeks later, on 7 July, he became the first unseeded player and the first German to win the Wimbledon singles title, defeating Kevin Curren in four sets.
Becker was at that time ranked 20th in ATP ranking, and was unseeded and he was the youngest ever male Grand Slam singles champion at 17 years,227 days. Two months after his triumph, Becker became the youngest winner of the Cincinnati Open, Becker has since said that The plan from my parents for me was to finish school, go to university, get a proper degree and learn something respectful. The last thing on everyones mind was me becoming a tennis professional, in 1986, Becker successfully defended his Wimbledon title, defeating world no.1 Ivan Lendl in straight sets in the final. In 1987 Becker, ranked world no,2, was upset in the second round of Wimbledon by the world no.70 player, Peter Doohan. In the Davis Cup that year and John McEnroe played one of the longest matches in tennis history, Becker won 4–6, 15–13, 8–10, 6–2, 6–2. The match lasted 6 hours and 22 minutes, Becker was back in the Wimbledon final in 1988, where he lost in four sets to Stefan Edberg in a match that marked the start of one of Wimbledons great rivalries.
Becker helped West Germany win its first Davis Cup in 1988 and he won the year-end Masters title in New York City, defeating five-time champion Lendl in the final. The same year he won season ending WCT Finals for the rival World Championship Tennis tour. In 1989, Becker won two Grand Slam singles titles, the year he won more than one
2012 French Open
The 2012 French Open was a tennis tournament played on outdoor clay courts. It was the 111th edition of the French Open, and took place at the Stade Roland Garros from 27 May until 11 June 2012. Rafael Nadal won the tournament for the year in succession. His seventh title broke Björn Borgs record of six French Open Mens Singles titles, li Na was unsuccessful in her title defence, being defeated in the fourth round by Yaroslava Shvedova. At the 1969 US Open, Rod Laver won his first multiple slam set in Mens Singles and this would occur again for the third time at the 2013 French Open. The 2012 French Open was the one hundred and eleventh edition of the French Open and was held at Stade Roland Garros in Paris, the Mens Singles Final was won by Rafael Nadal by defeating Novak Djokovic in the final. By winning his title at Roland Garros, Nadal surpassed Borgs overall titles record to become the most successful tennis player in French Open history. The tournament was an event run by the International Tennis Federation and is part of the 2012 ATP World Tour, the tournament consisted of both mens and womens singles and doubles draws as well as a mixed doubles event.
The tournament was played on courts and took place over a series of twenty courts. For 2012, the money purse was increased to €18,718,000 from €17,520,000 in 2011. The prize money and points breakdown is as follows, Below is a table charting the points that are available to the boys and it was his 4th title of the year, 50th title overall. Maria Sharapova defeated Sara Errani, 6–3, 6–2 *It was Sharapovas fourth career Grand Slam title, max Mirnyi / Daniel Nestor defeated Bob Bryan / Mike Bryan, 6–4, 6–4 *It was Mirnyis sixth career Grand Slam doubles title and his 4th title at French Open. *It was Nestors eighth career Grand Slam doubles title and his 4th title at French Open, Sara Errani / Roberta Vinci defeated Maria Kirilenko / Nadia Petrova, 4–6, 6–4, 6–2 *It was Errani and Vincis first career Grand Slam doubles title. Sania Mirza / Mahesh Bhupathi defeated Klaudia Jans-Ignacik / Santiago González, 7–6, 6–1 *It was Mirzas second career Grand Slam mixed doubles title, *It was Bhupathis eight career Grand Slam mixed doubles title and his 3rd title at French Open.
Rankings are as of 21 May 2012 and the Points are as of 28 May 2012
2011 Novak Djokovic tennis season
The 2011 Novak Djokovic tennis season is widely regarded as one of the greatest seasons ever in mens tennis. He ended the year with 10-1 record against Rafael Nadal and Roger Federer and he remained undefeated until the French Open semifinals in June, compiling a 41-match winning streak. Djokovic won ten tournaments, three of them Grand Slam events, the Australian Open, Wimbledon Championships and the US Open. He won a record five Masters Series 1000 titles, Indian Wells and Canada, played on hard courts. Djokovic won in Dubai and at the Serbia Open, Djokovic won seventy matches and lost only six. He beat Nadal in six finals during the season and reached the World number 1 ranking for the first time on 4 July and he set a new season record by winning 12.6 million dollars of prize money on the ATP World Tour. In the last week of January, Djokovic took on the four-time, the first set was won in a tiebreaker, which went to Djokovic in seven-points-to-three. In the second set, Djokovic took a break of serve.
But Djokovic let Federer to gain control, and Federer broke twice to take a four-games-to-two lead, in a pivotal ninth game, Federer was serving for the set, but hit an ineffective drop shot that allowed Djokovic back into the set. In the eleventh game, Federer again lost serve, paving the way for Djokovic to go up two-sets-to-none, Federer broke Djokovic in the eight game of the third set to level it at four-games all, but Djokovic broke again in the ninth game. This allowed Djokovic to serve out the match, in the final, Djokovic took on Andy Murray, with Murray coming under serious duress in the second game, when he had to survive a 14-minute service game. Murray held serve at this key juncture, and the first set stayed on serve until the tenth game, during that crucial game, they were embroiled in a 39-shot tussle, which gave the relieved Serb a break point. Djokovic took the break of serve on the subsequent point, Djokovic quickly overcame the Briton in the second set to take a five-games-to-none advantage, which allowed him to take the set, only losing two games.
Djokovic went on to win the set, which allowed him to capture his second Australian Open title. In February in the Dubai final, Federer was unable to serve in the third game. In the second set Federer was first to break, but he could not hold on to the advantage, in the first half of March Djokovic met Federer in the semifinals of Indian Wells, and they split the opening two sets of the match. Djokovic quickly broke Federers service in the set, but had to stave off two break points on his own serve to go up two-games-to-love. The players traded breaks until Djokovic won the four games to take the set
Longest tennis match records
This article details longest tennis match records by duration or number of games. The 1973 introduction of the reduced the opportunity for such records to be broken. This resulted, for example, in the record-obliterating Isner vs. Mahut match at Wimbledon 2010, the Isner–Mahut match at the 2010 Wimbledon Championships holds the record for the longest tennis match both in time and games played. Only two official ATP matches have lasted longer than 7 hours, eleven matches have lasted longer than 6 hours, and 36 matches have lasted longer than 5 hours. 11 h 05 Wimbledon 2010, 1st Round, John Isner def, nicolas Mahut, 6–4, 3–6, 6–7, 7–6, 70–68. 6 h 43 Davis Cup 2015, 1st Round, Leonardo Mayer def, joão Souza, 7–6, 7–6, 5–7, 5–7, 15–13. 6 h 33 French Open 2004, 1st Round, Fabrice Santoro def, Arnaud Clément, 6–4, 6–3, 6–7, 3–6, 16–14. 6 h 22 Davis Cup 1982, John McEnroe def, mats Wilander, 9–7, 6–2, 15–17, 3–6, 8–6. 6 h 21 Davis Cup 1987, World Group Play-offs, Boris Becker def, John McEnroe, 4–6, 15–13, 8–10, 6–2, 6–2.
6 h 15 Davis Cup 1980, Americas Zone Final, José Luis Clerc def, John McEnroe 6–3, 6–2, 4–6, 13–11. 6 h 04 Davis Cup 1989, Horst Skoff def, mats Wilander, 6–7, 7–6, 1–6, 6–4, 9–7. 6 h 01 Davis Cup 1982, North & Central America Zone Semifinals, jorge Andrew 16–14, 11–9, 9–11, 4–6, 11–9. 5 h 59 Davis Cup 2009, Radek Štěpánek def, Ivo Karlović, 6–7, 7–6, 7–6, 6–7, 16–14. 5 h 53 Australian Open 2012, Novak Djokovic def, Rafael Nadal, 5–7, 6–4, 6–2, 6–7, 7–5. 5 h 46 Davis Cup 2001, Arnaud Clément def, Marc Rosset, 6–3, 3–6, 7–6, 6–7, 15–13. 5 h 45 Davis Cup 2005, Europe/Africa Zone Group I 1st Round play-offs, Gilles Müller, 6–7, 6–4, 7–6, 6–7, 6–4. 5 h 41 French Open 2012, 2nd Round, Paul-Henri Mathieu def, John Isner 6–7, 6–4, 6–4, 3–6, 18–16. 5 h 31 French Open 1998, 3rd Round, Àlex Corretja def, hernán Gumy 6–1, 5–7, 6–7, 7–5, 9–7
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth