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2012 Major League Baseball draft

The 2012 Major League Baseball First-Year Player Draft was held from June 4 through June 6, 2012, from Studio 42 of the MLB Network in Secaucus, New Jersey. The Houston Astros, with the first overall pick, selected Carlos Correa from the Puerto Rico Baseball Academy and High School; the draft order was determined by the 2011 Major League Baseball season standings. With the worst record in 2011, the Houston Astros received the first pick. Teams can lose draft picks for signing certain free agents, while teams losing free agents will receive draft picks as compensation; the Elias Sports Bureau ranks all players based on performance over the past two seasons, with the top 20% being considered "Type A" and the next 20% considered "Type B". If a team offers a Type A free agent arbitration and he signs with another club, the player's former team obtains the new team's first- or second-round pick, depending on whether the new team is in the top 15 or bottom 15 in won-loss records in 2011, as well as a supplemental pick after the first round.

If a team offers a Type B free agent arbitration and he signs with another club, the former team gets a supplemental pick after the first round. The new Collective Bargaining Agreement between MLB and the MLBPA announced on November 22, modified the compensation required for certain Type A players. Six Type A players became modified Type A free agents, meaning a team signing one of them was not required to forfeit a draft pick, but the team losing them will receive a draft pick in the slot before the pick they would have received had the player had Type A status. Five further Type A players became modified Type B free agents, with compensation equivalent to other Type B free agents; as of September 2, 2019 List of first overall Major League Baseball draft picks Major League Baseball Draft Official Site 2012 Major League Baseball Draft at ESPN

Layer 2 MPLS VPN

A Layer 2 MPLS VPN is a term in computer networking. It is a method that Internet service providers use to segregate their network for their customers, to allow them to transmit data over an IP network; this is sold as a service to businesses. Layer 2 VPNs are a type of Virtual Private Network; the communication occurs between routers that are known as Provider Edge routers, as they sit on the edge of the provider's network, next to the customer's network. Internet providers who have an existing Layer 2 network may choose to use these VPNs instead of the other common MPLS VPN, Layer 3. There is no one IETF standard for Layer 2 MPLS VPNs. Instead, two methodologies may be used. Both methods use a standard MPLS header to encapsulate data. However, they differ in their signaling protocols; the BGP-based type is based on a draft specification from Juniper Networks. It uses the Border Gateway Protocol as the mechanism for PE routers to communicate with each other about their customer connections; each router connects to a central cloud, using BGP.

This means that when new customers are added, the existing routers will communicate with each other, via BGP, automatically add the new customers to the service. The second type is based on a draft specification by Chandan Mishra from Cisco Systems; this method is known as a Layer 2 circuit. It uses the Label Distribution Protocol to communicate between PE routers. In this case, every LDP-speaking router will exchange FECs and establish LSPs with every other LDP-speaking router on the network, which differs from the BGP-based methodology; the LDP-based style of layer 2 VPN defines new TLVs and parameters for LDP to aid in the signaling of the VPNs. Alcatel-Lucent: LDP based Foundry Networks: LDP-based Juniper Networks: BGP-based Juniper Networks: LDP-based Cisco Systems: LDP-based Cisco Systems: LDP-based and BGP-based Cisco Systems: LDP-Based MRV communications: LDP-based Lucent Technologies: LDP-based Ericsson: LDP-based Huawei Technologies: LDP-based & BGP-based ZTE:LDP-based & BGP-based

Kentucky Route 207

Kentucky Route 207 is a 23.9-mile-long state highway in the U. S. state of Kentucky. The highway connects rural areas of Carter and Greenup counties with Argillite and Flatwoods. KY 207 begins within Carter County, it passes O'Neal Cemetery before curving to the north-northwest. The highway has a brief concurrency with U. S. Route 60; when the two highways split, KY 207 travels to the north-northeast. It passes Sally Cemetery; the highway travels to the north-northwest. It has two crossings of Cane Creek before it crosses over Interstate 64, it crosses Cane Creek again. It enters Greenup County and curves to the north-northeast; the highway crosses over Logtown Hollow before curving to the north-northwest. It curves to the north to a crossing of Caudle Branch, it crosses over McCall Hollow and curves to the north-northeast. KY 207 crosses over Tunnel Branch before intersecting the eastern terminus of KY 3306 in Hunnewell; the highway crosses over Cane Creek one final time and curves to the north-northwest.

It crosses over Sawmill Branch. The highway curves to the northeast and crosses Sandsuck Creek; the highway enters Argillite, where it begins a concurrency with KY 1. The two highways pass a U. S. Post curve to the northeast, they cross the East Fork Little Sandy River. KY 207 heads in a east-southeast direction, it has an interchange with KY 67. The highway curves to the east-northeast, crosses Old Stream Branch, intersects KY 503; the two highways travel concurrently to the southeast for a short distance. When they split, KY 207 enters Flatwoods. At Bellefonte Road, it has a brief concurrency with KY 693. In the main part of Flatwoods, the highway intersects KY 750. In the far northeastern part of the city, it meets its northern terminus, an intersection with US 23. Here, the roadway continues as an unnamed local road. U. S. Roads portal United States portal

Uttar Pradesh Provincial Armed Constabulary

Uttar Pradesh Provincial Armed Constabulary or Pradeshik Armed Constabulary is an armed police of Uttar Pradesh. It is maintained at key locations across state and active only on orders from the deputy inspector general and higher-level authorities, it is assigned to VIP duty or to maintain law and order during fairs, athletic events and natural disasters. They are deployed to quell outbreaks of student or labor unrest, organized crime, communal riots; the Provincial Armed Constabulary is equipped with INSAS semi automatic guns and carries only lathis while controlling the mob during unrests. UP-PAC consists of a total of 20,000 personnel as of 2005, composed of 36 battalions located in different cities across the state as a wing of Uttar Pradesh Police; each battalion is commanded by an IPS officer of Senior Superintendent rank, has seven to eight companies consisting of 120 to 150 Jawans, each company headed by a State Police officer of Inspector rank, referred to as Company Commander in the PAC.

The PAC is headed by the Director General Provincial Armed Constabulary. Mohammad Isa Company Commander of IV Battalion of the UP-PAC stationed at Allahabad was awarded Police Medal for Gallantry on 14 January 1957 for his successful encounter with armed dacoits in a forest near the Kurat village. Following is the summary of events related to UP-PAC: 1937-1941: In 1937, a decision was taken to organise a Police force of sanctioned strength of 7,000 personnel to be organised along Military lines; the PAC Act stated the aim as an Act to raise an armed force for Law and Order duties, to be organised and drilled on Military lines. The first 2 Companies were accordingly raised by Colonel Thompson of the 1st Brahmans with the help of Landlords of Deoria and Ballia and from landlord's militias and retired sepoys; the first two companies were raised in 1937 and were paid for by subscription of the landlords and businessmen. 15 battalions of United Provinces Military Police were raised from fresh recruits and retired military jawans between 1937 and 1942, the majority from Bhumihars and Rajputs from the Eastern part of the State, 5 battalions with Jats and Tyagis from Meerut, Baghpat and Muzaffarnagar mixed with Poorvias.

So from the beginning, the martial races and the Bhumihars and Rajputs of Poorvanchal constituted a majority of the composition of the force. Each Battalion had 4 companies and each company was to be headed by a DySP. 1948: United Provinces Military Police and United Provinces State Armed Constabulary were amalgamated into the United Provinces Provincial Armed Constabulary by enactment of The U. P. Pradeshik Armed Constabulary Act, 1948 - Uttar Pradesh 1950: Renamed to Uttar Pradesh Provincial Armed Constabulary due change of name of state 1956: Renamed to Uttar Pradesh Pradeshik Armed Constabulary by encatment of U. P. Act XXX of 1956 1962-73: 17 new battalions were raised from Bhumihars and Yadavs from Poorvanchal and Tyagis and Jats from Meerut, Baghpat and Bulandshahr. A unit called Special Police Force existed to operate in cooperation with Indian Army. In the 1990s the SPF was merged into the 9th battalion of the PAC, situated in Moradabad; the 46 Battalion called Task Force existed till 1998, with the special task to fight Dacoits and Insurgents on achieving its goal was again converted to normal PAC Battalion.

In May 1973, 12 battalions of the UP-PAC revolted and the Army was called in to control. About 30 policemen were killed and hundreds were arrested and dismissed from service. In 1982 two petitions to disband UP-PAC were filed in Supreme Court. UP-PAC had been alleged to be involved in number of human rights violation cases, the blames include: worsening the situation during 1978 Aligarh riots, massacring more than 150 people during 1980 Moradabad riots, instigating communal violence in Meerut in 1982 massacring over 40 people, all Muslims from the Hashimpura mohalla of the Meerut city in the incidence known as Hashimpura massacre, looting the markets in Kanpur while on duty in 2001 In 2001 the Maoists looted 14 SLRs from Khoradih UP-PAC camp in Mirzapur. In November 2004 the Naugharh landmine blast by Maoists in Chandauli district in which naxalites ambushed a police party, killing 17 policemen, 13 UP-PAC jawans and 4 UP-Police constables. During 2013 North India floods UP-PAC and Army rescue teams shifted 25,000 to 30,000 people to safer places from flooded villages in Uttar Pradesh.

State Armed Police Forces

Chris Collins (writer)

Chris Collins is an American television writer and producer. He has worked on The Wire, he was an executive story editor for the Starz drama series Crash. He is a writer for the FX series Sons of Anarchy. Collins joined the crew of The Wire in 2004 as a script coordinator for the third season, he continued to serve as a script coordinator and became a staff writer for the fourth season in 2006. Collins and the writing staff won the Writers Guild of America Award for Best Dramatic Series at the February 2008 ceremony for their work on the fourth season. Collins became a story editor for the fifth season in 2009. Collins was involved in the writer's planning meetings for the fifth season, he wrote the teleplay for the third episode of the fifth season "Not for Attribution" from a story he co-wrote with show runner and executive producer David Simon. Collins and the writing staff were nominated for the WGA award for Best Dramatic Series again at the February 2009 ceremony for their work on the fifth season but Mad Men won the award.

In 2009 Collins became an executive story writer for new Starz drama series Crash. Showrunner Glen Mazzara handpicked the writing staff for the series and selected people with a background of writing edgier material. Collins was hired because of his work on The Wire; the series followed an ensemble cast in racially tense Los Angeles and was based on the film of the same name. Collins co-wrote the episode "The Doctor Is In" with co-executive producer Frank Renzulli and wrote the episode "Los Muertos". Mazzara and the majority of the writing staff left the series at the end of the first season. Collins was hired as a co-producer and writer for the second season of FX crime drama Sons of Anarchy in fall 2009. Sons of Anarchy showrunner and executive producer Kurt Sutter had worked with Mazzara on The Shield; the series focuses on a motorcycle gang. Collins co-wrote the episode "Gilead" with Sutter. Collins was promoted to producer for the series third season in 2010, he wrote the episode "Caregiver", co-wrote the episode "The Push" with Julie Bush, co-wrote the teleplay for the episode "Turas" with Brady Dahl based on a story by Sutter and wrote the teleplay for the season's penultimate episode "June Wedding" based on a story by Sutter.

Collins was promoted to supervising producer for the fourth season in 2011. Collins co-wrote the season's second episode "Booster" with co-executive producer Dave Erickson and the sixth episode "With an X" with co-producer Regina Corrado. Production staff Writer Chris Collins on IMDb


The electrogyration effect is the spatial dispersion phenomenon, that consists in the change of optical activity of crystals by a constant or time-varying electric field. Being a spatial dispersion effect, the induced optical activity exhibit different behavior under the operation of wave vector reversal, when compared with the Faraday effect: the optical activity increment associated with the electrogyration effect changes its sign under that operation, contrary to the Faraday effect. Formally, it is a special case of gyroelectromagnetism obtained when the magnetic permeability tensor is diagonal; the electrogyration effect linear in the electric field occurs in crystals of all point groups of symmetry except for the three cubic – m3m, 432 and 4 ¯ 3 m. The effect proportional to the square of the electric field can exist only in crystals belonging to acentric point groups of symmetry; the changes in the optical activity sign induced by the external electric field have been observed for the first time in ferroelectric crystals LiH32 by H. Futama and R. Pepinsky in 1961, while switching enantiomorphous ferroelectric domains.

The observed phenomenon has been explained as a consequence of specific domain structure, rather than the electrogyration induced by spontaneous polarization. The first description of electrogyration effect induced by the biasing field and spontaneous polarization at ferroelectric phase transitions has been proposed by K. Aizu in 1963 on the basis of third-rank axial tensors. K. Aizu has been the first who defined the electro-gyration effect and introduced the term “electrogyration” itself. With K. Aizu, I. S. Zheludev has suggested tensor description of the electrogyration in 1964. In this paper the electrogyration has been referred to as “electro-optic activity”. In 1969, O. G. Vlokh has measured for the first time the electrogyration effect induced by external biasing field in the quartz crystal and determined the coefficient of quadratic electro-gyration effect. Thus, the electrogyration effect has been predicted by Aizu K. and Zheludev I. S. in 1963–1964 and revealed experimentally in quartz crystals by Vlokh O.

G. in 1969.. In 2003, the gyroelectricity has been extended to gyroelectromagnetic media, which account for ferromagnetic semiconductors and engineered metamaterials, for which gyroelectricity and gyromagnetism may occur at the same time; the electric field and the electric displacement vectors of electromagnetic wave propagating in gyrotropic crystals may be written as: E i = B i j 0 D j + δ ~ i j k ∂ D j ∂ x k = B i j 0 D j + D j, or D i = ϵ i j 0 E j + δ i j k ∂ E j ∂ x k = ϵ i j 0 E j + E j, where B i j 0 is the optical frequency impermeability tensor, ϵ i j 0 the dielectric permittivity tensor, g ~ l k n ¯ = g k l, n ¯ the mean refractive index, D j - induction, δ i j k, δ ~ i j k polar third rank tensors, e i j l the unit antisymmetric Levi-Civit pseudo-tensor, k k the wave vector, g l k, g ~ l k the