Cross Keys RFC
Cross Keys RFC is a rugby union club located in the Welsh village of Crosskeys. The club is a member of the Welsh Rugby Union, is a feeder club for the Dragons regional team; the club achieved first class-status in 1909. By 1920 the team had their first international player. Morris would win 19 caps and captained Wales in 1925. Caps followed during the 1920s for Ossie Male and Lonza Bowdler, both returned over several seasons for Wales, facing not only Five Nations Championships but touring teams. In 1926 Cross Keys RFC found themselves in dire financial trouble, requested help from the Welsh Rugby Union; the WRU refused an appeal for a cash loan, but instead agreed to send the Welsh national team to play in an exhibition match at Pandy Park. The sell-out crowd assured Cross Keys future and resulted in an historic win for the home team thirteen points to eight. Rugby observers have noted the high level of talent in the Cross Keys pack, criticised the fact they went under represented in the national team during the 1920's and 1930's.
Cross Keys reached the final of the 2011–12 British and Irish Cup, losing to Munster A. Cross Keys won their first Swalec Cup, defeating table topping Pontypridd at the Millennium Stadium in 2012. Welsh Club Champions - 1921–22, 1935–36 Welsh Division One Champions - 1992–93, 1999–00 British and Irish Cup Runners-Up - 2011–12 Swalec Cup Winners - 2011–12 Swalec Cup Runners-Up - 2013–14 Welsh Premier Division Runners-Up - 2013–2014 Note: Flags indicate national union as has been defined under WR eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-WR nationality; the following list is made up of ex-Cross Keys players who have all won international caps as either a rugby union or rugby league player. See Category:Cross Keys RFC players George Boots Taulupe Faletau 38 Wales caps, 1 British and Irish Lions cap Frederick Arthur Bowdler Archibald "Archie" Brown Lloyd Burns Ron Herrera Jack Hurrell Ossie Male Steve Morris Con Murphy Gerwyn Price Dai Rees Fred Reeves Rex Richards Russell Taylor, 1938 British Lions Joe Thompson for Wales.
Whilst at Leeds Trevor Williams Stanley'Docker' Winmill Smith, David. Fields of Praise: The Official History of The Welsh Rugby Union. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. ISBN 0-7083-0766-3. Official Site of Cross Keys RFC
Royal Bank of Scotland
The Royal Bank of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Banca Rìoghail na h-Alba, Scots: Ryal Bank o Scotland abbreviated as RBS, is one of the retail banking subsidiaries of The Royal Bank of Scotland Group plc, together with NatWest and Ulster Bank. The Royal Bank of Scotland has around 700 branches in Scotland, though there are branches in many larger towns and cities throughout England and Wales. Both the bank and its parent, The Royal Bank of Scotland Group, are separate from the fellow Edinburgh-based bank, the Bank of Scotland, which pre-dates The Royal Bank of Scotland by 32 years; the Royal Bank of Scotland was established in 1724 to provide a bank with strong Hanoverian and Whig ties. Following ring-fencing of the Group's core domestic business, the bank is expected to become a direct subsidiary of NatWest Holdings by 2019. NatWest Markets comprises the Group's investment banking arm. To give it legal form, the former RBS entity was renamed NatWest Markets in 2018. Drummond and Child & Co. businesses in England.
The bank traces its origin to the Society of the Subscribed Equivalent Debt, set up by investors in the failed Company of Scotland to protect the compensation they received as part of the arrangements of the 1707 Acts of Union. The "Equivalent Society" became the "Equivalent Company" in 1724, the new company wished to move into banking; the British government received the request favourably as the "Old Bank", the Bank of Scotland, was suspected of having Jacobite sympathies. Accordingly, the "New Bank" was chartered in 1727 as the Royal Bank of Scotland, with Archibald Campbell, Lord Ilay, appointed its first governor. On 31 May 1728, the Royal Bank of Scotland invented the overdraft, considered an innovation in modern banking, it allowed a merchant in the High Street of Edinburgh, access to £ 1,000 credit. Competition between the Old and New Banks was centred on the issue of banknotes; the policy of the Royal Bank was to either drive the Bank of Scotland out of business, or take it over on favourable terms.
The Royal Bank built up large holdings of the Bank of Scotland's notes, which it acquired in exchange for its own notes suddenly presented to the Bank of Scotland for payment. To pay these notes, the Bank of Scotland was forced to call in its loans and, in March 1728, to suspend payments; the suspension relieved the immediate pressure on the Bank of Scotland at the cost of substantial damage to its reputation, gave the Royal Bank a clear space to expand its own business—although the Royal Bank's increased note issue made it more vulnerable to the same tactics. Despite talk of a merger with the Bank of Scotland, the Royal Bank did not possess the wherewithal to complete the deal. By September 1728, the Bank of Scotland was able to start redeeming its notes again, with interest, in March 1729, it resumed lending. To prevent similar attacks in the future, the Bank of Scotland put an "option clause" on its notes, giving it the right to make the notes interest-bearing while delaying payment for six months.
Both banks decided that the policy they had followed was mutually self-destructive and a truce was arranged, but it still took until 1751 before the two banks agreed to accept each other's notes. The bank opened its first branch office outside Edinburgh in 1783 when it opened one in Glasgow, in part of a draper's shop in the High Street. Further branches were opened in Dundee, Dalkeith, Port Glasgow, Leith in the first part of the nineteenth century. In 1821, the bank moved from its original head office in Edinburgh's Old Town to Dundas House, on St. Andrew Square in the New Town; the building as seen along George Street forms the eastern end of the central vista in New Town. It was designed for Sir Lawrence Dundas by Sir William Chambers as a Palladian mansion, completed in 1774. An axial banking hall behind the building, designed by John Dick Peddie, was added in 1857; the banking hall continues in use as a branch of the bank, Dundas House remains the registered head office of the bank to this day.
The rest of the nineteenth century saw the bank pursue mergers with other Scottish banks, chiefly as a response to failing institutions. The assets and liabilities of the Western Bank were acquired following its collapse in 1857. By 1910, the Royal Bank of Scotland had around 900 staff. In 1969, the bank merged with the National Commercial Bank of Scotland to become the largest clearing bank in Scotland; the expansion of the British Empire in the latter half of the nineteenth century saw the emergence of London as the largest financial centre in the world, attracting Scottish banks to expand southward into England. The first London branch of the Royal Bank of Scotland opened in 1874. However, English banks moved to prevent further expansion by Scottish banks into England. An agreement was reached, under which English banks would not open branches in Scotland and Scottish banks would not open branches in England outside London; this agreement remained in place until the 1960s, although various cross-border acquisitions were permitted.
The Royal Bank's English expansion plans were resurrected after World War I, when it acquired various small English banks, includin
Women's rugby union
Women's rugby union is a sport identical to men's rugby union with the same rules, same sized pitch, same equipment. However, it has a history, different, due to various social pressures, the self-image of rugby union in general; as a result, this history has been hidden until comparatively although the game is gaining a higher profile thanks to international tournaments and financial investment. The secretive nature of the early years of women’s sport—and rugby union—ensures that we do not know where it began. Public reaction to women playing contact sports could be disrespectful, or violent. In 1881, when two teams played a number of exhibition "football" games in Scotland and northern England, several games had to be abandoned due to rioting in or around the grounds. While most of these games appear to have been played to the new Association Football rules, it is clear from reports in the Liverpool Mercury of 27 June 1881 that at least one of these games, played at the Cattle Market Inn Athletic Grounds, Liverpool on the 25th, involved scoring goals following "touchdowns" and may therefore have been played to at least a version of rugby rules.
Whether this was the case is unknown. However, a series of sporting cigarette cards, published 1895 in the Liverpool, includes an image of a woman playing what looks like rugby in kit similar to that described in reports of the 1881 team, it is therefore possible that these "exhibition" games similar to those in 1881 may have continued or the pictures may have been reprints for earlier illustrations inspired by the 1881 games, or they may just be an "amusing" cartoon or an illustration of a sport, not being played. Again no further details are available. Other than this the official record is silent for most of the nineteenth century; some girls played the game unofficially as part of their school teams—and the earliest confirmed record of any female playing rugby at any level anywhere in the world comes from a school game. This happened at Portora Royal School in Northern Ireland. Emily Valentine's brothers were responsible for the formation of the school's first rugby team in c1884. Emily practised with the team and in c1887 she played for the school, scoring a try.
The first documented evidence of an attempt to form a purely women's team is from 1891 when a tour of New Zealand by a team of female rugby players was cancelled due to a public outcry. There are early reports of women’s rugby union being played in France and England but in both cases the game was behind closed doors. During the First World War some women's charity games were organised, the most well documented taking place at Cardiff Arms Park on 16 December 1917, when Cardiff Ladies beat Newport Ladies 6–0. Maria Eley played full-back for Cardiff and went on to become the oldest women's rugby player before she died in Cardiff in 2007 at the age of 106; the Cardiff team all wore protective headgear, which predates their male counterparts by some decades. In Sydney in 1921, two women's teams played a game of rugby league in front a crowd of 30,000—a photograph appeared in The Times in 1922—but pressure from authorities ensured that they did not play again. Throughout the 1920s a popular form of women's football game similar to rugby called "barette" was played across France.
The game had only minor differences to the full game and there were national championships throughout the decade. It received support from several male rugby players and film exists of a game being played in 1928. Both barette and the full game of rugby featured in several newspaper cartoons and many photographs exist. For reasons unknown the game appears to fade away in the 1930s. In 1930 a women's league playing the full game was formed in Australia, in the New South Wales areas of Tamworth and Armidale, which ran until halted by World War Two. Photographs of women's teams exist from New Zealand from the same period and during the war Maori women took up the game. After the war in 1956 The Belles of St Mary’s—an Australian women's rugby league team—played games in New South Wales—but as late as the 1960s Women's rugby was banned in Samoa; the 1960s was the decade in which the game began to put down roots in the universities of Western Europe. In 1962 the first recorded UK women's rugby union team appears at Edinburgh University, in 1963 female students participate in matches against male students in London, in 1965 university sides are being formed in France.
As the pioneering students left university an adult game began to evolve. This tended to be confined to charity matches between male and female teams, though the UK's Daily Herald newspaper includes photographs of girls' teams training in Thornhill, near Dewsbury in Yorkshire in 1965, at Tadley in Hampshire in 1966—and appealing for fixtures, it is not recorded whether these teams did arrange any games, so it is not until 1 May 1968 that the first documented and recorded women's club match takes place, in France, at Toulouse Fémina Sports in front of "thousands of spectators". The success of the event lead to the formation of the first national association for women's rugby union—the Association Francaise de Rugby Feminin at Toulouse, in 1970. 1970 saw the first reports of women's rugby union in Canada, by 1972 four universities in the United States were playing the game: University of Colorado, Colorado State University, the University of Illinois and the University of Missouri. By 1975 university students at Wag
Lasswade is a village and civil parish in Midlothian, Scotland, on the River North Esk, nine miles south of Edinburgh city centre, between Dalkeith and Loanhead. Melville Castle lies to the north east; the Gaelic form is Leas Bhaid, meaning the "clump at the fort." Lasswade lies within the Edinburgh Green Belt. Most of the population is commutes to Edinburgh to work. There are, several local businesses, including horse riding stables, golf driving ranges and golf courses, an alpine plant nursery a pub and a restaurant. There is an athletics club, Lasswade Athletics Club, formed in 1981; the name Lasswade may be derived from the Brittonic *lï:s meaning "a court, palace administrative centre", wï:δ, "a wood". Possible is an Old English derivation from the elements lǣswe, "pasture", wæd, "a ford". Although the settlement may date back to the 8th century, the first written record of "Leswade" dates to 1150. On William Roy's map of 1750, it appears as Laswaid. Up until the late 18th century, all spelling was based upon the sound as perceived.
The old parish church was built in the 13th century. It was abandoned in 1793, much of its ruins collapsed in 1866; the 17th century Scottish poet William Drummond of Hawthornden was buried within its grounds. Sir John Lauder, 1st Baronet of Fountainhall was born at Melville Mill, Lasswade, in 1595, he was visited here by the writer James Hogg and the Wordsworths. Thomas de Quincey, author of Confessions of an English Opium Eater lived in nearby Polton for some years, from 1843, in the cottage now known as de Quincey Cottage; the Scottish landscape artist William McTaggart moved to Lasswade in 1889, many of his works depict the Moorfoot Hills. Former 19th century industries include flour mills and a carpet factory. Created a police burgh in 1881, Lasswade merged with Bonnyrigg in 1929, it was a popular holiday resort in the 19th Century for wealthy Edinburgh residents. Groome noted as chief proprietors in the parish: Lieut.-Col. Gibsone of Pentland, Viscount Melville, Drummond of Hawthornden, Sir Geo.
Clerk of Penicuik, Mrs Durham of Polton. The estates along both banks of the Esk were: left bank: Mavisbank House, Dryden Bank and Rosebank right bank: Eldin, Springfield, Hawthornden and Auchendinny The current Lasswade Parish Church building was built in 1830 as a plain box chapel for the former United Presbyterian Church, it was remodelled by Hardy & Wight in 1894 and became part of the Church of Scotland in 1929; the parish has used this building since 1956, because of a structural fault in the Old Parish Church discovered in the late 1940s. St Leonards Episcopal Church on Lower Broomieknowe is by Hippolyte Blanc; the former board school of 1875 stands with commanding views over the village on the northern slopes next to the Old Kirkyard. It is now converted to flats. Lasswade High School moved to its current premises in nearby Bonnyrigg in 1956; the parish of Lasswade is bounded on the north by the City of Edinburgh, on the east, by Dalkeith, Newbattle and Carrington, on the south by Penicuik and on the west by Glencorse.
It extends about 7 miles from north to south and its greatest breadth is about 6 miles. Prior to 1633 the north-east salient of the parish, around Melville Castle, formed the separate parish of Melville and Lugton; the parish lies between the Pentland Hills to the north and the Moorfoot Hills to the south and includes the easternmost part of the Pentland Hills, around the estate of Pentland. The River North Esk flows into the parish from the south-west and, after forming the western boundary cuts through the centre of the parish, flowing north-easterly towards the village of Lasswade. At Lasswade the river forms the boundary on the north-east side, such that the suburb of Westmill on the south-east bank lies in the parish of Cockpen; the chief antiquities within the parish are Rosslyn Chapel and the mansions of Hawthornden Castle and Melville Castle. The parish includes the villages of Lasswade and Rosewell, the small town of Loanhead, plus part of the town of Bonnyrigg; the Community Council areas for the parish are: Bonnyrigg/Lasswade Poltonhall and District Loanhead and District Roslin/Bilston Rosewell and DistrictA large part of the areas of Bonnyrigg/Lasswade and Poltonhall and District lies within Cockpen parish.
Lasswade is one of the most ancient Parishes in Scotland. Burial ground evidence shows. Before the Reformation, the present civil parish consisted of three parishes - Lasswade and Pentland - and the provostry of Roslin. Melville parish comprised the baronies of Lugton. In 1633, the barony of Melville which formed the greater part of the parish of Melville was united to Lasswade, the barony of Lugton to Dalkeith. Pentland was erected into a parish before 1275; the parish of Pentland comprehended the baronies of Pentland and Falford and the name Pentland appears in
Triple Crown (rugby union)
In rugby union, the Triple Crown is an honour contested annually by the "Home Nations" – i.e. England, Ireland and Wales who compete within the larger Six Nations Championship. If any one of these teams defeats all three other teams, they win the Triple Crown; the Six Nations Championship includes France and Italy, but their involvement in the tournament has no influence on the result of the Triple Crown, although it means that the winners of the Triple Crown are not the winners of the Championship as a whole. England won the first Triple Crown – although the phrase was not in use at the time – in the inaugural 1883 series of the original rugby union Home Nations Championship; the latest winners are Wales, who won by beating Ireland at the Princapality Stadium on 16th March, having beaten Scotland and England in the 2019 Six Nations Championship. Traditionally the Triple Crown was an informal honour with no trophy associated with it; however a trophy now exists, awarded to Triple Crown winners since 2006.
The origins of the name Triple Crown are uncertain. The concept dates to the original Home Nations Championship, predecessor of the Six Nations Championship, when the competition only involved England, Ireland and Wales. Like the modern Grand Slam, the Triple Crown was an informal honour to a team that won the Championship with straight victories; the first use cited in the Oxford English Dictionary is from Whitaker's Almanack, 1900: "In their last match at Cardiff against Wales, Ireland won by a try to nothing, securing the triple crown with three straight victories as in 1894." The Irish victory in 1894 was reported as a Triple Crown by The Irish Times at the time and is the first time the phrase was seen in print. The phrase Triple Crown is used in a number of other sports; until 2006, no actual trophy was awarded to the winner of the Triple Crown, hence it was sometimes referred to as the "invisible cup". Dave Merrington, a retired miner from South Hetton, County Durham, fashioned an aspiring trophy in 1975 from a lump of coal hewn from the Haig Colliery in Cumbria.
This has a crown sitting on a four-sided base on which are represented a rose, a shamrock, a thistle and the Prince of Wales feathers. It is kept in the Museum of Rugby at Twickenham. For the 2006 Six Nations, Barry Hooper, Head of External Communications at the Royal Bank of Scotland commissioned Edinburgh and London based Hamilton & Inches to design and create a dedicated Triple Crown Trophy; this has been awarded to Triple Crown winning sides since 2006. It has been won three times by Wales and twice by England. There has been a Triple Crown winner in 66 of the 122 competitions held from 1883 through to 2018. Only two teams have achieved the Triple Crown in four consecutive years: England. No other teams have won the triple crown more than twice in a row. Unlike the Grand Slam, the Triple Crown winners are not the tournament winners, since France or Italy – or another of the home nations – could outperform them within the Championship as a whole. To date, the Triple Crown winners who failed to win the Championship are Wales in 1977, England in 1997, 1998, 2002 and 2014, Ireland in 2004, 2006 and 2007.
The champions were France on each occasion, apart from 2014 when Ireland were champions, the first instance of a team winning the Triple Crown but losing the overall title to another team eligible for it. Triple Crown winners who succeeded only in sharing the Championship were England in 1954 and 1960, Wales in 1988; the following table shows the number of Triple Crown wins by each country, the years in which they were achieved. The following table shows Triple Crown winners chronologically. Calcutta Cup England national rugby union team Grand Slam Ireland national rugby union team Millennium Trophy Pacific Tri-Nations Rugby union trophies and awards Scotland national rugby union team Six Nations Championship Six Nations Wooden Spoon Tri Nations Wales national rugby union team "Triple Crown becomes tangiable", RugbyRugby.com, 25 January 2006 Official Six Nations Site Link to image of Triple Crown Trophy Hamilton & Inches silver craftsmen create a Triple Crown Trophy
Pau is a commune on the northern edge of the Pyrenees, capital of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques Département in the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France. The city is located in the heart of the former sovereign Principality of Béarn, of which it was the capital from 1464. Bordered by the Gave de Pau, the city is located 100 kilometres from the Atlantic Ocean and 50 kilometres from Spain; this position gives it an exceptional panorama across the mountain range of the Pyrenees as well as on the hillsides of Jurançon. The name of Horizons Palois aims to protect this vision, in particular with the famous Boulevard des Pyrénées which extends for 1.8 kilometres from the Château de Pau to the Parc Beaumont. Alphonse de Lamartine said: "Pau has the world's most beautiful view of the earth just as Naples has the most beautiful view of the sea." Archaeology has asserted. It wasn't until the first half of the 12th century that the first mentions of Pau as a settlement are found; the town originated from the construction of its castle from the 11th century by the Viscounts of Béarn, to protect the ford, a strategic point for access to the Bearn valleys and to Spain.
The city thus took its name from the stockade. The village, built around the castle took advantage of its strategic position as well as the protection of the Viscounts of Béarn to develop over the following centuries. Pau became the capital of Béarn in 1464, thus becoming the political and economic centre of this small State which continued to defend its independence from the neighbouring French and Spanish territories; the town and its castle took on a new dimension by becoming the seat of the Kings of Navarre, at the capture of Pamplona, by the Kingdom of Castile in 1512. Pau became a leading political and intellectual centre under the reign of Henry d'Albret and his wife Marguerite; the history of Pau is marked by the birth of Henry of Bourbon 13 December 1553 in the castle of his grandparents. He gained access to the throne of France in 1589 under the title of Henry IV; the image of the city is since associated with that of this monarch made famous for his willingness to put an end to the endless Wars of Religion.
With the end of Béarnaise independence in 1620, Pau lost its influence but remained the same at the head of a autonomous province. It was home to the Parliament of Navarre and Béarn which wrote its texts in Occitan until the Revolution and its dismantling to create the Department of Basses-Pyrénées, it was during the 18th century when another famous person was born in Pau, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte who became Marshal of the Empire and King of Sweden, today still the ruling dynasty of Sweden and of Norway when that country was under the Swedish monarchy. The Belle Époque marked a resurgence for the Béarnaise capital with a massive influx of wealthy foreign tourists, they came to spend the winter to take advantage of the benefits of Pau's climate described by the Scottish physician Alexander Taylor. Pau turned with the construction of many villas and mansions to accommodate these wintering rich people, the city developed all elements of modernity for their comfort: baths and railway station, it was at this time that Pau became one of the world capitals of the nascent aerospace industry under the influence of the Wright brothers, crowned heads pressed there to observe the flight of the first flying school in the world.
With the decline of tourism during the 20th century, the Pau economy shifted towards the aviation industry and to that of petrochemicals with the major discovery of the Lacq gas field in 1951. Pau today is a city of about 80,000 inhabitants, the main urban area of Pau and of the Communauté d'agglomération Pau Béarn Pyrénées with 30 neighbouring communes which carry out local tasks together; the Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, founded in 1972, accounts for a large student population. The city plays a leading role for Béarn but for a wide segment of the Adour area. An administrative capital, it boasts a dense economic fabric including service activities. Pau plays the role of cultural capital with many events, including sports. Pau's heritage extends over several centuries, its diversity and its quality allowed it to obtain the label of City of Art and History in 2011; the name of its people is Palois and the motto of Pau is in Latin: Urbis palladium et gentis. Pau is 50 km from the Pyrenees.
Spain is 50 km away. The frontier is crossed by the col du Pourtalet. Access to the crossings accounts for Pau's strategic importance. Pau is located 30 km from Tarbes and Lourdes, 25 km from Oloron; the conglomeration of Bayonne-Anglet-Biarritz is at Bordeaux 190 km. To the north: Buros and Morlaàs To the east: Bizanos and Idron To the south: Gelos and Jurançon To the west: Lons and Billère Pau is served by the Pau Pyrénées Airport 10 km away. Limited scheduled flights serve Amsterdam, Southampton, Dublin and Paris. A TGV rail line runs from Bayonne to Toulouse; the A64 autoroute goes to the east. The A65 autoroute was opened in December 2010, linking Pau with the Dordogne. The