Grimsby Town F.C.
Grimsby Town Football Club is a professional association football club based in the seaside town of Cleethorpes, North East Lincolnshire, England. The team compete in League Two, the tier of league football in England. They were formed in 1878 as Grimsby Pelham and later became Grimsby Town, the club is located at Blundell Park where it has been since 1898. They are the most successful of the three professional clubs in historic Lincolnshire, being the only one to play top-flight football. It is also the club of the three to reach an FA Cup semi-final It has also spent more time in the English games first. In 2008 Buckley took Grimsby to the again, but lost out to MK Dons in the final of the Football League Trophy. Grimsby managed to reach the Conference play-off final in both 2015 and 2016, after losing to Bristol Rovers they defeated Forest Green Rovers to earn promotion back to the Football League. Initial relegation back in 2010 made them the club to compete in all top five divisions of English football. Grimsbys claims to fame are that their 1939 FA Cup semi-final with Wolverhampton Wanderers attendance of 76,962 is still a record at Manchester Uniteds Old Trafford stadium and they were also the first English club to appoint a foreign manager doing so in 1954 with Hungarian manager Elemér Berkessy. The clubs record holder is John McDermott, who made 754 appearances between 1987 and 2007, while their leading scorer is Pat Glover, with 180 goals. Grimsby Town F. C. was formed in 1878 after a meeting held at the Wellington Arms public house in Freeman Street, Grimsby. Several attendees included members of the local Worsley Cricket Club who wanted to form a club to occupy the empty winter evenings after the cricket season had finished. The club was originally called Grimsby Pelham, this being the name of the Earl of Yarborough. In 1880 the club purchased land at Clee Park which was to become their ground until 1889 when they relocated to Abbey Park, before moving again in 1899 to their present home, Blundell Park. The original colours were blue and white hoops, which were changed to chocolate, in 1888 the club first played league football, joining the newly formed Combination. The league soon collapsed and the year the club applied to join the Football League. Instead the club joined the Football Alliance, in 1890 the club became a limited company and in 1892 finally entered the Football League, when it was expanded to two divisions. The first game was a 2–1 victory over Northwich Victoria, however they finished as champions at the first attempt and at the subsequent re-election vote, replaced local rivals Lincoln City in the Football League
Wrexham Association Football Club is a professional association football club based in Wrexham, Wales. Based on the clubs recorded formation date of 1864, they are the oldest club in Wales, since August 2011 Wrexham have been a supporter-owned football club. As of May 2015, the club has 4,129 adult members, Wrexham are perhaps most notable for an FA Cup upset over reigning English Champions Arsenal in 1992 and a 1–0 victory over FC Porto in 1984 in the European Cup Winners Cup. Wrexhams home stadium, the Racecourse Ground, is the worlds oldest international stadium that still continues to host international games, the record attendance at the ground was set in 1957, when Wrexham hosted a match against Manchester United in front of 36,445 spectators. Their first game was played on 22 October 1864 at the Denbigh County Cricket Ground against the Prince of Wales Fire Brigade, as the rules of football were still somewhat fluid at the time, early matches featured teams with up to 17 players on each side. In these early years Wrexham were leaders of the campaign to restrict teams to having just 11 players on the pitch at any one time. C, in the 1877–78 season the FAW inaugurated the Welsh Cup competition, to run on similar lines to the English FA Cup. The first Welsh Cup Final was played at Acton Park, Wrexham got to the final of the inaugural competition, where they defeated Druids F. C. 1–0, with James Davies being credited with the goal. Because of a lack of money at the fledgling FAW, Wrexham did not receive their trophy until the next year. 1883 also saw Wrexhams first appearance in the FA Cup, when receiving a bye to the second round of the competition they were defeated 3–4 at home by Oswestry. Crowd trouble at the game led to the club being expelled from the Football Association, Olympic was dropped from this clubs name in 1888. In 1890 Wrexham joined The Combination league, playing their first game against Gorton Villa on 6 September 1890, Lea played for the club despite only having one arm as did playing colleague James Roberts. Wrexham finished the second from bottom in eighth place in the first season. Wrexham played in the Combination for four years before an increase in costs resulted in the club joining the Welsh League in the 1894–95 season. The club then remained in the Combination league until 1905, by time they had managed to win the league four times. After several unsuccessful attempts Wrexham were finally elected to the Birmingham, Wrexhams first ever match in this league was at home against Kidderminster Harriers at the Racecourse, and two thousand spectators witnessed Wrexham win the match 2–1. Wrexham finished sixth in their first season in this league, during their time in the Birmingham and District League, Wrexham won the Welsh Cup six times, in 1908–09, 1909–10, 1910–11, 1913–14, 1914–15, and 1920–21. They also reached the First Round proper of the FA Cup for a time in the 1908–09 season before losing a replay 1–2 to Exeter City after extra time. In 1921 Wrexham were elected to the newly formed Third Division North of the Football League and their first League game was against Hartlepool United at the Racecourse in front of 8,000 spectators
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon. The country lies within the temperate zone and has a changeable. Welsh national identity emerged among the Celtic Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Llywelyn ap Gruffudds death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of Englands conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr briefly restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century. The whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh Liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism, Welsh national feeling grew over the century, Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925 and the Welsh Language Society in 1962. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, two-thirds of the population live in south Wales, mainly in and around Cardiff, Swansea and Newport, and in the nearby valleys. Now that the countrys traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales economy depends on the sector, light and service industries. Wales 2010 gross value added was £45.5 billion, over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, and the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west. From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the land of song, Rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Celtic Britons in particular, the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, and Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales and these words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning fellow-countrymen. The use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, in particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage, culture, and language to the Welsh. The word came into use as a self-description probably before the 7th century and it is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh, until c.1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of names, Cambrian, Cambric and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales, Welsh
Penalty shoot-out (association football)
A penalty shoot-out is a method of determining the winner of an association football match that is drawn after the regulation as well as extra playing time. Although the procedure for taking kicks from the penalty mark resembles that of a penalty kick, most notably, neither the kicker nor any player other than the goalkeeper may play the ball again once it has been kicked. The method of breaking a draw in a match requiring a winner is determined beforehand by the organizing body. Although employed in football commonly since the 1970s, penalty shoot-outs remain unpopular with some, during a shoot-out, coaches, players other than the kicker and the goalkeepers must remain in the centre circle. The kicking teams goalkeeper stands at the intersection of the goal line, goals scored during the shoot-out are not included in the final score, nor are they added to the goalscoring records of the players involved. A tie is a result in football. Exceptionally, a shoot-out after a league or round-robin match may be provided for and this provision appears for occasions where opposing teams in a final-day match finish the group with identical records, which can result in an immediate shoot-out. This happened in Group A of the 2003 UEFA Womens Under-19 Championship, several leagues, such as the J-League, have experimented with penalty shoot-outs immediately following a drawn league match, with the winner being awarded an extra point. A team that loses a penalty shoot-out is eliminated from the tournament but it does not count as a defeat, for instance, the Netherlands are considered to have concluded the 2014 FIFA World Cup undefeated, despite being eliminated at the semi-final stage. The following is a summary of the procedure for kicks from the penalty mark, the procedure is specified in Law 10 of the IFABs Laws of the Game document. The referee tosses a coin to decide the goal at which the kicks will be taken, the choice of goal by the coin toss winner may only be changed by the referee for safety reasons or if the goal or playing surface becomes unusable. The referee tosses the coin a second time to determine which team will take the first kick, all players other than the kicker and the goalkeepers must remain in the pitchs centre circle. Each kick will be taken in the manner of a penalty kick. Each kick will be taken from the penalty mark, which is 12 yards from the line and equidistant from each touch line. Each team is responsible for selecting from the players the order in which they will take the kicks. The referee is not informed of the order, each kicker can kick the ball only once per attempt. Once kicked, the kicker may not play the ball again, no other player on either team, other than the designated kicker and goalkeeper, may touch the ball. The ball may touch the goalkeeper, goal posts, or crossbar any number of times before going into the goal as long as the referee believes the motion is the result of the initial kick
Wembley Stadium is a football stadium in Wembley, London, England, which opened in 2007, on the site of the original Wembley Stadium, which was demolished from 2002–2003. The stadium hosts football matches including home matches of the England national football team. The stadium will be the home of Premier League football club Tottenham Hotspur while White Hart Lane is being demolished. Wembley Stadium is owned by the body of English football. The FA headquarters are based in the stadium, with 90,000 seats, it is the largest football stadium in England, the largest stadium in the UK and the second-largest stadium in Europe. Designed by Populous and Foster and Partners, it includes a retractable roof. The stadium was built by Australian firm Multiplex at a cost of £798 million, a UEFA category four stadium, Wembley hosted the 2011 and 2013 UEFA Champions League Finals, and will host both the semi-finals and final of UEFA Euro 2020. The stadium hosted the Gold medal matches at the 2012 Olympic Games football tournament, the stadium also hosts rugby leagues Challenge Cup final, the NFL International Series and music concerts. The design of the services was carried out by Mott MacDonald. It is one of the most expensive ever built at a cost of £798 million. The all-seater stadium is a design with a capacity of 90,000. It can also be adapted as a stadium by erecting a temporary platform over the lowest tier of seating. The stadiums signature feature is a circular section lattice arch of 7 m internal diameter with a 315 m span, erected some 22° off true and it supports all the weight of the north roof and 60% of the weight of the retractable roof on the southern side. The archway is the worlds longest unsupported roof structure, a platform system has been designed to convert the stadium for athletics use, but its use would decrease the stadiums capacity to approximately 60,000. No athletics events have taken place at the stadium, and none are scheduled, the conversion for athletics use was a condition of part of the lottery funding the stadium received, but to convert it would take weeks of work and cost millions of pounds. Demolition officially began on 30 September 2002, with the Twin Towers being dismantled in December 2002, delays to the construction project started as far back as 2003. In December 2003, the constructors of the arch, subcontractors Cleveland Bridge & Engineering Company of Darlington, Cleveland Bridge withdrew from the project and replaced by Dutch firm Hollandia with all the attendant problems of starting over. In October 2005, Sports Minister Richard Caborn announced, They say the Cup Final will be there, by November 2005, WNSL were still hopeful of a handover date of 31 March, in time for the cup final on 13 May
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region. Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud. From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a later date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Andrew Jonathan Andy Morrell is an English semi-professional footballer and manager who is the current player-manager of Tamworth. Morrell played 359 games in the Football League for Wrexham, Coventry City, Blackpool and Bury, born in Doncaster, South Yorkshire and brought up in Market Bosworth, and attending Twycross House School, he played for the Leicestershire County Cricket Club from under-15 to under-19 level. He started his career as a youth team player at Nuneaton Borough, before deciding to make the move north to Northumbria University. It was then that he started playing for Newcastle Blue Star making 31 appearances scoring 25 times in his season. Morrells first big break came when he started talking to Sky Sports presenter Rob McCaffrey, McCaffrey arranged for Morrell to have a trial at the club. After a weeks trial he was kept on at Wrexham and was coached by their striking coach Ian Rush, after a very impressive spell with Wrexham, Morrell caught the eye of Coventry City manager Gary McAllister, who signed him on a free transfer in the summer of 2003. Morrell scored nine goals in 19 starts in his first season with Coventry, however, Morrell signed for Blackpool on a free transfer on 15 August 2006, after failing to make an appearance for Coventry during the first three games of the 2006–07 season. On 5 May 2007, he scored four goals in Blackpools 6–3 victory at Swansea City and he finished the 2006–07 season as Blackpools top scorer with 20 goals in all competitions. On 7 May 2008, Morrell was offered a new contract by Blackpool, but Morrell declined the offer instead joining Bury on 9 August. He signed a contract with the League Two club. In his two seasons with the Gigg Lane club Morrell made 78 appearances scoring 18 goals, after his two seasons with Bury, Morrell left the club and on 28 June 2010, and signed a two-year contract with his former club Wrexham. Morrell scored the goal on his debut, a 1–0 win over Cambridge United in the first game of the season. Morrell took a part in Wrexhams first team and played in the Conference Play-off semi-finals of the 2010/2011 season. On 23 September 2011, Andy took over as caretaker player-manager at Wrexham, after leading Wrexham to seven wins in nine games, he was appointed player-manager on a permanent basis on a contract until the end of the 2011–12 season on 29 October. Wrexham lost the game on penalties 4–5 with Brighton keeper Peter Brezovan saving the first penalty taken by Wrexham captain Dean Keates, also Morrell guided Wrexham to the Play-offs after narrowly missing out on automatic promotion to Fleetwood Town even after gaining 98 points in the season. Morrells side lost in the semi-final for the year running once again to Luton Town who went on to lose to York City in the final. In 2013 Morrell led his Wrexham team to Wembley on two occasions, the first against Grimsby Town FC, in the FA Trophy Final. Wrexham won the game on Penalties after it finished 1–1 after extra time, the second occasion was for the Conference Play Off Final
Referee (association football)
In association football, the referee is the person responsible for enforcing the Laws of the Game during the course of a match. At higher levels of play the referee may also be assisted by an official who supervises the teams technical areas. Referees remuneration for their services varies between leagues, Referees are licensed and trained by the same national organisations that are members of FIFA. Each national organisation recommends its top officials to FIFA to have the honour of being included on the FIFA International Referees List. International games between national teams require FIFA officials, otherwise, the local national organisation determines the manner of training, ranking and advancement of officials from the youngest youth games through professional matches. The referees powers and duties are described by Law 5 of the Laws of the Game, as per Law 9 of the game, if during the game the ball hits the referee there is no stoppage in play. However the officials would be expected to position themselves such that this would be unlikely to occur. Modern day referees and their assistants wear a uniform consisting of a jersey, badge, shorts and socks, since then, most referees have worn either yellow or black, but the colours and styles adopted by individual associations vary greatly. For international contests under the supervision of FIFA, Adidas uniforms are worn because Adidas is the current sponsor, FIFA allows referees to wear five colours, black, red, yellow, green and blue. Along with the jersey, referees are required to wear shorts, black socks. The badge, which displays the referees license level and year of validity, is affixed to the left chest pocket. All referees carry a whistle, a watch, penalty cards, a wallet with pen and paper. Most are encouraged to have more than one of each on them in case they drop a whistle or a pen runs out, often, referees utilize two watches so that they can use one to calculate time lost for stoppages for the purposes of added time. In matches with goal-line technology, the referee will have on their person a device to receive the systems alerts, Referees use a whistle to help in match control. The whistle is sometimes needed to stop, start or restart play but should not be used for all stoppages, fIFAs Laws of the Game document gives guidance as to when the whistle should and should not be used. Overuse of the whistle is discouraged since, as stated in the Laws, the whistle is an important tool for the referee along with verbal, body and eye communication. Before the introduction of the whistle, referees indicated their decisions by waving a white handkerchief, the whistles that were first adopted by referees were made by Joseph Hudson at Mills Munitions in Birmingham, England. The Acme Whistle Company first began to mass-produce pea whistles in the 1870s for the Metropolitan Police Force, Referees in football are first described by Richard Mulcaster in 1581
Jonathan Moss (referee)
Jonathan Jon Moss is an English professional football referee who officiates primarily in the Premier League having been promoted to the Select Group of Referees in 2011. He was born in Sunderland but is now based in Horsforth and he is a member of the West Riding County Football Association. He played junior football at academy level, firstly for his hometown club Sunderland and then for Millwall, Moss began taking refereeing courses as part of his A-level physical education studies. Although he qualified as a referee in 1988 he did not fully focus on his refereeing until he stopped playing football in 1999, after progressing through the Northern Counties East League and Northern Premier League, Moss was promoted to the National Group of assistant referees in 2003. He was appointed to referee the 2005 Conference play-off final between Carlisle United and Stevenage Borough and he was then promoted to the National Group of Referees who officiate in the Football League, his first game was between Shrewsbury and Rochdale. He was later appointed to Birmingham Citys visit to Blackpool in January 2011, Moss had been promoted to the list of Select Group Referees, who officiate all Premier League matches, for the 2011–12 season alongside fellow newly promoted referee Neil Swarbrick. He was the referee for the 2015 FA Cup Final between Arsenal and Aston Villa, no records are available prior to 2005–06
2012 FA Trophy Final
The 2012 FA Trophy Final was the 43rd final of the Football Associations cup competition for levels 5–8 of the English football league system. The match was contested by Newport County and York City, York City were beaten finalists in 2009, but it was Newport Countys first final and indeed their first ever visit to Wembley in their 100-year history. Newport County defeated Forest Green Rovers, Worksop Town, Carshalton Athletic, Northwich Victoria, York City defeated Solihull Moors, Salisbury City, Ebbsfleet United, Grimsby Town, and Luton Town en route to the final
The Football Association
The Football Association, also known simply as the FA, is the governing body of association football in England, and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man. Formed in 1863, it is the oldest football association in the world and is responsible for overseeing all aspects of the amateur, the FA sanctions all competitive football matches within its remit at national level, and indirectly at local level through the County Football Associations. It runs numerous competitions, the most famous of which is the FA Cup, the FA is a member of both UEFA and FIFA and holds a permanent seat on the International Football Association Board which is responsible for the laws of the game. As the first football association, it not use the national name English in its title. The FA is based at Wembley Stadium, London, the FA is a member of the British Olympic Association, meaning that the FA has control over the mens and womens Great Britain Olympic football team. All of Englands professional football teams are members of the Football Association, although it does not run the day-to-day operations of the Premier League, it has veto power over the appointment of the League Chairman and Chief Executive and over any changes to league rules. The English Football League, made up of the three professional divisions below the Premier League, is self-governing, subject to the FAs sanctions. Another set of rules, the Sheffield Rules, was used by a number of clubs in the North of England from the 1850s, eleven London football clubs and schools representatives met on 26 October 1863 to agree on common rules. The founding clubs present at the first meeting were Barnes, Civil Service, Crusaders, Forest of Leytonstone, many of these clubs are now defunct or play rugby union. Civil Service FC, who now plays in the Southern Amateur League, is the one of the original eleven football clubs still in existence. There are only three institutions which have been members of the F. A. since 1863, those being Civil Service, Forest School and Kings College. Central to the creation of the Football Association and modern football was Ebenezer Cobb Morley and he was a founding member of the Football Association in 1863. In 1862, as captain of Barnes, he wrote to Bells Life newspaper proposing a governing body for the sport led to the first meeting at The Freemasons Tavern that created the FA. He was the FAs first secretary and its president and drafted the Laws of the Game generally called the London Rules at his home in Barnes. As a player, he played in the first ever match in 1863, the first version of the rules for the modern game was drawn up over a series of six meetings held in The Freemasons Tavern from October till December. Of the clubs at the first meeting, Crusaders, Surbiton and Charterhouse did not attend the subsequent meetings, replaced instead by the Royal Navy School, Wimbledon School, at the final meeting, F. M. Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA, the term soccer dates back to this split to refer to football played under the association rules. The Richmond side were obviously unimpressed by the new rules in practice because they helped form the Rugby Football Union in 1871
English football league system
There are more than 140 individual leagues, containing more than 480 divisions. As there are no definitions of any level below 11, any references to the structure at level 12. The pyramid for womens football in England runs separately to nine tiers, the Football League was created in 1888 by Aston Villa director William McGregor. It was dominated by clubs who had supported professionalism. The twelve founding members consisted of six from Lancashire and six from the Midlands, no sides from the South including London initially participated. The system consists of a pyramid of leagues, bound together by the principle of promotion and relegation. A certain number of the most successful clubs in each league can rise to a higher league, in addition to sporting performance, promotion is usually contingent on meeting criteria set by the higher league, especially concerning appropriate facilities and finances. In theory it is possible for a local amateur club to rise to the pinnacle of the English game and become champions of the Premier League. While this may be unlikely in practice, there certainly is significant movement within the pyramid, the top five levels contain one division each and are nationwide in scope. Below this, the levels have progressively more leagues, with each covering progressively smaller geographic areas. Many leagues have more than one division, at the lower levels the existence of leagues becomes intermittent, although in some of the more densely populated areas there are leagues more than twenty layers below the Premier League. Clubs from these leagues may, if they feel they meet the standard of play and have suitable facilities. The seven levels immediately below the Premier League and English Football League are known as the National League System, in May 2014 The Football Association announced provisional plans for a new division between the English Football League and the National League which would include B teams of higher level clubs. The English football league system does not include the version of the game often called Sunday league football. These leagues are independent entities with no promotion or relegation involving the football pyramid, however, some Sunday League clubs have been known to join pyramid leagues if they desire to progress higher. There are also some Saturday leagues such as the Lincolnshire League which are not officially part of the pyramid, at the top is the single division of the Premier League, containing 20 clubs, all of which, up to the 2010–11 season, were based in England. Below the Premier League is the English Football League, which is divided into three divisions of 24 clubs each, The Championship, League One and League Two, the 92 clubs in the Premier League and English Football League are all full-time professional clubs. They are often referred to as League clubs because, before the establishment of the Premier League in 1992, clubs outside this group are referred to as non-League clubs, although they too play most of their football in league-type competitions
Buxton Football Club is a football club based in Buxton, Derbyshire, England. They are currently members of the Northern Premier League Premier Division, the club was established in autumn 1877 as an offshoot of the local cricket club, playing their first match on 27 October 1877. In 1891 they joined the Combination and they finished bottom of the league in 1895–96 and left at the end of the 1898–99 season, when they switched to the Manchester League. They were runners-up in 1904–05, but spent much of their time in the prior to its 1912 disbandment in lower-mid table. They were Manchester League runners-up in 1928–29 and 1929–30 and League Cup winners in 1925–26, after winning the league in 1931–32, they joined the Cheshire County League. After World War II they were runners-up in 1946–47, and in 1951–52 they reached the first round of the FA Cup for the first time. A 4–1 win at Rawmarsh Welfare, saw them face Football League side Aldershot in the second round, in the third round they lost 2–0 at Second Division Doncaster Rovers. In 1958–59 Buxton reached the first round of the FA Cup again, another first round appearance in 1962–63 resulted in a 3–1 defeat at Barrow in a replay. The season also saw them finish as runners-up in the Cheshire County League, when the league gained a second division in 1987, Buxton were placed in the Premier Division, where they remained until finishing bottom in 1996–97, resulting in relegation to Division One. After finishing bottom of Division One the following season, they were relegated to the Premier Division of the Northern Counties East League, in 2005–06 Buxton won the Northern Counties East League Premier Division, earning promotion back to Division One of the Northern Premier League. The following season saw them crowned champions again, resulting in promotion to the Northern Premier Leagues Premier Division. Buxton originally played at the Park, a ground shared with the cricket club, the site was originally a field owned by the clubs first captain, Frank Drewry. The opening match was held on 1 November 1884, a Derbyshire Cup match against Bakewell, cover was provided for spectators in 1890, at the same time as dressing rooms were built. A wooden stand was erected on one side of the pitch and replaced by the current main stand in 1965, on the opposite side of the pitch is the Popular Side covered terrace. The end behind one goal has a terrace, with the other end empty. The ground currently has a capacity of 4,000, of which 490 is seated and 2,500 covered, the Silverlands is the highest ground in England at 1,000 feet above sea level. C. Players Buxton F. C. managers Official website FC Buxton Supporters Team
Havant & Waterlooville F.C.
Havant & Waterlooville Football Club is an English football club based in Havant, Hampshire. The club participate in the Isthmian League Premier Division as of the 2016-17 season, the club formed in 1998 after a merger between Havant Town and Waterlooville. Nicknamed The Hawks, they play at West Leigh Park, in 1998 Havant Town and Waterlooville merged to play at Havant Towns West Leigh Park ground. In their first season as a team, Havant & Waterlooville won the Southern League Southern Division under the management of former Crystal Palace. There was also instant success in the FA Cup, a penalty defeat to Hayes was all that denied the Hawks an opportunity to visit league side Mansfield Town in the first round proper. After Billy Gilbert left Havant & Waterlooville, Mick Jenkins and Liam Daish were appointed joint managers in April 2000, Jenkins and Daish guided the Hawks to notable successes in the FA Cup where they reached the first round, the first of four occasions achieved by the club. In 2000–01, Havant & Waterlooville lost 2–1 at home to Southport of the Conference North, the 2002–03 season was also notable for the Hawks FA Trophy run when Havant & Waterlooville giant-killed Forest Green Rovers en route to the semi-final where Hawks lost 2–1 on aggregate to Tamworth. During a 5-year stay in the Southern League Premier Division from 1999-2000 to 2004-05, Havant & Waterloovilles best season came in 2001–02, in the 2003–04 season, the club struggled and this led to Jenkins and Daish being dismissed in January 2004. However, the club recovered and finished 12th in the Southern League Premier Division, Ian Baird took over the part-time managerial post at Havant & Waterlooville in November 2004. Hawks manager Ian Baird claimed that a crisis had forced him to field Taggart in the home game with Weymouth. In the 2006–07 season, the Hawks qualified for the promotion play-offs but were beaten in the semi-final by Braintree Town. The club met a Football League club in a match for the first time in the 2006–07 competition. Baird resigned as manager on 1 October 2007 to become manager of Eastleigh and was replaced by Shaun Gale, in the fourth round, they played Premier League Liverpool at Anfield and caused a sensation by leading twice before eventually losing 5–2. Havant & Waterlooville player Alfie Potter, on loan at the time from Peterborough United, was voted Player of the Round, 2008–09 did, however, see diverting runs in the FA Cup and in the FA Trophy. In 2009–10, Havant & Waterlooville made a run that almost got them to the play-offs. In July 2011, the played a once in a lifetime game against La Liga side Real Betis, losing 7–0. The 2011–12 season was a one for Havant & Waterlooville. Assistant manager Steve Johnson and stadium manager/fitness coach Adrian Aymes were placed in charge on a caretaker basis
Welling United F.C.
Welling United Football Club is a professional association football club, based in Welling, Greater London, England. The clubs first team play in the National League South, the tier of English football. Welling United Football Club was founded in 1963 in Welling, Kent and they began as a youth team playing in the Eltham & District Sunday League on a park pitch from 1963–64 to 1970–71. From 1971–72 to 1974–75 they played in the Metropolitan-London League Intermediate/Reserves Division, in 1975–76 they played in the London Spartan League Reserve Division One. They gained senior status in the London Spartan League in 1976 at Butterfly Lane and they finished 6th in Division 2 in 1976–77 and were promoted to the Premier Division. In 1977 Welling moved to the Park View Road ground, which had belonged to the defunct Bexley United. They joined the Athenian League in 1978, in 1981 they progressed to the Southern Football League Southern Division. After just one season at this level the club found itself in the Southern League Premier Division after the league was re-organised, in 1985–86 they won the league title by 23 points and were promoted to the Football Conference. They also made one third round appearance, losing 1–0 at Park View Road to Blackburn Rovers, the Wings dropped out of the Conference when they were relegated on the last day of the season in 1999–2000 and returned to the Southern League. The first season at this level proved a struggle, and with the Wings rooted to the foot of the table for the first three months of the season Parker left the club by mutual consent, pennock left the club at the end of the 2006–07 season. His last game managing the Wings finished in a 1–1 draw at home to Hayes, pennock joined Stoke City in a coaching position under his former Gillingham manager, Tony Pulis. On 16 May 2007, Welling United appointed Neil Smith as the new first team manager, however, after only seven months in charge Smith parted company with the club on 7 January 2008. It was mutually agreed between the club and Smith that his reign as Wings boss would end, andy Ford was appointed the new manager of the Wings on 31 January 2008. Despite losing 6–2 to Cambridge City in his first game in charge, Ford guided the Wings to safety, Welling finished 7th in the Conference South in 2008/09 under the guidance of Ford. After a poor start to the 2009–10 season Ford resigned stating he didnt think he could achieve what he wanted on the current budget, Jamie Day was announced as the new player/manager in November 2009. On 12 August 2010, the club was served with a petition by HMRC. The Wings were given 14 weeks to pay the debt to the HMRC. During this period, in a Football Conference Hearing on 16 September 2010, resultantly an immediate deduction of 5 points was enforced on the club together with a suspended £5,000 fine
Luton Town F.C.
Luton Town Football Club /ˈluːtən ˈtaʊn/ is a professional association football club based at Kenilworth Road, Luton, Bedfordshire since 1905. Founded in 1885, it is nicknamed the Hatters and affiliated to the Bedfordshire County Football Association and its first-team is contesting the fourth tier of English football, League Two, during the 2016–17 season. The clubs history includes major trophy wins, several financial crises, numerous promotions and relegations, the club was the first in southern England to turn professional, making payments to players as early as 1890 and turning fully professional a year later. It joined the Football League before the 1897–98 season, left in 1900 because of financial problems, Luton reached the First Division in 1955–56 and contested a major final for the first time when playing Nottingham Forest in the 1959 FA Cup Final. The team was relegated from the top division in 1959–60. However, it was promoted back to the top level by 1974–75, Luton Towns most recent successful period began in 1981–82, when the club won the Second Division, and thereby gained promotion to the First. Luton defeated Arsenal 3–2 in the 1988 Football League Cup Final, between 2007 and 2009, financial difficulties caused the club to fall from the second tier of English football to the fifth in successive seasons. The last of these came during the 2008–09 season, when 30 points were docked from Lutons record for various financial irregularities. Luton thereafter spent five seasons in non-League football before winning the Conference Premier in 2013–14, Luton Town Football Club was formed on 11 April 1885, the product of a merger of the two leading local teams, Luton Town Wanderers and Excelsior. Initially based at Excelsiors Dallow Lane ground, the club began making payments to individual players in 1890. The following year, Luton became the first club in southern England to be fully professional, the club was a founder member of the Southern Football League in the 1894–95 season and finished as runners-up in its first two seasons. It then left to form the United League and came second in that leagues inaugural season before joining the Football League for 1897–98. The club continued to enter a team to the United League for two seasons, and won the title in 1897–98. A return to the Southern League was therefore arranged for the 1900–01 season, eight years after arriving at Dunstable Road, Luton moved again, settling at their current ground, Kenilworth Road, in 1905. Captain and left winger Bob Hawkes became Lutons first international player when he was picked to play for England against Ireland on 16 February 1907, a poor 1911–12 season saw Luton relegated to the Southern Leagues Second Division, the club won promotion back two years later. After the First World War broke out, Luton took part in The London Combination during 1915–16, a key player of the period was Ernie Simms, a forward. Simms was invalided back to England after being wounded on the Italian front, however, after Luton finished fourth in the division, the squad was broken up as Simms, Bookman and Mathieson joined South Shields, Port Vale and Exeter City respectively. Luton stayed in the Third Division South until 1936–37, when the team finished top and won promotion to the Second Division, during the early 1950s, one of Lutons greatest sides emerged under manager Dally Duncan
Dartford Football Club is an English association football club based in Dartford, Kent. The club participates in the National League South, the tier of English football. After finishing as champions of the Isthmian League Division One North in the 2007–08 season and they finished in 8th position in their first season. They were crowned champions of the Isthmian League Premier Division in their second season and that season they finished in 10th place, but once again gained promotion at the second attempt in 2011–12, by winning the play off final, after finishing second in the table. Since the 2012–13 season they have playing in the Conference Premier. Home matches are played at the environmentally friendly stadium, Princes Park. The club was formed in 1888 by members of the Dartford Working mens club and they have also reached the final of the FA Trophy once. Dartford Football Club was formed in 1888 by members of the Dartford Working Mens Club, the club soon was entering cup competitions, reaching the final of the Kent Senior Cup in 1894. Following this, Dartford were founder members of the Kent League for the 1894–95 season, Two seasons later, Dartford became founder members of the Southern League Division Two, winning the Championship at the first attempt. The club moved between the Southern and Kent Leagues several times over the seasons, dropping to the West Kent League in the 1900s. Around the same time the club found its first permanent home ground, Summers Meadow in Lowfield Street, in 1908–09 Dartford won the West Kent League and Cup double and rejoined the Kent League where they remained until the outbreak of the First World War. In 1913 Dartford undertook a tour of Norway culminating in a 6–1 win over a Norway XI. Darts continued their association with the Kent League, winning the cup in 1923–24. At the start of the 1930s the Dartford Board appointed the successful Kettering Town manager, Bill Collier, the Scot continued his pattern of success with Dartford and won trophies by the shoal during the decade leading up to the 1939–45 war. In county football Dartford won the Kent Senior Cup four times in five seasons, in addition Dartford gained a reputation nationally by becoming the first club outside the Football League to reach the FA Cup Third Round Proper in successive seasons. In 1935–36 Dartford lost to a star-studded Derby County by 3–2 at the Baseball Ground having at one time led by 2–0, leading player Fred Dell was transferred to West Ham United for a reported £2,000 immediately after the game. The following season saw Dartford lose 0–1 at home to Darlington at the same stage, for a decade and a half following the 1939–1945 war, Dartford had little to show for its efforts except for a sparkling win over Bromley in Kent Senior Cup in 1947. Included in the Dartford line-up that day was Ted Croker, later to become the Secretary of the Football Association, soon after this win Dartford transferred Riley Cullum and Fred Alexander to Charlton Athletic for £6,000, which wiped out the clubs debts entirely
Rushall Olympic F.C.
Rushall Olympic Football Club are an English football club based in Rushall, a former mining village now forming part of the northern suburbs of Walsall. They play in the Northern Premier League Premier Division, the club joined the Cannock & District League in 1895, finishing as runners-up in their first season and later joined the Junior, Amateur, Parks and Senior sections of the Walsall & District League. During the inter-war years the team won a number of local honours, at this time the team comprised mainly local colliery workers and played on a field behind the Miners Arms pub in Rushall and changed in the pub itself. However, some prior to World War II the club disbanded. In 1951, a group of young men decided to reform the club. They approached the proprietor of a fish and chip shop for permission to use his premises as their headquarters. Following promotion to the First Division, the club won four titles between 1960 and 1965. In 1975, in a bid to gain a higher league status, meanwhile, the club obtained the lease on some land in Daw End, Rushall, and the new Dales Lane ground was officially opened on Sunday 14 August 1977. The club were accepted into the West Midlands League in 1978, the club enjoyed fourteen seasons of moderate success in the Premier Division, with a highest finish of fifth place achieved in season 1988–89. In 1994 the Pics became founder members of the new Midland Football Alliance, after finishing in second place in both 2000–01 and 2002–03, the Pics finally claimed the league title in 2004–05 and with it promotion to the Southern League Division One West. They were then transferred to the Southern League Division One Midlands for the 2006–07 season where they stayed for two years, qualifying for the playoffs in their last season by finishing 5th and they were also unsuccessful in achieving promotion this time. A 2–0 victory over Grantham Town in the final saw Rushall Olympic to reach Northern Premier League Premier Division, the first season at this higher level saw Rushall Olympic finish 8th in the league. They reached the final of three cup competitions, the cup, the Staffordshire Senior Cup and the Walsall Senior Cup which they retained. Rushall also equalled their best ever performance in the FA Cup reaching the fourth qualifying round where they suffered a defeat at the hands of Stourbridge. In 2012–13 Rushall made their debut in the first round proper of the FA Trophy having qualified with victories over Woodford United, Chasetown and their reward was a trip to Wrexham where they suffered a defeat against a team that went on to win the final of the competition. In the League Rushall again were on the verge of the play offs finishing in 6th position, in 2013–14 Rushall Olympic made the 4th Qualifying Round of the FA Cup before losing out at Grimsby Town. Rushall eventually finished in 7th place in the league narrowly missing out on the play offs, however, there were two cup final appearances. The Pics lost out in the final of the Walsall Senior Cup, at the end of the season the club amicably parted company with manager of five years Neil Kitching
Solihull Moors F.C.
Solihull Moors Football Club is an English semi-professional association football club, founded in 2007 by the merger of Moor Green and Solihull Borough. The club plays its games at Damson Park, Solihull and competes in the National League. On 10 July 2007, the club was announced as being merged and details of the new club logo. In one of their first games Solihull Moors beat Birmingham City reserves and this fixture happened annually as part of an agreement which allowed Birmingham to play their reserve games at Solihulls ground. With the overhaul of reserve football in England, Birmingham Citys development squads now play their fixtures at their clubs training facilities rather than at Solihull Moors, in November 2007 the club announced a partnership with National Division One rugby union club Pertemps Bees. The deal was intended to see the two share the Damson Park facilities as well as the formation of community and coaching projects for Solihull. This was finally made official in 2010, the groundsharing arrangement came to an end in 2012, as Bees dropped into the fourth tier of English Rugby Union. As a relic of that short-lived groundsharing deal, one of the stands at Solihull Moors Damson Park is part of the Bees main stand from their former Sharmans Cross Road home. Throughout the 2007–08 Conference North campaign, then-manager Bob Faulkner kept much of the squad that had represented Moor Green the previous season. No Solihull Borough players were retained, Moors had to wait two further weeks for a first ever competitive win, beating Gainsborough Trinity 3–1 at home. The club finished their first ever season in position in the Conference North. In their first FA Cup campaign, Solihull Moors reached the Fourth Qualifying Round before being dispatched 5–0 by Rushden & Diamonds, a number of changes were made to the Solihull Moors squad ahead of the 2008–09 season, with 8 summer signings made. Progress for the first team was slight, however, with the Moors managing sixteenth place in the league, the cup run saw Solihull beat Wellington 18–0 during qualification. Five of that seasons impressive youth crop signed for the squad during the close season. A topsy-turvy 2009–10 season saw Moors go from relegation candidates in mid-September to mid-table by the new year, a seemingly revolving-door transfer policy reflected the difficulty of the season for Solihull Moors on the pitch. However, one notable acquisition from that season is Ryan Beswick, on Monday 7 February 2011, Moors manager Bob Faulkner died of cancer aged 60, after almost 25 years of managing Moor Green and Solihull Moors combined. Moors finished seventh in the Conference North that season, then their best finish since the formation of the club, at this point, extra seating was installed at Damson Park in anticipation of promotion challenges to come. The club also reached the final of the Birmingham Senior Cup for the first time during this season, Marcus Bignot was announced as the new manager of Solihull Moors on 27 June 2011
Sutton United F.C.
Sutton United Football Club is a football club in Sutton, South London, England, who play in the National League, the fifth tier of English football. They play home games at Gander Green Lane, close to West Sutton Station, the club is an FA Charter Standard Community Club affiliated to the Surrey County Football Association. Sutton started out playing in junior, local leagues, but progressed into the Athenian League in 1921, the Isthmian League in 1964, the team fell back into the Isthmian League in 1991. They appeared in the Conference for one season in 1999–2000. Sutton won the National League South in 2015–16, and thus are competing in the National League in 2016–17, the team has had several cup successes, including playing at Wembley in the FA Amateur Cup final twice and in the FA Trophy final in 1981. Sutton won the Anglo-Italian Cup in 1979, but the club is most famous for its FA Cup giant killing exploits, most notably in the 1988–89 season, the Coventry team was composed mostly of star international players and had won the competition in 1987. In the 2016–17 season, Sutton reached the 5th Round of the FA Cup for the first time in their history, beating three Football League teams before losing 2–0 at home to Arsenal. The club was formed on 5 March 1898 when Sutton Guild Rovers F. C. the club gained a reputation locally in junior leagues and in 1910 decided to become a senior side. They joined the Southern Suburban League and won it on their first attempt, during this period the team moved between several grounds, including what was then known as the Sutton Adult School Ground. After the First World War, the team moved in for good and have not left the stadium since, Sutton gained election into the Athenian League in 1921. The team did not challenge at the top of the table and in 1926 finished last, only one seasons later, in 1928, the team won its first Athenian League Championship. The thirties were a time for Sutton, who twice reached the semi-final of the FA Amateur Cup. During the Second World War, Sutton kept playing football but on a smaller scale. The Athenian League had been suspended and so organised competitions were rare and sporadic and this put them in good stead for winning the league again when the war came to an end. With the help of 42 goals from Charlie Vaughan, Sutton ran away with the 1945–46 season and this was also the first time the club won the Surrey Senior Cup and got through to the FA Cup first round. The 1950s brought little success for Sutton, though the team is said to have progressed off the field, assets were transferred to a limited company, something which was unusual for the time. In addition, the stand was constructed, which today holds over 700 spectators. It was not until George Smith became manager that success returned, the Athenian League title was won for the time in 1958
Southport Football Club are a professional association football club based in Blowick, Southport, Merseyside. The club participates in the National League, the tier of English football. From 1921 to 1978 they were a Football League club and they play their home matches at Haig Avenue, which has a capacity of 6,008. They are known by their nickname the Sandgrounders and it was on Thursday 12 November 1881 that Southport played its first association football match. Although association football was played in the private schools in the late 1870s the original Southport Football Club began as a rugby team. Southport Football Club arranged rugby fixtures for 1881–82, after some heavy defeats, the last recorded being on 15 October 1881, the club switched to association football. On 12 November, six of that lined up when Southport played Bootle second in their first match under Association Rules. Ralph Rylance did more than anyone to establish association football in the town and he came to Southport from Blackburn having played for the Blackburn Law team, a noted eleven in those days. Performances soon improved with him playing, and Tranmere Rovers were beaten twice whilst the Tradesman of Southport, on 7 October 1882, Southport entertained Liverpool Ramblers in their first ever F. A. or English Challenge Cup tie as the competition was called for years. The game was watched by 300 spectators and resulted in a 1–1 draw, in the 1884–85 season the club merged with the Southport Athletic Society and the team moved to the Sports Ground, Sussex Road. As football grew in popularity other clubs sprang up in the town, Southport Wanderers, High Park, Churchtown and Southport Old Boys were amongst the most prominent however Southport Football Club was considered to be the towns premier side. After 5 years existence Southports first football club folded, at least six former Southport players and many of their supporters transferred their affiliations to Southport Wanderers. Southport Wanderers moved to a new ground in Scarisbrick New Road for the 1886–87 season, on 28 September 1886, at a General Meeting held in the Mathers Saleroom, it was unanimously resolved that in future the club be called Southport Football Club. In the summer of 1888, the year the Football League was founded, with the increasing in popularity. The idea met with favour and the meeting called to form such a club took place on 12 June at Scarletts Rooms. At a second meeting, held at the Railway Hotel a week later, at the start of the 1905–06 season Central moved to its present home, Haig Avenue, which was then known as Ash Lane. In 1911, the club became members of the Central League. In 1918, the club was renamed as Southport Vulcan – having been bought by the Vulcan Motor Company – becoming the first club to take a sponsors name
Gainsborough Trinity F.C.
Gainsborough Trinity Football Club is a football club based in Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, England. They are currently members of the National League North and play at the Northolme, the club was established in 1873 as Trinity Recreationists by Reverend George Langton Hodgkinson, the vicar at the Holy Trinity Church. In 1889 the club were members of the Midland League. The club finished as runners-up the following season and again in 1895–96, in the vote they finished third, ahead of existing members Port Vale and Crewe Alexandra, and were elected into the Second Division. The clubs first season in Division Two of the League saw them finish seventh, in 1901–02 Trinity finished bottom of the division, but were re-elected. In 1904–05 the club finished sixth in Division Two, their best performance during their Football League membership. In 1911–12 Gainsborough finished bottom of the Second Division for a second time, the club returned to the Midland League, finishing third in 1912–13 and second in 1913–14, after which they unsuccessfully applied for readmission to the Football League. When the Football League created a new Third Division North in 1921, Trinity applied for membership, in 1931–32 they beat Crewe again in the first round, before losing 5–2 at home to Watford. In 1937–38 Trinity beat Port Vale in the first round, before losing to fellow non-League club Yeovil & Petters United, another Football League team was beaten the following season, when Trinity knocked out Gateshead in the first round, before losing to Doncaster Rovers. In 1948–49 they reached the round after defeating Witton Albion in the first round. They went on to win a third Midland League title that season and they reached the first round again the following season, before losing 4–1 at home to Chesterfield. The club failed to repeat the feat until 1959–60, when they lost to Doncaster Rovers in a replay, at the end of the 1959–60 season, the Midland League was disbanded. Gainsborough spent a season playing in both the Central Alliance and Division Two of the Yorkshire League, before returning to a reformed Midland League in 1961. Trinity won their fourth Midland League title in 1966–67, also reaching the first round of the FA Cup, the club applied to join the Football League again in 1975 and 1976, but received only a single vote on each occasion. The 1983–84 season saw them reach the first round of the FA Cup for over a decade, when the Northern Premier League added a second division in 1987, Gainsborough were placed in the Premier Division. In 1997–98 FA Cup saw them drawn against local rivals Lincoln City, another first round appearance in 2003–04 ended with a 7–1 defeat at Brentford. At the end of the season a tenth-place finish saw the club become members of the Conference North. FA Cup first round appearances followed in 2006–07 (a 3–1 defeat by Barnet, in 2011–12 the club finished fourth, qualifying for the promotion play-offs
Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London. GMT was formerly used as the civil time standard, now superseded in that function by Coordinated Universal Time. Today GMT is considered equivalent to UTC for UK civil purposes and for navigation is considered equivalent to UT1, consequently, the term GMT should not be used for precise purposes. Due to Earths uneven speed in its orbit and its axial tilt, noon GMT is rarely the exact moment the sun crosses the Greenwich meridian. This event may occur up to 16 minutes before or after noon GMT, noon GMT is the annual average moment of this event, which accounts for the word mean in Greenwich Mean Time. Originally, astronomers considered a GMT day to start at noon while for almost everyone else it started at midnight, to avoid confusion, the name Universal Time was introduced to denote GMT as counted from midnight. Astronomers preferred the old convention to simplify their observational data, so each night was logged under a single calendar date. Today Universal Time usually refers to UTC or UT1, in some countries Greenwich Mean Time is the legal time in the winter and the population uses the term. For an explanation of why this is, see GMT in legislation below, synchronisation of the chronometer on GMT did not affect shipboard time, which was still solar time. Most time zones were based upon GMT, as an offset of a number of hours ahead of GMT or behind GMT and it was gradually adopted for other purposes, but a legal case in 1858 held local mean time to be the official time. On 14 May 1880, a signed by Clerk to Justices appeared in The Times, stating that Greenwich time is now kept almost throughout England. For example, our polling booths were opened, say, at 813 and closed at 413 PM. This was changed later in 1880, GMT was adopted on the Isle of Man in 1883, Jersey in 1898 and Guernsey in 1913. Ireland adopted GMT in 1916, supplanting Dublin Mean Time, hourly time signals from Greenwich Observatory were first broadcast on 5 February 1924, rendering the time ball at the observatory redundant in the process. The daily rotation of the Earth is irregular and constantly slows, on 1 January 1972, GMT was superseded as the international civil time standard by Coordinated Universal Time, maintained by an ensemble of atomic clocks around the world. Indeed, even the Greenwich meridian itself is not quite what it used to be—defined by the centre of the instrument at the Observatory at Greenwich. Nevertheless, the line in the old observatorys courtyard today differs no more than a few metres from that line which is now the prime meridian of the world. Historically GMT has been used two different conventions for numbering hours. The long-standing astronomical convention dating from the work of Ptolemy, was to refer to noon as zero hours and this contrasted with the civil convention of referring to midnight as zero hours dating from the Romans
Kevin Thornton (footballer)
Kevin Anthony Thornton is an Irish footballer who currently plays for Coventry United, where he plays as a midfielder. He made his debut on 20 September 2005, in a League Cup 1–0 defeat at Selhurst Park and he made sixteen Championship appearances later in the season, putting in a string of impressive displays in March and April. The Irishman penned a new extension to his contract in May 2007. In 2007–08 he was limited to twenty appearances and continued to be used mainly as a substitute and he had a good run at the end of the season under new manager Chris Coleman. In September 2008, Thornton signed a loan deal at League One team Brighton & Hove Albion. Following a six-week extension on the loan, he had played fifteen games for the Seagulls before returning to the Ricoh Arena. After leaving Coventry City on 2 July 2009, Thornton joined Coventry Sphinx of the Midland Football Alliance, on 1 September 2009, Thornton re-signed with his former school boy club Boyne Rovers FC. Boyne Rovers senior side operate in the fifth Tier of Irish amateur soccer, on 2 December 2009 he joined Nuneaton Town on a non-contract deal, playing football part-time whilst also touring the West Midlands with his indie three-piece band. On 8 January 2010 he joined Football League Two outfit Northampton Town on a term contract during his time at Northampton Town. As of 27 September he has signed a contract with his former club Nuneaton Town. In his second spell at the club Thornton made just two appearances due to injury and he left Nuneaton Town shortly after. Thornton had trials with a number of Football League and Non League clubs and on 3 July 2012, after six months on trial Thornton signed for Wrexham on non-contract terms. Thornton made his debut in a 5–0 win in an FA Trophy match against Sutton United which Thornton scored the goal in. He then made his debut in a 1–0 victory over Barrow FC. Kevin scored his goal for Wrexham in his fourth league game for the club, against Ebbsfleet United. On 11 March 2014, Thornton joined Conference National side Tamworth on loan until the end of the season, following his release by Wrexham, Thornton rejoined Tamworth on the 9 June 2014. Following a short spell at Rugby Town in 2015–16, Thornton joined Coventry United of the Midlands League Premier for the season 2016–17, as of match played 22 May 2014. Wrexham FA Trophy 2012–2013 Thornton is the brother of former Sunderland
Penalty kick (association football)
A penalty kick is a method of restarting play in association football, taken from 11 metres out from the goal, on the penalty mark. Penalty kicks are performed during normal play and they are awarded when a foul that is punishable by a direct free kick is committed within the offending players own penalty area. Similar kicks are made in a penalty shootout in some tournaments to determine which team is victorious after a drawn match, in practice, penalties are converted to goals more often than not, even against world class goalkeepers. This means that penalty awards are often decisive, especially in low-scoring games, the referee gives the ball to the non-offending team. The goalkeeper must stand on the line between the post until the ball is kicked. Lateral movement is allowed, but the keeper is not permitted to come off the goal line by stepping or lunging forward until the ball is in play. When the goalkeeper indicates to the referee that they are ready, once the shooter has started their approach to the ball, they are not permitted to interrupt it. The ball must be stationary before the kick, and must be struck forwards, violation of these rules will result in a re-kick. After the penalty is taken properly, the ball may be played by any player except the one who executed the penalty kick. The kicker may not play the ball again until it has touched or played by another player on either team. For penalties taken near the end of time, play may be extended so that the penalty kick may be taken. A two-man penalty, or tap penalty, occurs when the penalty-taker, instead of shooting for goal, taps the ball slightly forward so that a team-mate can run on to it and shoot. The team-mate, like all other players, must be at least ten yards from the penalty mark when the ball is initially kicked and this strategy depends on the element of surprise, so that the team-mate can reach the ball ahead of any defenders. There is no requirement for the penalty taker to shoot for goal, the first recorded tap penalty was taken by Jimmy McIlroy and Danny Blanchflower of Northern Ireland against Portugal on 1 May 1957. Another was taken by Rik Coppens and André Piters in the World Cup Qualifying match Belgium v Iceland on 5 June 1957, arsenal players Thierry Henry and Robert Pirès failed in an attempt at a similar penalty in 2005, during a Premier League match against Manchester City at Highbury. Lionel Messi tapped a penalty for Luis Suárez as Suárez completed his hat-trick on 14 February 2016 against league opponents Celta De Vigo, in the case of a player repeatedly infringing the laws during the penalty kick, the referee may caution the player for persistent infringement. Note that all offences that occur before kick may be dealt with in this manner, as with a direct free kick, the kicker may not touch the ball a second time, until another player has touched the ball. Another example of an infringement is when a player will run up, stop directly at the ball and this gives the goalkeeper no chance at saving it, and the result of this would be a free kick for the opposing team
Richard Brodie (footballer)
Richard Jon Brodie is an English professional footballer who plays as a striker for National League club Southport. Brodie started his career with Whickham and, after being their top scorer in the 2005–06 season and he signed for York City in January 2007 and finished 2006–07 with one goal and played in the Conference National play-off semi-final. He started 2007–08 with only three goals in 2007, but finished the season with 14 goals, early in 2008–09, Brodie was loaned to Barrow and scored four goals during a one-month period. He finished the season as Yorks top scorer with 19 goals, the 2009–10 season saw Brodie play in Yorks defeat in the 2010 Conference Premier play-off Final at Wembley Stadium and again finish as top scorer, this time with 34 goals. He joined Crawley Town in August 2010 for an undisclosed fee and he joined Fleetwood Town on a season-long loan for 2011–12, winning a second Conference Premier title in as many seasons. Brodie had loan spells with Morecambe and Grimsby Town over 2012–13 and he was loaned out to Hereford United and Southport, joining the latter permanently in 2014. Having been Southports top scorer with 14 goals in 2014–15, Brodie joined Aldershot Town and he returned to York in 2016, but was released the following year after a loan spell with Macclesfield Town. This was followed by a spell with Boston United. He earned two caps for the England national C team from 2008 to 2009, Brodie was born in Gateshead, Tyne and Wear and grew up in the town as a Sunderland A. F. C. He attended Whickham School and played football for the Gateshead district team as a teenager, Brodie started his senior career in 2004 after making substitute appearances for Whickham in the semi-professional Northern League Division Two before playing for them permanently aged 17. He scored a hat-trick for Whickham in a 5–3 victory over Marske United in November 2005 and he scored 21 league goals in 35 appearances for Whickham and was their top scorer in the 2005–06 season. Brodie moved to Northern League Division One club Newcastle Benfield in the summer of 2006 and this move came after impressing Benfield manager Paul Baker in a match between the teams, in which Brodie impressed with his physicality. While playing semi-professionally, Brodie took an apprenticeship in joinery. He scored the first goal for Benfield in a friendly against Newcastle United in September, Brodie scored the second goal in a 2–0 victory over Cammell Laird with a direct free kick from 25 yards. He helped Benfield to victory in an FA Vase tie against Castle Vale in December by scoring their goal in a 2–0 victory. He was taken on trial by Premier League team Bolton Wanderers and he played for them in a tournament in France. He scored three goals in 11 league appearances for Benfield and he signed for York on transfer deadline day,31 January 2007, on a contract until the end of 2006–07 for a nominal fee. He scored two minutes into his York debut with the goal in a 4–0 victory away to Altrincham on 10 February 2007
Republic of Ireland
Ireland, also known as the Republic of Ireland, is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the part of the island. The state shares its land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint Georges Channel to the south-east, and it is a unitary, parliamentary republic. The head of government is the Taoiseach, who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President, the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It was officially declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948, Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955. It joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, after joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth. The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by a financial crisis that began in 2008. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again quickly ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index and it also performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a member of the Council of Europe. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was styled, the Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland. Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland. The 1948 Act does not name the state as Republic of Ireland, because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name Eire, and, from 1949, Republic of Ireland, for the state, as well as Ireland, Éire or the Republic of Ireland, the state is also referred to as the Republic, Southern Ireland or the South. In an Irish republican context it is referred to as the Free State or the 26 Counties. From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, during the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the islands population of over 8 million fell by 30%
James Karl McKeown is a professional footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for League Two club Grimsby Town. He has previously played for Walsall, Peterborough United, Kettering Town, Worcester City, Boston United, McKeown has represented the Republic of Ireland at under-19 level. McKeown started his career with the Walsall youth system in 2004 and he was promoted to the first team squad in 2005, but failed to make a first team appearances before his departure in 2007. McKeown was signed by Peterborough United, Mckeown signed a two-and-a-half year contract extension on 16 March 2009. The following season in League One he made one appearance on 2 May 2009 where he came off the bench in the 77th minute as Joe Lewis made way in the 2–2 draw with Swindon Town. During his time at Peterborough United he gained back to back promotions with the posh although McKeown was to make just four appearances in the Championship. His last appearance for the Posh was in the game of the season though despite a 0–1 defeat against Blackpool he was named man of the match. Loan to Boston United Mckeown joined Boston United in August 2010 on loan until January 2011 and he played a key role in Bostons excellent start to the season with 10 successive league clean sheets and had a total of 14 clean sheets in 18 games. On New Years Day he played his last game and received a fantastic reception, however, despite his remarkable record of clean sheets and fantastic form whilst on loan at Boston Peterborough United came to an agreement with James that he should seek pastures new. On 2 July 2011 he signed a contract with Town. McKeown was initially brought to the club as a back up keeper to challenge Kenny Arthur and he made his league debut for Grimsby Town on 13 August 2011 in the 0–2 defeat against Fleetwood. A week later he saved what became a penalty against Newport taken by Craig McAllister to earn his side a 0–0 draw. During the 2011–12 campaign McKeown picked up 3 yellow cards, each for time wasting, McKeown was also ever-present during the 2011–12 season helping Grimsby Town produce 18 clean sheets in 55 games. On 24 April 2012 McKeown picked up four awards for Player of the Year at the annual presentation. On 30 April 2012 McKeown agreed to a new contract with the club. McKeown retained the Supporters Player of the Season award when he scooped the prize again once more for his part during the 2013–14 season. A host of clubs were believed to be chasing his signature, however on 16 May 2014, on 16 August 2014, McKeown saved a crucial last-minute penalty, the game finishing 1–1, preventing Dover winning the game. He played in all the games of the 2014–15 season as Grimsby came 3rd in the Conference
Ian Miller (footballer, born 1983)
Ian Jonathan Miller is an English professional footballer who plays for Isthmian League Premier Division side Needham Market as a defender. After starting his career in football with Bury Town, Miller moved into the Football League with Ipswich Town. He also spent time on loan in the divisions of the Football League at Boston United and Darlington. He left that club in late 2011 and joined Grimsby Town soon afterwards, as captain of Cambridge United he led the team to a second-place finish and F. A Trophy glory at Wembley. The injury ruled him out for the majority of the next season, after playing very few games he was released on a free transfer. He signed a new contract in January 2006, and was appointed as captain at the start of the 2006–07 season. He was signed by Ipswich Town on 22 September 2006 for a fee on a contract until June 2007. Miller joined League Two side Boston United on a loan in November 2006. This loan at Boston was extended until January 2007 and he then joined another League Two side, Darlington, on a months loan in February 2007. The loan was extended until April 2007, but Miller was recalled in late March to cover for injuries in Ipswichs squad. He made his appearance for Ipswich on 31 March 2007. Miller agreed a new contract with Ipswich in June 2007. It was extended until January 2008, on 11 January 2008 Miller joined Darlington permanently on a free transfer, signing a one-and-a-half-year contract. On 10 May 2008, Miller came on as an 87th-minute substitute in the League Two play-off semi-final first leg against Rochdale, replacing the injured Alan White. With the game tied at 1–1, Miller rose to head a 92nd-minute winner from a Neil Wainwright direct free kick, to give Darlington the lead heading into the second leg. After Darlingtons players were asked to take a pay cut in November 2011, Miller signed a 16-month contract with Conference National club Grimsby Town and made his debut in the starting eleven as the Mariners beat Lincoln City 3–1 on 1 January 2012. Miller was ever present for Grimsby during the 2012–13 season and played in the FA Trophy final at Wembley Stadium which ended in a defeat on penalties to Wrexham. The club had also led the Conference for a part of the season
Craig Edward Disley is an English professional footballer who plays as a midfielder for League Two club Grimsby Town. He then decided to join Bristol Rovers in July 2004, deemed surplus to requirements, he joined Shrewsbury Town in May 2009, but injury problems through no fault of his own meant he didnt hold a regular place in the team. He joined Grimsby Town in June 2011, and became a linchpin in their midfield over the next 5 years, helping Grimsby to win promotion out of the National League in 2015–16. Born in Worksop, Nottinghamshire, Disley came through the ranks at Mansfield Town. He made his debut on 23 September 1999 in a 4–0 victory over Shrewsbury Town, coming on as a 67th-minute substitute for Michael Sissons and he went on to make a further five appearances in his first season at Field Mill. Disley earned promotion into the Second Division with Mansfield in 2001–02 under the stewardship of Stuart Watkiss, by the end of the 2002–03 season Mansfield had been relegated back down to the fourth tier of English football. Disley signed with Bristol Rovers in July 2004 on a two-year contract, on 5 May 2009, he was told that he was free to talk to other clubs as Bristol Rovers deemed him surplus to requirements. On 4 June he signed for Shrewsbury Town on a two-year contract, on 22 February 2010, Disley broke his ankle, which ruled him out for the rest of the 2009–10 season. He was released on 23 May 2011, after two years with Shrewsbury, on 23 June 2011, Conference Premier side Grimsby Town announced they had offered Disley a contract. On 24 June, he completed move to Grimsby a two-year contract, disleys goal tally reached double figures in the 2013–14 season and he was Grimsbys second top scorer, with 11 league goals, and a goal in the 3–2 FA Cup defeat to Huddersfield Town. He also scored against Gateshead in both legs of the semi finals, however this was not enough to prevent Gateshead progressing to the final. On 26 May 2015, Disley was the first player commit his future to Grimsby for the 2015–16 season, on 27 May 2016, Disley agreed to a new one-year contract with the newly promoted club. An energetic box-to-box central midfielder with an engine who can contribute with goals. As of match played 12 November 2016. C
Captain (association football)
The team captain is usually identified by the wearing of an armband. The only official responsibility of a captain specified by the Laws of the Game is to participate in the toss prior to kick-off. Contrary to what is said, captains have no special authority under the Laws to challenge a decision by the referee. However, referees may talk to the captain of a side about the general behaviour when necessary. At an award-giving ceremony after a fixture like a cup competition final, any trophy won by a team will be received by the captain who will also be the first one to hoist it. The captain also generally leads the teams out of the room at the start of the match. The captain generally provides a point for the team, if morale is low. Captains may join the manager in deciding the first team for a certain game, in youth or recreational football, the captain often takes on duties, that would, at a higher level, be delegated to the manager. A club captain is usually appointed for a season, if he is unavailable or not selected for a particular game, then the club vice-captain will be appointed to perform a similar role. The match captain is the first player to lift a trophy should the team win one, a good example of this was in the 1999 UEFA Champions League Final when match captain Peter Schmeichel lifted the trophy for Manchester United as club captain Roy Keane was suspended. In the 2012 UEFA Champions League Final, match captain Frank Lampard jointly lifted the trophy for Chelsea with club captain John Terry, a club may appoint two distinct roles, a club captain to represent the players in a public relations role, and correspondent on the pitch. After Neville retired in 2011, regular starter Nemanja Vidić was named as club captain, são Paulos Rogério Ceni is the player who has worn the captains armband the most times. A vice-captain is a player that is expected to captain the side when the captain is not included in the starting eleven, or if, during a game. Examples include Manuel Neuer succeeding Philipp Lahm at Bayern Munich, Marcelo attaining from Sergio Ramos at Real Madrid C. F, gary Cahill being the understudy of John Terry at Chelsea FC and Lionel Messi taking over from Andrés Iniesta at FC Barcelona. Similarly, some clubs also name a 3rd captain to take the role of captain when both the captain and vice-captain are unavailable, during the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa, Germany had three captains. Michael Ballack had skippered the team since 2004, including the successful qualifiers for the 2010 World Cup. Lahm ended up becoming the permanent captain of Germany, as Ballack was never called up for the national team
Jamie Martin Devitt is an Irish professional footballer who plays as a winger for League Two side Carlisle United. He has also played for Hull City, Darlington, Shrewsbury Town, Grimsby Town, Bradford City, Accrington Stanley, Rotherham United Chesterfield. Born in Dublin, Devitt progressed through Hull Citys youth system and was voted Young Player of the Year, in 2009–10 he spent time on loan at three different League Two clubs. He signed for Darlington on a loan on 15 September 2009. He made his debut on 19 September in a 2–0 home defeat to Bournemouth, and scored his first goal for the Quakers in the last game of his loan spell, on 22 October, only days after scoring against the club, he joined Shrewsbury Town on loan. He scored on debut on 31 October 2009 against Notts County, despite a promising start, his formed dipped and he was deemed surplus to Shrewsburys promotion battle. He returned to Hull after being recalled in January 2010, on 17 February 2010 Devitt joined Grimsby Town on an emergency loan. Devitts loan at Grimsby was extended until the end of the season on 24 March, the 2009–10 season was finished off for him with an unwanted hat-trick as he capped three relegations in one season. His parent club Hull City dropped out of the Premier League, while both Darlington and Grimsby were also relegated from League Two. He had a start to the 2010–11 season, as he made his competitive first-team debut for Hull City by coming on as a substitute in their first match. Throughout the season, he made 16 appearance for the club, Devitt was on the substitute bench and went on the bench, where he set up a goal for Nick Barmby in a 3–2 loss against Wigan in the third round of a FA Cup. On 31 August 2011 Devitt signed with Bradford City on loan until January 2012 and he made his debut for the club in the 1–1 away draw against Morecambe on 3 September 2011. He scored in the 3–2 away loss to Port Vale of 13 September 2011 and had set up a goal for Ritchie Jones, on 17 February 2012, it was announced Devitt had joined League Two side Accrington Stanley on an initial one-month loan deal. Devitt made his debut in a 4–0 loss against Plymouth Argyle, after making his debut, Devitt spoken out about newly manager Paul Cook, to turn things around after his manager debut came the start, he wasnt expected. One month later, Devitt scored his first goal in a 2–2 draw against Southend United, on 1 November 2012 Devitt signed an initial one-month loan deal from Rotherham United. However, after making two appearances in all competitions, he had to return to his parent club due to an injury picked up in a 1–1 draw against Fleetwood Town. On 4 January 2013 Devitt re-joined Grimsby on loan for the rest of the 2012–13 season, in his second game back for Town he scored the equaliser in a 2–1 away win at Welling United that sent Grimsby into the quarter finals of the FA Trophy. In the quarter-final he opened the scoring with a kick in Towns 3–0 victory over Luton Town
Albania, officially the Republic of Albania, is a country in Southeastern Europe. It has a population of 3.03 million as of 2016, Tirana is the nations capital and largest city, followed by Durrës and Vlorë. The country has a coastline on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea, the Adriatic Sea to the west. Albania is less than 72 km from Italy, across the Strait of Otranto which connects the Adriatic Sea to the Ionian Sea. In antiquity, the area of Albania was home to several Illyrian, Thracian. After the Illyrian Wars, it part of the Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Macedonia and Moesia Superior. In 1190, the first Albanian state, the Principality of Arbanon was established by archon Progon in the region of Krujë, the territory of Albania was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century, of which it remained part of for the next five centuries. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in Europe, following the Balkan Wars, the Kingdom of Albania was invaded by Italy in 1939, which formed Greater Albania, before becoming a Nazi German protectorate in 1943. The following year, a socialist Peoples Republic was established under the leadership of Enver Hoxha, Albania experienced widespread social and political transformations in the communist era, as well as isolation from much of the international community. In 1991, the Socialist Republic was dissolved and the Republic of Albania was established, Albania is a democratic and developing country with an upper-middle income economy. The service sector dominates the economy, followed by the industrial. After the fall of communism in Albania, Free-market reforms have opened the country to foreign investment, especially in the development of energy, Albania has a high HDI and provides universal health care system and free primary and secondary education to its citizens. Albania is a member of the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the Council of Europe, the OSCE and it is also an official candidate for membership in the European Union. Albania is one of the members of the Energy Community, Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. It is home to the largest lake in Southern Europe and one of the oldest lakes in Europe, Albania is the Medieval Latin name of the country. The name may have a continuation in the name of a settlement called Albanon and Arbanon. During the Middle Ages, the Albanians called their country Arbëri or Arbëni, Albanians today call their country Shqipëri. As early as the 17th century the placename Shqipëria and the ethnic demonym Shqiptarë gradually replaced Arbëria, the two terms are popularly interpreted as Land of the Eagles and Children of the Eagles