Bowl Championship Series
The Bowl Championship Series was a selection system that created five bowl game match-ups involving ten of the top ranked teams in the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision of American college football, including an opportunity for the top two teams to compete in the BCS National Championship Game. The system was in place for the 1998 through 2013 seasons and in 2014 was replaced by the College Football Playoff; the BCS relied on a combination of polls and computer selection methods to determine relative team rankings, to narrow the field to two teams to play in the BCS National Championship Game held after the other college bowl games. The American Football Coaches Association was contractually bound to vote the winner of this game as the BCS National Champion and the contract signed by each conference required them to recognize the winner of the BCS National Championship game as the official and only champion; the BCS was created to end split championships and for the champion to win the title on the field between the two teams selected by the BCS.
The system selected match-ups for four other prestigious BCS bowl games: the Rose Bowl Game, Fiesta Bowl, Sugar Bowl and Orange Bowl. The ten teams selected included the conference champion from each of the six Automatic Qualifying conferences plus four others; the BCS was created by formal agreement by those six conferences and the three FBS independent schools, evolved to allow other conferences to participate to a lesser degree. For the 1998 through 2005 seasons eight teams competed in four BCS bowls, it had been in place since the 1998 season. The BCS replaced the Bowl Alliance, in place from 1995 to 1997, which had followed the Bowl Coalition, in place from 1992 to 1994. Prior to the Bowl Coalition's creation in 1992, the AP Poll's number one and two teams had met in a bowl game only eight times in 56 seasons; the AP's top two teams met 13 out of the 16 seasons. In the 2014 season, the BCS was discontinued and replaced by the College Football Playoff, which organizes a four-team playoff and national championship game.
The NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision is the only NCAA-sponsored sport without an organized NCAA tournament to determine its champion. Instead, the postseason has consisted of individual bowl games; the bowl system began in 1902 with the first East-West game in Pasadena, held at Tournament Park on New Year's Day in conjunction with the Tournament of Roses parade. This game was an exhibition game pitting a rated team from the west coast against a team from east of the Mississippi River; this was an ideal time for a postseason game, as fans could take off work or school during this holiday period to travel to the game. In the first game, the University of Michigan Wolverines represented the east and defeated the west's representative Stanford by a score of 49–0. Due to the lopsided victory the game did not resume until 1916; the game was renamed the Rose Bowl in the 1920s when play shifted to the Rose Bowl stadium, built by the city of Pasadena in conjunction with the Pasadena Tournament of Roses Association.
By the 1930s, the Cotton Bowl Classic, Orange Bowl, the Sugar Bowl were held on January 1 to showcase teams from other regions of the country. By the 1940s, college football conferences began signing contracts that tied their championship team to a particular bowl. In 1947, the Big Ten Conference and the Pacific Coast Conference, a forerunner of today's Pac-12 Conference, agreed to commit their champions to play in the Rose Bowl every year, an agreement that continued under the BCS; this system raised the possibility that the two top-ranked teams in the final poll would not play each other in a bowl game in situations when there was a clear-cut top two. Indeed, since the AP began releasing its final poll after the bowl games in 1968, the two top-ranked teams in the final regular-season AP Poll had only played each other in a bowl six times until special bowl arrangements began in 1992. Under these circumstances, it was not uncommon to have the Coaches Poll crown a different national champion than the AP Poll, resulting in a split championship.
This situation arose a total of ten different seasons. For example, in 1991, the University of Miami Hurricanes and the University of Washington Huskies both finished the regular season undefeated and were considered the strongest teams in the nation. Since the Huskies were locked into the Rose Bowl as the Pac-10 Conference champion against Big Ten champion Michigan, they could not play then-independent Miami, who played in the Orange Bowl. Both teams won their bowl games convincingly and shared the national championship, Miami winning the Associated Press poll and Washington earning the top spot in the Coaches Poll. A split national championship has happened on several occasions since as well. Other teams have won the national championship despite playing weaker schedules than other championship contenders; the BYU Cougars ended the 1984 season as the only undefeated and untied team in the nation, the nine-time defending champions of the Western Athletic Conference. The Cougars opened the sea
Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, United States, located 10 miles northeast of Downtown Los Angeles. The estimated population of Pasadena was 142,647 in 2017, making it the 183rd-largest city in the United States. Pasadena is the ninth-largest city in Los Angeles County. Pasadena was incorporated on June 19, 1886, becoming one of the first cities to be incorporated in what is now Los Angeles County, following the city of Los Angeles, it is one of the primary cultural centers of the San Gabriel Valley. The city is known for hosting Tournament of Roses Parade. In addition, Pasadena is home to many scientific and cultural institutions, including Caltech, Pasadena City College, Fuller Theological Seminary, ArtCenter College of Design, the Pasadena Playhouse, the Ambassador Auditorium, the Norton Simon Museum, the USC Pacific Asia Museum; the original inhabitants of Pasadena and surrounding areas were members of the Native American Hahamog-na tribe, a branch of the Tongva Nation. They had lived in the Los Angeles Basin for thousands of years.
Tongva dwellings lined the Arroyo Seco in present day Pasadena and south to where it joins the Los Angeles River and along other natural waterways in the city. The native people lived in dome-shape lodges, they lived on a diet of acorn meal and herbs, other small animals. They traded for ocean fish with the coastal Tongva, they made cooking vessels from steatite soapstone from Catalina Island. The oldest transportation route still in existence in Pasadena is the old Tongva foot trail known as the Gabrielino Trail, that follows the west side of the Rose Bowl and the Arroyo Seco past the Jet Propulsion Laboratory into the San Gabriel Mountains; the trail has been in continuous use for thousands of years. An arm of the trail is still in use in what is now known as Salvia Canyon; when the Spanish occupied the Los Angeles Basin they built the San Gabriel Mission and renamed the local Tongva people "Gabrielino Indians," after the name of the mission. Today, several bands of Tongva people live in the Los Angeles area.
Pasadena is a part of the original Mexican land grant named Rancho del Rincon de San Pascual, so named because it was deeded on Easter Sunday to Eulalia Perez de Guillén Mariné of Mission San Gabriel Arcángel. The Rancho comprised the lands of today's communities of Pasadena and South Pasadena. Before the annexation of California in 1848, the last of the Mexican owners was Manuel Garfias who retained title to the property after statehood in 1850. Garfias sold sections of the property to the first Anglo settlers to come into the area: Dr. Benjamin Eaton, the father of Fred Eaton. Much of the property was purchased by Benjamin Wilson, who established his Lake Vineyard property in the vicinity. Wilson, known as Don Benito to the local Indians owned the Rancho Jurupa and was mayor of Los Angeles, he was the grandfather of Jr. and the namesake of Mount Wilson. In 1873, Wilson was visited by Dr. Daniel M. Berry of Indiana, looking for a place in the country that could offer a mild climate for his patients, most of whom suffered from respiratory ailments.
Berry claimed that he had his best three night's sleep at Rancho San Pascual. To keep the find a secret, Berry code-named the area "Muscat" after the grape. To raise funds to bring the company of people to San Pascual, Berry formed the Southern California Orange and Citrus Growers Association and sold stock in it; the newcomers were able to purchase a large portion of the property along the Arroyo Seco and on January 31, 1874, they incorporated the Indiana Colony. As a gesture of good will, Wilson added 2,000 acres of then-useless highland property, part of which would become Altadena. Colonel Jabez Banbury opened the first school on South Orange Grove Avenue. Banbury had twin daughters, named Jessie; the two became the first students to attended Pasadena’s first school on Orange Grove. At the time, the Indiana Colony was a narrow strip of land between the Arroyo Seco and Fair Oaks Avenue. On the other side of the street was Wilson's Lake Vineyard development. After more than a decade of parallel development on both sides, the two settlements merged into the City of Pasadena.
The popularity of the region drew people from across the country, Pasadena became a stop on the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway, which led to an explosion in growth. From the real estate boom of the 1880s until the Great Depression, as great tourist hotels were developed in the city, Pasadena became a winter resort for wealthy Easterners, spurring the development of new neighborhoods and business districts, increased road and transit connections with Los Angeles, culminating with the opening of the Arroyo Seco Parkway, California's first freeway. By 1940, Pasadena had become the eighth-largest city in California and was considered a twin city to Los Angeles; the first of the great hotels to be established in Pasadena was the Raymond atop Bacon Hill, renamed Raymond Hill after construction. Pasadena was served by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway at the Santa Fe Depot in downtown when the Second District was opened in 1887; the original Mansard Victorian 200-room facility burned down on Easter morning of 1895, was rebuilt in 1903, razed during the Great Depression to make way for residential development.
The Maryland Hotel existed from the early 1900s and was demolished in 1934. The world-famous Mount Lowe Railway and associated mountain hotels shu
Kirk Herbstreit is an American analyst for ESPN's College GameDay, a television program covering college football and a provider of color commentary on college football games on ESPN and ABC. He appeared annually as a commentator in EA Sports' NCAA Football until the series was put on hiatus following NCAA Football 14. From 1989-1993, Herbstreit was a quarterback for Ohio State football team. Herbstreit graduated from Centerville High School in a suburb of Dayton; as a quarterback for the Elks, he was the Ohio Gatorade Player of the Year as a senior. He was a standout baseball player. Herbstreit was the first player to commit to the Ohio State Buckeyes after the hiring of John Cooper as head coach in 1988. Herbstreit was a four-year letter winner as a quarterback at Ohio State University from 1989 to 1993. After waiting his turn as a Buckeye starter behind Greg Frey and Kent Graham, Herbstreit led the team as a senior in 1992; that year, he was a co-captain and was voted team MVP. Herbstreit passed for 1,904 yards that season, including four 200-plus yard games, before losing to the Georgia Bulldogs in the Florida Citrus Bowl.
Herbstreit set the Ohio State record for pass completions in the rivalry game against Michigan, throwing for 271 yards in a 13–13 tie in 1992. The record stood until 2006. Herbstreit's father, Jim Herbstreit, had been a co-captain of the 1960 Ohio State team, was an assistant coach at Ohio State under Woody Hayes; when Herbstreit was named co-captain in 1992, the two became only the second father-and-son duo to have each been Ohio State captains. Herbstreit graduated from Ohio State in 1993 with a degree in Business Administration, he lives in Franklin, with his wife and four sons. He is known for a 2009 case in which he sued the IRS for changing an implied policy of allowing deductions for house donations to the fire department for training purposes. Herbstreit is involved in multiple charities including the 2012 Buckeye Cruise for Cancer and The Make A Wish Foundation Ultimate Sports Auction, he has lent his name to the Kirk Herbstreit National Kickoff Classic in Columbus and Arlington, Texas.
According to the website, the Kickoff Classic "pits high school teams from the states of Ohio and Texas against prep football powerhouses from across the nation" over the Labor Day weekend. The games in Ohio are held at Ohio Stadium, while the games in Texas are held at AT&T Stadium. Rece Davis, Desmond Howard, Lee Corso sit alongside Herbstreit on the ESPN College GameDay set, discussing the day's college football games, analyzing highlights and players; every Saturday, College GameDay goes to colleges all around the United States to preview the school's upcoming football game. Herbstreit serves as an analyst for ABC Sports' college football prime time series alongside play-by-play man Chris Fowler, he was nominated for a 1997 Sports Emmy Award as television's top studio analyst, along with Cris Collinsworth, Howie Long, Terry Bradshaw and Steve Lyons. He is a frequent contributor to ESPN The Magazine. In 1997, he wrote a weekly in-season column—"Inside The Game With Kirk Herbstreit"—for The Sporting News.
Herbstreit worked Thursday night games for ESPN as a color commentator, he is in the booth for Saturday night college football games on ABC. On the day of the 2007 SEC championship game, Herbstreit incorrectly reported on ESPN's College GameDay that Les Miles had accepted an offer to succeed Lloyd Carr as the head coach at the University of Michigan. Herbstreit is a contributor to the Columbus, Ohio-based FM radio station 97.1 The Fan. In July 2007, he served as a panelist for the series "Who's Now" alongside Keyshawn Johnson and Michael Wilbon, it was announced on June 28, 2010 that Herbstreit would host a weekly college football radio program on 97.1 The Fan in Columbus. Herbstreit met Allison, at Ohio State, where she was a cheerleader, they have four sons. Herbstreit and family moved from his home in Ohio in 2011 because of harassment by vocal Ohio State fans accusing him of directly criticizing his alma mater. Herbstreit was quoted as saying "It's the vocal minority, they represent 5 to 10% of the fan base but they are relentless."
Herbstreit resides in the Tennessee area. His twin sons are athletes at Nashville's Montgomery Bell Academy. Official website
ESPN College Football
ESPN College Football is the branding used for broadcasts of NCAA Division I FBS college football across ESPN properties, including ESPN, ESPN2, ESPN3, ESPN+, ABC, ESPN Classic, ESPNU, ESPN Deportes, ESPNews and ESPN Radio. ESPN College Football debuted in 1982. ESPN College Football consists of four to five games a week, with ESPN College Football Primetime, which airs at 7:30 on Thursdays. Saturday includes ESPN College Football Noon at 12:00 Saturday, a 3:30 or 4:30 game, not shown on a weekly basis, ESPN College Football Primetime on Saturday. A Sunday game, Sunday Showdown, was added for the first half of 2006 to make up for the loss of Sunday Night Football to NBC. ESPN produces ESPN College Football on ABC and ESPN Saturday Night Football on ABC in separate broadcast packages; the American, ACC, Big Ten, MAC, MWC, Pac-12, SEC, Sun Belt. ESPN began televising games for the independent Brigham Young University in 2011. Through its online arm ESPN3 and the ESPN+ streaming service, ESPN carries a wide variety of other athletic conferences and games at lower divisions, spanning the full breadth of college football.
ESPN began airing taped college football games during the 1979 regular season, starting with a game between Colorado and Oregon. The network was limited to airing tape-delayed games because the NCAA controlled television rights through exclusive contracts. However, because bowl games operate outside the control of the NCAA, ESPN was able to air the 1982 Independence Bowl between Kansas State and Wisconsin live – the first live football game televised on ESPN. After the 1984 Supreme Court decision in NCAA v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma allowed individual schools to negotiate television rights, ESPN began broadcasting live regular-season games during the 1984 season, beginning with a game between BYU and Pittsburgh on September 1, 1984; the first live broadcast of a regular-season night game followed that night, between the Florida Gators, who were ranked number 17, the Miami Hurricanes, who were ranked number 10. In recent years, ESPN and ESPN2 air games at noon, which includes a Big Ten game.
Both networks air primetime games featuring teams from the ACC or SEC. With the expansion of ESPN, including multiple networks and outlets, their coverage has increased. In 2005, with the creation of ESPNU, over 300 games were aired on its networks. In 2007, the ESPN family of networks aired over 450 games, they aired a weekly game on ESPN Radio for the first time ever. ESPN started that season with 25 hours of college football programming. ESPNU has increased the coverage of spring intramural team scrimmages with entire programs dedicated to this phenomenon. In 2008, ESPN aired College GameDay from Florida Field prior to their spring scrimmage game. Starting with the 2007 season, ESPN began sublicensing games from Fox Sports Net, with the Big 12 Conference and with the Pacific-10 Conference. However, the games cannot air during the “reverse mirror” slot. During the 2008 season, ESPN aired over 400 games. Beginning in the 2010 season, ESPN acquired exclusive broadcast rights to the Bowl Championship Series in a four-year contract, where all games in the BCS would be aired on ESPN.
In 2010, the company launched ESPN Goal Line, a gametime-only channel that switches between games to show the most interesting plays, similar to NFL RedZone. In 2012, ESPN reached long-term, 12-year agreements to retain rights to the Rose Bowl, Orange Bowl, Sugar Bowl following the dissolution of the Bowl Championship Series. In November, ESPN reached a 12-year deal to broadcast the remainder of the new College Football Playoff system, valued at around $470 million per-year, giving it continued rights to the Peach Bowl and Fiesta Bowl, as well as the Cotton Bowl Classic and the College Football Playoff National Championship. College Football Live - Daily program during the season and weekly show in the offseason College Gameday - Weekly show from the site of the biggest day of the game or significance College Football Final - Saturday show reviewing the highlights of the days and the biggest storiesESPNU programsESPNU Inside The Polls ESPNU Coaches Spotlight ESPNU Recruiting Insider Thursday GameNight ESPN airs Spring Football games and coverage.
Coverage includes College Football Final. During the regular season, ESPN airs pre-selected Thursday night marquee matchups. ESPN2 airs pre-selected Friday night contests from lesser known Division I schools. In late October and November, games exclusively from the Mid-American Conference air on Tuesdays or Wednesdays on ESPN2; the weekend games with the exception of the regular season are selected a week or two weeks out. ABC gets the first pick of games for all the major conferences, with the exception of the SEC, in which case CBS get their first selection. ESPN/ESPN2 airs coverage of ABC games in a "reverse mirror" format. Both networks will air other selected midweek games and Sunday games teams from more “minor” conferences. ESPN Radio airs a weekly game as well as selected College Football Playoff bowl games including all bowl and national championship games. ESPNU airs 5 games per week. ESPN Classic airs selected games throughout the year. ESPN's Saturdays during the regular season begin at 9:00 AM ET with College GameDay, a three-hour live show that previews the day's games.
This counts down to the first set of games for the day, which begin at n
XM Satellite Radio
XM Satellite Radio was one of the three satellite radio and online radio services in the United States and Canada, operated by Sirius XM Holdings. It provided pay-for-service radio, analogous to cable television, its service included 73 different music channels, 39 news, sports and entertainment channels, 21 regional traffic and weather channels and 23 play-by-play sports channels. XM channels were identified by Arbitron with the label "XM"; the company had its origins in the 1988 formation of the American Mobile Satellite Corporation, a consortium of several organizations dedicated to satellite broadcasting of telephone and data signals. In 1992, AMSC established a unit called the American Mobile Radio Corporation dedicated to developing a satellite-based digital radio service; the satellite service was launched on September 25, 2001. On July 29, 2008, XM and former competitor Sirius Satellite Radio formally completed their merger, following U. S. Federal Communications Commission approval, forming Sirius XM Radio, Inc. with XM Satellite Radio, Inc. as its subsidiary.
On November 12, 2008, Sirius and XM began broadcasting with their combined channel lineups. On January 13, 2011, XM Satellite Radio, Inc. was dissolved as a separate entity and merged into Sirius XM Radio, Inc. Prior to its merger with Sirius, XM was the largest satellite radio company in the United States. While the satellite receiver radio service was its primary product, XM operated several audio and data services, advertising. XM's primary business was satellite radio entertainment. XM carried music, sports, talk radio and radio drama. In addition, XM used to broadcast local traffic conditions in its larger markets; the channel lineup was available on-line. To receive satellite radio programming, a customer was required to purchase a receiver. Prices ranged from less than $50 to over $200. With a service commitment, it was possible to get a simple receiver for free. Monthly packages started at US$6.99/month but after adding multiple sports channels the monthly subscription changed to US$14.49/month with add-on "family" radios at US$8.99/month.
Best-of-Sirius was available on US accounts for an additional monthly fee. Lifetime packages were available. Channel quality was in one of two flavors, stereo music channels at 39 kbit/s and mono talk channels at 16 kbit/s using proprietary compression. Many subscribers have complained about the low quality of satellite radio sound, but providers have stuck with the plan for more channels instead of better quality. HD terrestrial digital radio, a competitor has always used this difference as a selling point. XM Radio Online, XM's Internet radio product, offered many of XM's music stations and could be accessed from any Internet connected computer, or via the SIRIUS XM mobile app. Prior to March 11, 2009, XMRO was included with XM Radio subscriptions, or was available separately for $7.99/month to Internet-only subscribers. XM provided data services such as weather information for pilots and weather spotters through its Sirius XM Weather & Emergency datacasting service; this up to the minute weather information could be displayed in the cockpit of an aircraft equipped with a satellite weather receiver.
Unlike weather radar, which relies on the aircraft's own equipment, the satellite service could give a pilot information about weather anywhere in USA and Canada. The downside is that the various weather streams took around 15 minutes to complete the data download, meaning that the information can be somewhat out-of-date by the time it is shown. In-cockpit radar and lightning receivers returned realtime information, but they cost thousands of dollars, did not provide forecasts, nor did they provide complete weather reports. FAA Temporary Flight Restrictions were available and shown. Certain aircraft had the XM radio service provided to the aircraft's audio system, which allowed passengers to listen to XM radio while flying. In 2005, AirTran Airways began putting XM Satellite Radio on their aircraft, while in January 2006, JetBlue Airways added XM Radio to their aircraft. United Airlines started carrying prerecorded XM content in March 2006. Zipcar, an urban car-sharing service in the United States installed XM receivers in all of their vehicles available for daily or hourly rental.
However, citing uncertainty in the satellite radio market, Zipcar announced on May 1, 2007 that all XM radios would be removed from its fleet in the following months. In contrast to its high-quality broadcasts, Sirius/XM's customer service has drawn fire from some state governments. In October 2010, Richard Cordray, Ohio's Attorney General, began investigating complaints regarding Sirius XM's policies on billing, customer solicitation as well as subscription renewals and cancellations; the company informed shareholders of the probe shortly thereafter. According to news reports, Connecticut, Tennessee and the District of Columbia have expressed interest in participating in the inquiry. According to Reuters, "The investigations come as Sirius XM, home to programs by Howard Stern and Oprah Winfrey, has found its footing and distanced itself from years of huge losses and questions about its business model."In a report obtained in March 2011, The Better Business Bureau reported receiving over 4500 complaints against Sirius XM in the preceding 36 months, around half of which regarded the company's billing and collection practic
Colorado Boulevard is a major east–west street in Southern California. It runs from Griffith Park in Los Angeles east through Glendale, the Eagle Rock section of Los Angeles and Arcadia, ending in Monrovia; the full route was once various state highways but is now locally maintained in favor of the parallel Ventura Freeway and Foothill Freeway. Colorado Street begins at Interstate 5 as a short freeway spur carrying State Route 134 until it was moved north onto the Ventura Freeway. After crossing the Los Angeles River, there are two interchanges—with Edenhurst Avenue and San Fernando Road—before it becomes a surface street. At the second interchange it enters Glendale. At the east border of Glendale, Colorado Street becomes Colorado Boulevard as it crosses State Route 2 into Los Angeles. Another short freeway spur splits west of the intersection with Figueroa Street, heading northeast to the Ventura Freeway; this spur carried SR 134 after the Ventura Freeway was built to the east but before it was built west of the split with the spur.
After crossing Figueroa Street, Colorado Boulevard splits from Linda Vista Avenue and passes over the Arroyo Seco on the Colorado Street Bridge into Pasadena. In Pasadena, Colorado Boulevard crosses the short State Route 710 spur and forms the north end of State Route 110. Colorado Street, renamed "Boulevard" in 1958, runs through Old Town Pasadena from Arroyo Parkway to Orange Grove Boulevard, it is the north–south zero axis of the street grid in Pasadena. The Tournament of Roses parade route travels north on Orange Grove Avenue east along Colorado Boulevard as far as Sierra Madre Boulevard, where it heads north to Victory Park. Most major Pasadena attractions are found within one block of Colorado Boulevard. Pasadena City College is located at 1570 E. Colorado Boulevard; the street was mentioned in Dean's 1964 hit song The Little Old Lady from Pasadena. The road leaves the city into unincorporated East Pasadena, where it intersects Rosemead Boulevard, all while signed as California State Route 248.
Colorado Boulevard becomes Colorado Street as it crosses Michillinda Avenue from East Pasadena into Arcadia. Through Arcadia, the street parallels the Foothill Freeway, providing access to many of the neighborhoods in west Arcadia. Colorado Street turns southeast and splits into two streets--Colorado Boulevard, which continues east, Colorado Place, a short segment of old US 66 that goes southeast to merge with Huntington Drive near the Santa Anita Racetrack. From the split, Colorado Boulevard becomes a residential street, with some commercial zones near Santa Anita Avenue in Arcadia; the street passes under the Foothill Freeway between First and Second Streets in Arcadia with no access, in front of Monrovia High School, through Old Town Monrovia before ending at Shamrock Avenue at Recreation Park in Monrovia. The Santa Anita Depot, built in 1890 to serve Lucky Baldwin, the people of Rancho Santa Anita, was located at Colorado Boulevard and Old Ranch Road, it was moved to the Los Angeles County Arboretum and Botanic Garden during the construction of the 210 Foothill Freeway in 1970.
The most original portion of Colorado Boulevard ran from Orange Grove Boulevard to Broadway, now Arroyo Parkway. This portion of the street always contained many shops, banks and major commercial industries. By the late 19th century, this part of Colorado had become so popular, it was becoming a traffic bottleneck, as early as May 1900 there were public outcries to the City Council to widen the road, it wasn't until 1929 that the City undertook the major and unprecedented task of cutting back the buildings along Colorado 14 feet on each side. This undertaking created a monumental amount of legal red tape as well as many engineering dilemmas which were handled with amazing results. At the same time many of the Victorian facings on the buildings were replaced with Spanish and Art Deco designs. Colorado Street and Colorado Boulevard carried pre-1964 Legislative Route 161 from its west end to the merge with Huntington Drive; this was signed as State Route 134 west of Figueroa Street, U. S. Route 66 Alternate from Figueroa Street to Arroyo Parkway, U.
S. Route 66 from Arroyo Parkway to Huntington Drive. In 1954, the Colorado Freeway was opened between Holly Street in Pasadena and Eagle Vista Drive and Colorado Boulevard in Eagle Rock to help alleviate traffic congestion due to the narrow Colorado Street Bridge over the Arroyo Seco; the new freeway connected the two communities until 1971, when the entire freeway was closed and upgraded, as well as rerouted as the new Ventura Freeway. A short segment of the original Colorado Freeway remains as an on-ramp/off-ramp between Colorado Boulevard in Eagle Rock and the Figueroa Street off-ramp of the present Ventura Freeway. In the 1964 renumbering, LR 161 remained State Route 134 west of Pasadena, though this was being moved to the new alignment. Through and east of Pasadena, LR 161 became State Route 248, but was signed as US 66 and continued east on Huntington Drive to the interchange with Interstate 210 in Monrovia. In 1965, th
Grand Marshals of the Rose Parade
The following is a list of Grand Marshals of the Rose Parade. Ten time GRAMMY awards winner Chaka Khan was chosen by Tournament of Roses Association president Gerald Freeny as the Grand Marshal for the 2019 Rose Parade and Rose Bowl Game. Actor and humanitarian Gary Sinise was chosen as the 2018 Tournament of Roses Grand Marshal by its president Lance Tibbet on October 30, 2017. Sinise is known for playing the role of Lt. Dan Taylor in Forrest Gump; the Disney family is the only family to have more than one member serve as Grand Marshal: Walt Disney was the 1966 Grand Marshal his nephew Roy E. Disney held the post in 2000. Additionally, Mickey Mouse was the grand marshal for the 2005 parade. A number of years have featured multiple grand marshals, with the most in one parade being 1952, when seven Medal of Honor recipients were the grand marshals. Dr. Francis F. Rowland has been the grand marshal more than any other person - a total of seven times, in 1890, 1892, 1894, 1904, 1905, 1910, 1916.
Former child actress Shirley Temple Black holds the runner-up position, having been grand marshal three times in 1939, 1989 and 1999, the latter year where she shared this honor with astronaut Buzz Aldrin, baseball player Jackie Robinson and film producer David L. Wolper. On May 9, 2014, Louis Zamperini was selected as the Grand Marshal for the 2015 Tournament of Roses Parade, though he would die of pneumonia two months and six months before the parade was set to begin. Rather than select a new Grand Marshal, the Tournament announced that it was "committed to honoring him as the Grand Marshal of the 2015 Rose Parade," making him the first posthumous grand marshal since Jackie Robinson in 1999. On November 3, 2016, the 2017 Grand Marshals were revealed to be three Olympic athletes: Greg Louganis, Janet Evans and Allyson Felix; the Olympians were deliberately chosen to reflect on Los Angeles' bid for the 2024 Summer Olympics. This was the first year with multiple Grand Marshals since 2003, when Bill Cosby, Art Linkletter and Fred Rogers all shared this duty