Davos is an Alpine town, a municipality in the Prättigau/Davos Region in the canton of Graubünden, Switzerland. It has a permanent population of 10,937. Davos is located on the river Landwasser, in the Rhaetian Alps, between the Plessur and Albula Range at 1,560 m above sea level; the former Alpine resort village consists of two parts: Davos Dorf to the northeast towards Klosters and further down through the Prättigau to Landquart, Davos Platz to the southwest, which opens into the valley of the river Landwasser and leads to Filisur. During summer season the Flüela Pass leads south-east into the Lower Engadine. Davos plays host to the World Economic Forum, an annual meeting of global political and business elites, has one of Switzerland's biggest ski resorts. At the end of every year it serves as the site of the annual Spengler Cup ice-hockey tournament, hosted by the HC Davos local hockey team; the current settlement of the Davos area began in the High Middle Ages with the immigration of Rhaeto-Romans.
The village of Davos is first mentioned in 1213 as Tavaus. From about 1280 the barons of Vaz allowed German-speaking Walser colonists to settle, conceded them extensive self-administration rights, causing Davos to become the largest Walser settlement area in eastern Switzerland. Natives still speak a dialect, atypical for Graubünden, showing similarities with German idioms of western parts of Switzerland the Upper Valais. In 1436, the League of the Ten Jurisdictions was founded in Davos. From the middle of the 19th century, Davos modeled on Sokołowsko became a popular destination for the sick and ailing because the microclimate in the high valley was deemed excellent by doctors and recommended for lung disease patients. Robert Louis Stevenson, who suffered from tuberculosis, wintered in Davos in 1880 upon the recommendation of his Edinburgh physician Dr. George Balfour. Arthur Conan Doyle wrote an article about skiing in Davos in 1899. A sanatorium in Davos is the inspiration for the Berghof Sanitorium in Thomas Mann's novel Der Zauberberg.
Between 1936 and 1938, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner at the end of his life and living in Davos since 1917, depicted Davos and the Junkerboden. His painting has a simplified formal structure. During the natural ice era of winter sports and the Davos Eisstadion were a mecca for speed skating. Many international championships were held here, many world records were set, beginning with Peder Østlund who set four records in 1898; the only European Bandy Championship was held in the town in 1913. Subsequently, Davos became a ski resort frequented by tourists from the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. After peaking in the 1970s and 1980s, the city settled down as a leading but less high-profile tourist attraction. Davos has an area of 284 km2. Of this area, about 35.0 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 2.3% is settled and 40.5% is unproductive land. In the 2004/09 survey a total of 337 ha or about 1.2% of the total area was covered with buildings, an increase of 61 ha over the 1985 amount.
Over the same time period, the amount of recreational space in the municipality increased by 10 ha and is now about 0.22% of the total area. Of the agricultural land, 1,296 ha is fields and grasslands and 9,056 ha consists of alpine grazing areas. Since 1985 the amount of agricultural land has decreased by 736 ha. Over the same time period the amount of forested land has increased by 481 ha. Rivers and lakes cover 285 ha in the municipality; until 2017 the municipality was located in the Davos subdistrict of the Prättigau/Davos district, after 2017 it was part of the Prättigau/Davos Region. It is in the Landwasser Valley. In terms of area, it was the largest municipality in Switzerland until the formation of the municipality of Glarus Süd in 2010, is the largest in the canton of Graubünden, it consists of the village of Davos, with its two parts Davos Dorf and Davos Platz, the villages Frauenkirch, Davos Glari, Davos Wiesen, Davos Monstein, Davos Clavadel, the hamlets of Laret, Obem See, Stilli, Bünda, Spina in the main valley.
In the side valleys there are additional hamlets including Tschuggen, Dörfji, In den Büelen, Teufi, Gadmen, Am Rin, Dürrboden, Sertig Dörfli, Inneralp. Davos lies in a high valley, the connection to Klosters needing the Wolfgang Pass of only some 70 metres ascent from Davos Dorf; this tiny pass results in a flow direction of the river not corresponding to the main traffic routes of road and Rhätische Bahn to the northeast but flowing in a southwesterly direction. Three long side valleys reach out to the south from the main valley. Davos has a subarctic climate with an average of 124.7 days of precipitation per year and on average receives 1,022 mm of precipitation. The wettest month is August. During this month there is precipitation for an average of 13.5 days. The month with the most days of precipitation is June, with an average of 13.6, but with only 126 mm of precipitation. The driest month of the year is April with an average of 56 mm of precipitation over 9.6 days, of which 50.9 cm in 8.5 days are snowfall.
Biel/Bienne is a town and a municipality in the Biel/Bienne administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. Biel/Bienne lies on the language boundary between the French-speaking and German-speaking parts of Switzerland, is throughout bilingual. Biel is the German name for Bienne its French counterpart; the town is referred to in both languages simultaneously. Since 1 January 2005, the official name has been "Biel/Bienne"; until the city was named Biel. The city lies at the foot of the first mountain range of the Jura Mountains area, guarding the only practical connection to Jura, on the northeastern shores of Lake Biel, sharing the eastern tip of the lake with its sister city, Nidau; the cities Neuchâtel and Bern lie west and southeast of Biel/Bienne. They all can be reached in about 30 minutes by car. Biel/Bienne has about 55,000 inhabitants, with the surrounding agglomeration 106,000; the city has been an watchmaking heart of Switzerland since the 19th century. The shoreline of Lake Biel has been inhabited since at least the neolithic.
The remains of two neolithic settlements were found at Vingelz in 1874. The remains of the settlements became the Vingelz / Hafen archaeological site, now part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site. East of the Vingelz site, a late Bronze Age settlement was discovered. After the Roman conquest, the region was part of Germania Superior. During the Roman era the Roman road from Petinesca to Pierre Pertuis or Salodurum passed through the village of Mett, now part of Biel/Bienne; the foundations of buildings and a 4th-century cemetery in Mett come from a late Roman or an early medieval military guard station. A theory holds that the toponym is derived from the name of Belenus from a Roman era sanctuary of that deity at a sacred spring nearby. However, no surviving records or inscriptions confirm this theory. Another theory states. While no trace of the fortress has been found, the foundations of several Roman buildings have been found east of the medieval town; the town is mentioned in 1142 as apud belnam, taken as evidence for its derivation from Belenus.
In popular etymology, the name has been connected with the German name for axe, reflected in the two crossed axes in the city's coat of arms. In the 5th century, the area was invaded by the Burgundians, by the medieval period became part of Upper Burgundy. During the 6th or 7th century, the Germanic speaking Alamanni moved into the area around Lake Biel, creating the language boundary that exists today. By the 8th century, the German-speaking population became the majority on the east end of the lake. In 999 Rudolph III of Burgundy granted lands around Lake Biel to the Bishopric of Basel, during the formative period of the Holy Roman Empire. Through the Bishop of Basel, the Counts of Neuchâtel and the Counts of Neuchâtel-Nidau began to exercise their power in the foothills of the Jura Mountains. In 1140 the counts built Nidau Castle in the neighboring village of Nidau to help secure their land on the eastern end of the lake; the town was built by the Bishop of Basel, Heinrich II von Thun, between 1225 and 1230.
Biel Castle was built either shortly before or shortly after the foundation of the town, to help support Nidau Castle. Biel remained under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Basel throughout the 11th to 18th centuries. However, the early history of the town is filled with conflict between the town council and the Bishop's representative. In 1252, the town council succeeded in becoming a free imperial city. In 1275 King of Germany Rudolph of Habsburg granted Biel a town charter; the town's legal position was strengthened in 1296 when Bishop Peter Reich von Reichenstein signed an agreement with the town. This original agreement was strengthened in 1352 and remained in force until 1798; the town's church, the Church of St. Benedict, was first mentioned in 1228; the current church was built in 1451–70 and is regarded, after Bern Cathedral, as the second most important late gothic building in the Canton of Bern. While it remained part of the lands of the Prince-Bishopric of Basel, starting in the 13th century Biel began making alliances with neighboring nobles and cities.
In 1279 it allied with Bern. This first alliance was followed in 1311 by an alliance with Fribourg, a 1334 alliance with Solothurn, 1342 with Murten and 1395 with La Neuveville; the alliance with Bern became an eternal alliance in 1352, as Bern itself joined the Old Swiss Confederacy. Contradictory obligations to the Bishop of Basel, Jean de Vienne, to the Imperial City of Bern led to a war in 1367. During the war, Biel was burned and the Bishop's castle was destroyed. After the extinction of the Counts of Neuchâtel-Nidau in 1375 the Bishop's power around the lake began to wane. In 1388, Bern gained the town of Nidau. However, the Bishop retained nominal influence in Biel; the two competing powers struggled for power in Biel for over 400 years and prevented the town from becoming independent from either powerful neighbor. Biel was considered an associate of the Swiss Confederacy during the 15th century, after its participation in the Burgundy Wars came to be recognized as a full member by 1494.
Though Biel remained nominally under the control of the Catholic Bishops of Basel, in 1528 it converted to the new Protestant faith. The French Revolution changed the political situat
Lugano is a city in southern Switzerland in the Italian-speaking canton of Ticino bordering Italy. It has a population of 63,494, an urban agglomeration of over 145,000; the 9th largest Swiss city, it is the largest in Ticino and largest with an Italian speaking majority outside of Italy. The city lies on Lake Lugano, surrounded by the mountains of the Lugano Prealps; the eastern part of the city shares a border with Italy. The toponym is first recorded in 804, in the form Luanasco, in 874 as Luano, from 1189 as Lugano. German-language variants of the name were Lowens, Lauwis, Louwerz; the local Lombard form of the name is rendered Lügàn. The etymology of the name is uncertain, suggestions include derivation from lucus, from a vulgar Latin lakvannus and from the god Lugus; the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Gules, a cross throughout argent, between the upper case serif letters "L", "V", "G" and "A". The coat of arms dates from around 1200; the four letters on the coat of arms are an abbreviation of the name Lugano.
The shores of Lake Lugano have been inhabited since the Stone Age. Within the modern city limits a number of ground stones or quern-stones have been found. In the area surrounding Lugano, items from the Copper Age and the Iron Age have been found. There are Etruscan monuments at Davesco-Soragno and Viganello. Graves with jewelry and household items have been found in Aldesago, Davesco and Pregassona along with Celtic money in Viganello; the region around Lake Lugano was settled by the Romans by the 1st century BC. There was an important Roman city north of Lugano at Bioggio. There are fewer traces of the Romans in Lugano, but several inscriptions and coins indicate that some Romans lived in what would become Lugano; the first written mention of a settlement at Lugano can be found in documents, which are of disputed authenticity, with which the Longobard king Liutprand ceded various assets located in Lugano to the Church of Saint Carpophorus in Como in 724. Other documents, dating from 804 and 844 refer to Lake Lugano as Laco Luanasco, an act of 984 indicates Lugano as a market town.
During the fighting between Guelphs and Ghibellines and the new disputes between Como and Milan, during the 14th and 15th centuries, Lugano was the scene of clashes between opposing forces. After a long rule by the Rusca family, Lugano was freed from the domination of Como, taken over in 1335 by the Visconti. At the same time the link between town and the valley strengthened. By 1405–06 documents attest to a vallis comunitas Lugani et, a governing body, independent of Como; the new community included the parishes of Lugano, Riva San Vitale and Capriasca. In 1416 the Duke of Milan, Filippo Maria Visconti, conquered the region of Lugano and the Rusca valley and made it a fief. A year Lugano's freedoms were first documented in a series of statutes modeled on those of Como; the town was able to secure complete independence. Between 1433 and 1438 the Duke of Milan, Aloisio Sanseverino sat as a feudal lord over Lugano, he compensated the Rusca family with the ownership of Locarno. Under the reign of his heirs in the following decades rebellions and riots broke out, which lasted until the French invasion of 1499.
It was the object of continuous disputes between the Dukes of Como and Milan until it became a Swiss dominion in 1513. Swiss control lasted until 1798 when Napoleon conquered the Old Swiss Confederation and created the Helvetic Republic. In 1746, the Agnelli brothers opened the first printing bookshop in Lugano, they began publishing the newspaper Nuove di diverse corti e paesi in 1748 and changed its name to Gazzetta di Lugano in 1797. The newspaper was read in north and central Italy, it supported the cause of the Jansenists against the Jesuits and therefore was banned in 1768 in the territory of the Papal States. It was open to the themes of the American Revolutionary War, it was the first newspaper in the Italian language to publish an excerpt from the Declaration of Independence of 1776. After the death of Abbot Gian Battista Agnelli in 1788, the editor for more than 40 years, Abbot Giuseppe Lodovico Maria Vanelli took over the paper. Under Abbot Vanelli, it supported the revolutionary ideas from France, which drew protests from the Austrian government in Lombardy.
The publication of the magazine ceased abruptly after edition number 17 of 29 April 1799, following the anti-French riots in Lugano during which the Agnelli printing house was sacked and Abbot Vanelli was shot. Under the Helvetic Republic, Lugano became the capital of the Canton of Lugano; the canton of Lugano unified the former Landvogteien of Lugano, Mendrisio and Valmaggia. However, as with the other cantons of the Helvetic Republic, the autonomy of Lugano was limited, the republic having been founded by Napoleon in order further to centralise power in Switzerland; the canton was led by a Directory of five members, who appointed a "national préfet". The canton was divided between "patriots" supporting the Cisalpine Republic, traditionalist "aristocrats". By 1799 riots broke out in Lugano, the second préfet, Francesco Capra, fled the city. Power passed to a provisional government sympathetic to the Habsburgs. However, French occupation was restored in 1800. Discontent continued and in early 1802 a revolt in Capriasca led to the autumn pronunciamento of Pian Povrò, which declared the independence of Lugano from the Helvetic client republic.
With the Act of Med
Hockey Club Ambrì-Piotta is a Swiss professional ice hockey club and a member of the National League. The club was founded September 19, 1937 and is known as "Bianco-Blu". Though they have never won the league championship, the club has not been relegated to the Swiss League since being promoted in 1985, the same year that saw the arrival of Dale McCourt. Ambrì and Piotta are two small villages in the municipality of Quinto, located in the northern part of the valley Leventina canton Ticino, with a combined population of 500 people. Ambrì-Piotta has more than 40 fan clubs all over Europe. For major events, like the derby against southern rivals HC Lugano, the fans compose a choreography; when Ambrì wins a game, fans rejoice to the valley anthem La Montanara. Since 1959, they have called their self-owned Valascia as their home. Standing 1,000 meters above sea level, it is an open-ended facility with 2,000 seats and additional standing room space for 5,000. Facing financial strains the team raised 5 million Swiss Francs in the summer of 2013.
The donations given to HC Ambri-Piotta came from both large and small donations, many of which were given via SMS. The efforts of the team and its fans have secured the right to play in the National League. Continental Cup: 1999, 2000 Super Cup: 1999 Swiss Cup: 1962 National League: 1999 Official site of Hockey Club Ambrì-Piotta Ambrì-Piotta fan site
Bern or Berne is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their "federal city", in German Bundesstadt, French Ville Fédérale, Italian Città Federale. With a population of 142,493, Bern is the fifth-most populous city in Switzerland; the Bern agglomeration, which includes 36 municipalities, had a population of 406,900 in 2014. The metropolitan area had a population of 660,000 in 2000. Bern is the capital of the canton of Bern, the second-most populous of Switzerland's cantons; the official language in Bern is German, but the most-spoken language is an Alemannic Swiss German dialect, Bernese German. In 1983, the historic old town in the centre of Bern became a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the etymology of the name "Bern" is uncertain. According to the local legend, based on folk etymology, Berchtold V, Duke of Zähringen, the founder of the city of Bern, vowed to name the city after the first animal he met on the hunt, this turned out to be a bear, it has long been considered that the city was named after the Italian city of Verona, which at the time was known as Bern in Middle High German.
As a result of the finding of the Bern zinc tablet in the 1980s, it is now more common to assume that the city was named after a pre-existing toponym of Celtic origin *berna "cleft". The bear was the heraldic animal of the coat of arms of Bern from at least the 1220s; the earliest reference to the keeping of live bears in the Bärengraben dates to the 1440s. No archaeological evidence that indicates a settlement on the site of today′s city centre prior to the 12th century has been found so far. In antiquity, a Celtic oppidum stood on the Engehalbinsel north of Bern, fortified since the second century BC, thought to be one of the 12 oppida of the Helvetii mentioned by Caesar. During the Roman era, a Gallo-Roman vicus was on the same site; the Bern zinc tablet has the name Brenodor. In the Early Middle Ages, a settlement in Bümpliz, now a city district of Bern, was some 4 km from the medieval city; the medieval city is a foundation of the Zähringer ruling family, which rose to power in Upper Burgundy in the 12th century.
According to 14th-century historiography, Bern was founded in 1191 by Duke of Zähringen. In 1218, after Berthold died without an heir, Bern was made a free imperial city by the Goldene Handfeste of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. In 1353, Bern joined the Swiss Confederacy, becoming one of the eight cantons of the formative period of 1353 to 1481. Bern invaded and conquered Aargau in 1415 and Vaud in 1536, as well as other smaller territories, thereby becoming the largest city-state north of the Alps; the city grew out towards the west of the boundaries of the peninsula formed by the river Aare. The Zytglogge tower marked the western boundary of the city from 1191 until 1256, when the Käfigturm took over this role until 1345, it was, in turn, succeeded by the Christoffelturm until 1622. During the time of the Thirty Years' War, two new fortifications – the so-called big and small Schanze – were built to protect the whole area of the peninsula. After a major blaze in 1405, the city's original wooden buildings were replaced by half-timbered houses and subsequently the sandstone buildings which came to be characteristic for the Old Town.
Despite the waves of pestilence that hit Europe in the 14th century, the city continued to grow due to immigration from the surrounding countryside. Bern was occupied by French troops in 1798 during the French Revolutionary Wars, when it was stripped of parts of its territories, it regained control of the Bernese Oberland in 1802, following the Congress of Vienna of 1814, it newly acquired the Bernese Jura. At this time, it once again became the largest canton of the Confederacy as it stood during the Restoration and until the secession of the canton of Jura in 1979. Bern was made the Federal City within the new Swiss federal state in 1848. A number of congresses of the socialist First and Second Internationals were held in Bern during World War I when Switzerland was neutral; the city's population rose from about 5,000 in the 15th century to about 12,000 by 1800 and to above 60,000 by 1900, passing the 100,000 mark during the 1920s. Population peaked during the 1960s at 165,000 and has since decreased to below 130,000 by 2000.
As of September 2017, the resident population stood at 142,349, of which 100,000 were Swiss citizens and 42,349 resident foreigners. A further estimated 350,000 people live in the immediate urban agglomeration. Bern lies on the Swiss plateau in the canton of Bern west of the centre of Switzerland and 20 km north of the Bernese Alps; the countryside around Bern was formed by glaciers during the most recent ice age. The two mountains closest to Bern are Gurten with a height of 864 m and Bantiger with a height of 947 m; the site of the old observatory in Bern is the point of origin of the CH1903 coordinate system at 46°57′08.66″N 7°26′22.50″E. The city was built on a hilly peninsula surrounded by the river Aare, but outgrew natural boundaries by the 19th century. A number of bridges have been built to allow the city to expand beyond the Aare. Bern is built on uneven ground. An elevation difference of several metres exists betwe
PostFinance Arena is an arena in Bern, Switzerland. It is used for ice hockey and is the home arena of SC Bern, it was built in 1967 and accommodates 17,031 people. A characteristic of the PostFinance Arena is that it has the world's largest standing room grandstand within an arena, with a capacity of 10,422 bench seats; the PostFinance Arena was the main arena for the 2009 IIHF World Championships, has hosted the inaugural Victoria Cup. In May 2016, the 2016 European Women's Artistic Gymnastics Championships were held at the arena. PostFinance Arena holds a Europe-wide record, having a 16,203 spectator average in the 2008/2009 season; the main roof comprises glulam arches, tied by steel tension members at their springing points. The maximum span of these arches is 85 metres. Due to its age and with an eye towards the 2009 IIHF World Championships, the arena was renovated; the holder invested about CHF 100 million into the restoration of the building. The modification was finished by April 2009, when the World Championships started.
The interior of the arena is unchanged the steep standing room stand, popular with the fans. However the VIP-zone was rebuilt and the capacity there was extended by about 500; the total capacity is now 17,031 spectators. Official Website
The Zürcher Schlittschuh Club Lions are a professional ice hockey team located in Zürich, playing in the National League. The home arena, the 11,200 seat Hallenstadion, is in the Zürich district of Oerlikon; the team was founded in 1930 and played at the Dolder-Kunsteisbahn from its establishment until 1950. Locally nicknamed "Z", the team was formed in 1997 as a result of the merger of the two local teams: the popular Zürcher Schlittschuh Club, who were struggling financially in National League A, the ice hockey section of Grasshopper Club Zürich who had failed to qualify for promotion from National League B for several years in a row and had a small fan base, but were backed by entrepreneur and billionaire Walter Frey. ZSC was the first Swiss team to play in an indoor arena, they won the Swiss championship in the years 1936, 1949 and 1961 and the prestigious Spengler Cup in 1944 and 1945. After the merger, the ZSC Lions won the Swiss Championship in 2000, 2001, 2008, 2012, 2014 and 2018, moreover won the IIHF Continental Cup in 2001 and 2002.
During the 2008–09 Season, the ZSC Lions participated in the first Champions Hockey League. For the group stage, they were placed in group D with HC Slavia Praha and Linköpings HC; the Lions qualified for the semi-finals with a 3 -- first place in the group. With their defeats of the Finnish Espoo Blues, 6–3 and 4–1 they qualified for the tournament final; the first leg of the final was held on January 21, 2009 in the Magnitogorsk Arena where the Lions came back from a 0–2 deficit to Metallurg Magnitogorsk to end with a 2–2 tie. The second leg was played a week on January 28, 2009, in the Diners Club Arena in Rapperswil-Jona, Switzerland. ZSC Lions won the Silver Stone Trophy with a 5 -- 0 victory. With their victory in the Champions Hockey League, the ZSC Lions qualified to play the Chicago Blackhawks of the National Hockey League for the 2009 edition of the Victoria Cup challenge. Playing at their home arena, the Lions upset the Blackhawks with a 2 -- 1 victory, it was the first time since 1991.
NL Championship: 1936, 1949, 1961, 2000, 2001, 2008, 2012, 2014, 2018 SL Championship: 1973, 1981, 1983, 1989 Victoria Cup: 2009 Champions Hockey League/Silver Stone Trophy: 2009 IIHF Continental Cup: 2001, 2002 Swiss Cup: 1960, 1961, 2016 Spengler Cup: 1944, 1945, 1952 Updated February 18, 2019. ZSC Lions official website