Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union also created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, titles, the legal system within Scotland has also remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law. Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is also a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages. Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was also discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses
Raith Rovers F.C.
Raith Rovers Football Club is a Scottish professional football club based in the town of Kirkcaldy, Fife. The clubs highest ever league position came in 1922, when it finished third behind champions Celtic, the club also came runners-up in 1949 as well as being losing finalists in the 1913 Scottish Cup Final. As a result of winning the League Cup in 1994, Raith Rovers qualified for the UEFA Cup the following season, the club managed to reach the second round, only to be defeated 4–1 on aggregate to eventual champions FC Bayern Munich. Raiths home ground is Starks Park, an 8,867 all-seater stadium in the south of Kirkcaldy, the club has been based at the ground since 1891. The modern Raith Rovers were founded in 1883 in the Scottish town of Kirkcaldy, there had been a much earlier Raith Rovers which merged with what is now Cowdenbeath in 1882. Although it lends its name to many entities in the region, a Raith Rovers victory in the 1960s led to a famous BBC commentators blunder that the fans would be dancing in the streets of Raith tonight. Although commonly attributed to Englishman David Coleman, this was said by Scotsman Sam Leitch. Raith as an area once stretched from south of Loch Gelly as far as Kirkcaldy, a mixture of local success and ambition took the club into the senior leagues where they established themselves and thereby became the pre-eminent team in the town. The team subsequently moved to their current home of Starks Park named after, after two consecutive successful seasons in 2nd Division, the club elected to join the 1st Division in 1909–10. Three years later, the made their first appearance in the Scottish Cup Final losing 2–0 to Falkirk. In 1921 an innovation in training, previously unknown to the Scottish game, was introduced by directors following a visit to England, the use of a ball in training. As noted in the Fife Free Press, Hitherto, ball practice has been an absentee from the curriculum on the grounds that being away from the ball for a week imparted eagerness on the Saturday. This heralded an era of success, the club had its highest ever league finish in the Scottish top division, when they came third to the Old Firm in 1921–22. This was followed by the incident where the players were shipwrecked in 1923. The team had been en route to play matches on the Canary Islands when the boat ran aground. Fortunately, the players were able to disembark and continue on their way a few days later. The forward line of Glen, Gilmour, Norrie Haywood, Whitelaw, around this time, a then record crowd of 25,500 filled Starks Park on a Wednesday afternoon for a Scottish Cup quarter-final replay against East Fife. East Fife won 3–2 and went on to become the only 2nd Division club to win the Scottish Cup until Hibs matched the feat in 2016
Livingston Football Club, is a Scottish football club based in Livingston, West Lothian. Livingston currently play in the Scottish League One and were founded in 1943 as Ferranti Thistle, the club was admitted to the Scottish Football League and renamed as Meadowbank Thistle in 1974, and played its matches at Meadowbank Stadium in Edinburgh. In 1995, the club was relocated to Livingston, West Lothian, since then Livingston have played their home games at the Almondvale Stadium. However, the club hit financial problems in 2004, and was relegated to the Scottish First Division in 2006, in July 2009 the club faced further financial problems and were on the verge of suffering a liquidation event before a deal was struck. Livingston were subsequently demoted to the Scottish Third Division, but the club achieved consecutive promotions, the club began life as Ferranti Amateurs in 1943. A works team of the Ferranti engineering company, they played in the Edinburgh FAs Amateur Second Division. During this period the club won the East of Scotland Qualifying Cup in 1963, in 1969 the club moved to the City Park ground in Edinburgh. In 1972 the club members of SFA which allowed them to enter the Scottish Qualifying Cup which they won in 1973 which previously had not been open to them. The clubs first match in the Scottish Cup was on 16 December 1972 against Duns. In 1974, as a result of the demise of Third Lanark seven years earlier, after beating off competition from four Highland League sides, Hawick Royal Albert and Gateshead United, Ferranti Thistle were accepted into the league by a vote of 21–16 over Inverness Thistle. The local council offered use of Meadowbank Stadium, a stadium built in 1970. After an Edinburgh Evening News campaign to find a name for the club and this was approved by the SFL in time for the new season. Having had little time to form a squad from the existing Ferranti squad, Meadowbank played their first competitive match in the League Cup, eventually losing 1–0 to Albion Rovers. In 1983 the club achieved promotion to the First Division but ultimately were relegated back to the Second Division at the end of the 1984–85 season, in the 1986–87 season, Meadowbank won the Second Division championship and won promotion to the First Division. They finished runners-up in the First Division in the following season, the part-time club began to struggle, and it became a limited company in 1993 but was relegated a short time after at the end of the 1992–93 season to the Second Division. Meadowbank suffered a relegation in 1994–95, finishing second from bottom in the Second Division. After this, Chairman Bill Hunter claimed Meadowbank had run into financial difficulties and were facing closure as a result. C. In their first season as Livingston they were crowned champions of the Third Division for the 1995–96 season, Three years later, in 1998–99, they won promotion again as Second Division champions
Alloa Athletic F.C.
Alloa Athletic Football Club is a Scottish association football semi professional club based in the town of Alloa, Clackmannanshire. Founded as Clackmannan County in 1878, the changed its name to Alloa a year later. The club competes in the Scottish League One as a member of the Scottish Professional Football League, the club was elected to the second tier of the Scottish Football League in 1921–22, earning promotion to the top flight in its first season after winning the Second Division. Alloa Athletic first entered in the Scottish Cup in 1883, its best result reaching the quarter-finals on three occasions, the last in 1988. The clubs best result in a cup competition was reaching the final of the Scottish Challenge Cup thrice, winning in 1999. The clubs nickname is The Wasps, referring to its colours of black. Alloa Athletic has been based at Recreation Park in Alloa since 1895, the club were formed in 1878 as Clackmannan County, becoming Alloa a year later and finally adopting the present-day name Alloa Athletic in 1883. Admitted to the Scottish Football Association in the year, the club had to wait until 1921 to elected to the Scottish Football League. In 1906–07, the club were Scottish Football Union champions and won the Central Football League six years later, Alloa won the Scottish Football League Division Two title in their first season but were immediately relegated from the top flight the following season. Promotion was achieved again in 1938–39 but the onset of the Second World War saw the new season curtailed after just five games, when the leagues were re-organised after the war, Alloa were placed back in Division Two. The 1950s and 60s were not overly successful for the Wasps although the club did provide the game with John White who went on to play for Scotland, promotion was finally achieved again from the new Second Division in 1976–77 under the managership of Hugh Wilson. Relegation soon followed but the Wasps went back up 1981–82 under Alex Totten, unfortunately the team was relegated again a year later and a similar pattern followed after further promotions in 1984–85 and 1988–89. Following further league reconstruction, Alloa found themselves as members of the new Third Division in 1995. Under Tom Hendrie, Alloa won this league in 1997–98, the clubs first championship win since 1921–22, the following season saw the team consolidate in the Second Division and also enjoy a famous 7–0 derby win over local rivals Stirling Albion. The team was relegated at the first attempt but bounced back up in 2001–02, relegation followed once more, this time on goal difference. From 2003–2011 Alloa played in the Second Division, in the 2009–2010 season, Alloa looked certain to gain promotion to the Scottish First Division, but they lost out to Stirling by Goal Difference. Days after, however, Alloa pulled off a coup, appointing former Aberdeen. On 7 April 2012, Alloa were confirmed as Scottish Third Division champions after beating Elgin City 8–1 in a game at Recreation Park
Scottish Challenge Cup
There were also two guest teams each from the NIFL Premiership and Welsh Premier League, the first time the competition featured teams from outside Scottish football. The competition was first held during the 1990–91 season as the B&Q Centenary Cup to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the formation of the SFL and it was intended to be a one-off competition but was continued due to its popularity. The first winner of the tournament was Dundee, who defeated Ayr United, Falkirk are the most successful team in the tournament, with four wins, most recently in 2012. The most recent winner was Dundee United, who defeated St Mirren in the 2017 final, the Challenge Cup is a knock-out tournament. Within a regionalised format, clubs are paired at random and the first club drawn listed as the home team, the winner of each match progresses to the next round and the loser is eliminated from the tournament. Every match, including the final, is a tie that lasts 90 minutes plus any additional stoppage time. If no clear winner has been determined after 90 minutes of time,30 minutes of extra time is played. If the score is level after extra time then the winner is decided by a penalty shoot-out. Beginning with the 2016–17 season, the competition has expanded to 54 entrants. Teams are seeded to enter the competition over any of the first four rounds, the final is played at a neutral venue. The competition was created in the 1990–91 season to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the formation of the Scottish Football League in 1890 and it was intended to run for only one season but continued due to its popularity. This was reflected in attendances at matches in the later rounds of the tournament including a full capacity crowd of 11,500 at Fir Park in the first final. The cup was sponsored by DIY retail company B&Q and named the B&Q Centenary Cup for the first year, when Stenhousemuir won the final in 1995 it was regarded as the clubs greatest achievement in its 111-year history. The number of competitors has varied in relation to the number of clubs with Scottish Football League membership, before the change in 2010, several clubs received a random bye in the first round in order to even out the number of fixtures. The Challenge Cup continued under the auspices of the Scottish Professional Football League after the Scottish Football League merged with the Scottish Premier League in 2013 and this was simplified in the 2014–15 season, with the two additional places going to the Highland League champion and the Lowland League champion. Two teams from the League of Ireland will be included in the competition for the 2017–18 season, the final match of the tournament is played at a neutral venue, usually one that is geographically close or equidistant to where the clubs contesting the match are based. Eight different venues have hosted the final, Fir Park in Motherwell was the first, in 1990, and has since hosted four more finals, the last in 2017. McDiarmid Park in Perth has been the most frequent venue, staging it nine times between 1994 and 2015, other venues to host the final more than once are Broadwood Stadium, Excelsior Stadium and Almondvale Stadium
Petrofac is a provider of oilfield services to the international oil and gas industry. It is registered in Jersey, with its corporate office on Jermyn Street. It has operational centres in Aberdeen, Sharjah, Woking, Chennai, Mumbai, Delhi, Abu Dhabi, Saudi Arabia, there are another 24 offices in various countries. It is quoted on the London Stock Exchange, and is a constituent of the FTSE250 Index, the company was established as a producer of a modular plant in Tyler, Texas, United States in 1981. It was first listed on the London Stock Exchange in 2005, in 2010, it bought a 20 percent share in the Gateway storage scheme, an undersea cavern for gas storage. In November 2013, Petrofac and the Italian oil firm Bonatti partnered on a $650 million joint venture contract for Sonatrach, adding to the firm’s already significant presence in Algeria. In November 2014, the company issued a warning, saying that profit for 2015 will fall by 25%, as slowing demand in China
Highland Football League
The Scottish Highland Football League is a part-time professional senior football league in the north of Scotland. The league, which is the level within Scottish football, is a full member of the Scottish Football Association. It currently consists of 18 teams from the Scottish Highlands as well as the lowlands of Moray, until the reorganisation of Scottish football during the 2012–13 season, the league was historically one of the senior leagues in Scottish football. The others being the Scottish Premier League and Scottish Football League, along with the East of Scotland, since the 2014–15 season, the league is a feeder division for SPFLs Scottish League Two. The Highland Football League champions play the winners of the Lowland Football League for a chance to face the bottom club in League Two, all current league members are full members of the Scottish Football Association so qualify automatically for the following seasons first round of the Scottish Cup. The league champions and the team receive a bye into the cups second round. Since 2014, the league champion team has also gained a place in the Scottish Challenge Cup. The leagues current sponsorship deal is with the Aberdeen-based Press & Journal media group, each team in the league plays each other twice during a season – once at home, once away, for a total of 34 matches. The standard league scoring system of 3 points for a win and 1 for a draw is applied, with ties in the league table broken by goal difference. The champions are presented with the League trophy and a flag, either immediately after the match which secures the victory, as the region is prone to severe weather in winter, postponements have sometimes caused the conclusion of the season to be delayed. Various proposals which would have reduced the number of matches a team would play, were considered, instead, clubs now play both a Saturday and a Wednesday fixture most weeks from August through October, taking advantage of milder weather at the start of the season. The original league consisted of seven teams, Inverness Thistle, Caledonian, Clachnacuddin, Forres Mechanics, Inverness Union, Inverness Citadel, Ross County were an eighth original member, but resigned membership in November 1893. The inaugural champions were Inverness Thistle, of the original teams, two are still playing in the league today and two merged to become current Scottish League club Inverness Caledonian Thistle. Many of the clubs have performed well when competing against SFL clubs in the Scottish Cup. However, from the 1990s onwards, the HFL has been a victim of its own success, the league has been somewhat weakened in recent years by the departure of many former members who have subsequently joined the SFL. This happened in 1994 when Caledonian, Inverness Thistle and Ross County left and this was the state of affairs till 2000 when Elgin City and Peterhead were elected into the SFL. In 2002 Inverurie Loco Works were elected into the HFL to give it a membership of 15 clubs. In 2008, North Region Junior League sides Formartine United and Turriff United both submitted bids to join the Highland League, following in the footsteps of past Junior League side Inverurie Locos, Banks O Dee and Strathspey Thistle also applied
Brora Rangers F.C.
Brora Rangers Football Club are a senior part-time professional football club from the village of Brora, Sutherland, in the far North of Scotland. They play in the Highland Football League, of which they have twice been champions, having won their first title in 2013–14 and they have also won the North of Scotland Cup four times, in 1980–81, 1990–91, 2013–14 and 2014–15. The Highland League Cup was won by The Cattachs for the first time in 2015–16, Brora Rangers play at Dudgeon Park, Brora, and hold a rivalry with neighbours Wick Academy, in the Northern Derby. Brora Rangers were founded in 1879, in 1933 they gained access to membership of the Scottish Football Association and entered the draw for the Scottish Qualifying Cup competition. They were accepted into membership of the Highland Football League in 1962, the club won their first ever Highland Football League title in the 2013–14 season after a 3–0 win against Keith on 5 March at Kynoch Park. They are the most northernly club to win the League title to date and they set several postwar Highland League records over the season, most points, greatest margin of victory in the league, highest win rate, fewest goals conceded and highest positive goal difference. They ended the season with a 19-game unbeaten run which subsequently carried on into the 2014–15 season, with a draw against Fraserburgh in their 38th and final match of the year, Brora achieved the distinction of being unbeaten in league matches for the whole of 2014. Their unbeaten run in the Highland league eventually extended to 57 matches across three seasons, ending with a 3–0 defeat by Cove Rangers on 22 August 2015. The club retained its Highland League title in the 2014–15 season, three days earlier, Brora scored their 125th league goal of the season against their northern rivals Wick Academy, beating Inverness Thistles previous postwar record of 124 in the 1969–70 season. With a record of Won 30, Drew 4, Lost 0, they ended the season as unbeaten champions, as Highland League champions, Brora entered the newly introduced promotion playoffs against Lowland League champions Edinburgh City. They won 4–2 in a penalty shootout after a 2–2 aggregate draw, Brora played off against Montrose, the bottom-placed club in Scottish League Two, for a place in League Two for the 2015–16 season. After winning their home leg 1–0, Brora suffered a 3–1 defeat in the away game, the prospect of a future promotion to the national leagues has proven controversial due to the distances that players and supporters would be expected to travel to many of the away games. However following Broras successful defence of their Highland League title, chairman John Young said that the club had looked at all options and we meet SPFL criteria for entry level so we can’t opt out, we’ve got to go for it. Besides the impact on the club, it has suggested that Brora itself would benefit economically from players and supporters of Southern clubs visiting the town. Brora originally played at Inverbrora Park, which is now the site of the Hunters of Brora woollen mills, the grounds capacity is 2,000, including 200 seats. The record attendance was set in 2013 when over 2,000 people watched Brora play Rangers in a friendly match, as of 31 March 2017 Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality, Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality, Highland Football League, 2013–14, 2014–15 League Cup, 2015–16 North of Scotland Cup, 1980–81, 1990–91, 2013–14, 2014–15 Inverness Cup, 1994–95 Scottish Qualifying Cup, 1979–80 Official website
Lowland Football League
The Scottish Lowland Football League is a football league operating in southern and central Scotland. 16 teams currently compete in the league with teams drawn from the Scottish Lowlands area of Scotland, since 2015 it has been known as the Ferrari Packaging Lowland League for sponsorship reasons. Additionally, the bottom placed club will face relegation to the 2015–16 East of Scotland Football League or South of Scotland Football League depending on their geographical location. Consequently, it now stands at a new Level 5 on the Scottish football pyramid, on a par with the Highland League, as a creation of the Scottish Football Association, the Lowland League is a full member of the same organisation. The league would be composed of teams drawn from the South of Scotland, East of Scotland and junior leagues, who met on 17 June 2013 to elect between them the founder-members of the new league. While most clubs were invited to submit bids to join, Preston Athletic, Spartans, while 27 clubs had registered their interest, the Lowland League received 17 applications to join. Subsequent seasons have seen the number of participating clubs increase, Two clubs, Edinburgh University and BSC Glasgow, were admitted to the league for the 2014–15 season. They were joined the season by Cumbernauld Colts. Civil Service Strollers and Hawick Royal Albert joined the league in June 2016, the 2016-17 season was the first time that founding members left the league. The same season saw the first team relegated into the league from Scottish League Two – East Stirlingshire. * Team promoted to Scottish League Two, on 24 September 2013, the Scottish Sun newspaper was revealed to be the first sponsor of the league. Since 2015, the league has been sponsored by Ferrari Packaging on a two-year agreement, official website of the Lowland Football League
The Spartans Football Club are a Scottish football club from Edinburgh. They are managed by Dougie Samuel and they were formed in 1951 by ex-players of Edinburgh University and the original intention was to field a team of graduates of the university. However, they have players from elsewhere as well and they play at Ainslie Park and wear white shirts, red shorts and white socks. The senior team plays in the Lowland Football League and they joined the new league in 2013 after playing in the East of Scotland Football League, where they became one of its most successful clubs from the 1970s. They have been allowed to play in the rounds of the Scottish Cup since 1978 and have qualified for the cup proper on several occasions. Spartans had their top amateur side accepted into the set up in 2009. In their first season, they finished 2nd, just two points off the top slot and only promotion place, Spartans also have an under 20 squad who are managed by Les Atkinson. Spartans had an East of Scotland side up until season 15/16 managed by Colin Tomassi, Spartans have a very successful academy. They then defeated Arbroath 4–1 at Gayfield Park in the third round, two seasons later in 2005–06, Spartans defeated Berwick Rangers, Lossiemouth and Queens Park in the first three rounds of the Scottish Cup. They drew 0–0 with First Division side St Mirren in the last sixteen in front of 3,326 fans at City Park, earning a replay at Love Street, where they lost 3–0. In the 2008–09 Scottish Cup, Spartans cup run sent them to Pollok, winning through a replay, in the next round they beat Elgin City 2–1, before being knocked out by Airdrie United in the fourth round. Spartans, along with four clubs, submitted an application for entry into the Scottish Football League following Gretna relinquishing their league status on 3 June 2008. Spartans lost out to Annan Athletic, in November 2008, Spartans moved to a new purpose-built home at Ainslie Park, situated 500 yards from City Park in the Crewe Toll district of Edinburgh. The new facility includes a 504-seater stand and floodlights surrounding the stadium pitch. Ainslie Park is now used daily by youth and adult Spartans teams, the club also won the league title this season. In the 2009–10 season, Spartans won the quadruple, consisting of the East of Scotland Premier Division, the SFA South Challenge Cup, the King Cup, the 2009–10 league title gave Spartans back to back title wins for the first time since 2005. During the 2010–11 season, Spartans won their league title in a row. The next season they lost the title on goal difference to Stirling University
Rangers Football Club are a football club in Glasgow, Scotland, which plays in the Scottish Premiership, the first tier of the Scottish Professional Football League. Their home ground, Ibrox Stadium, is in the south-west of the city, Rangers were the first British club to reach a UEFA tournament final and won the European Cup Winners Cup in 1972 after being runner-up twice in 1961 and 1967. A third runners-up finish in Europe came in the UEFA Cup in 2008, Rangers have a long-standing rivalry with Celtic, the two Glasgow clubs being collectively known as the Old Firm. The four founders of Rangers – brothers Moses and Peter McNeil, Peter Campbell, Rangers first match, in May that year, was a goalless friendly draw with Callander on Glasgow Green. David Hill was also a founder member, in 1873, the club held its first annual meeting and staff were elected. By 1876 Rangers had its first international player, with Moses McNeil representing Scotland in a match against Wales. In 1877 Rangers reached a Scottish Cup final, after drawing the first game, Rangers refused to turn up for the replay, Rangers won the Glasgow Merchants Charity Cup the following year against Vale of Leven 2–1, their first major cup. The first-ever Old Firm match took place in 1888, the year of Celtics establishment, Rangers lost 5–2 in a friendly to a team composed largely of guest players from Hibernian. The 1890–91 season saw the inception of the Scottish Football League, the clubs first-ever league match, on 16 August 1890, resulted in a 5–2 victory over Heart of Midlothian. After finishing joint-top with Dumbarton, a play-off held at Cathkin Park finished 2–2, Rangers first-ever Scottish Cup win came in 1894 after a 3–1 final victory over rivals Celtic. By the start of the 20th century, Rangers had won two titles and three Scottish Cups. During William Wiltons time as secretary and then team manager. Taking over as manager from William Wilton in 1920, Bill Struth was Rangers most successful manager, on 2 January 1939 a British league attendance record was broken as 118,567 fans turned out to watch Rangers beat Celtic in the traditional New Years Day Old Firm match. During the wartime regional league setup, Rangers achieved their highest score against old firm rivals Celtic with an 8–1 win in the Southern Football League, Rangers also lost by their biggest Old Firm margin of 7–1. Rangers reached the semi-finals of the European Cup in 1960, losing to German club Eintracht Frankfurt by a record aggregate 12–4 for a Scottish team. In 1961 Rangers became the first British team to reach a European final when they contested the Cup Winners Cup final against Italian side Fiorentina, Rangers lost again in the final of the same competition in 1967, by a single goal after extra time to Bayern Munich. The Ibrox disaster occurred on 2 January 1971 when large-scale crushing on an exit at the culmination of the New Years Day Old Firm game claimed 66 lives. An enquiry concluded that the crush was likely to have happened ten minutes after the final whistle and to have been triggered by someone falling on the stairs
Dunfermline Athletic F.C.
Dunfermline Athletic Football Club is a Scottish football club based in Dunfermline, Fife, commonly known as just Dunfermline. Founded in 1885, the club play in the Scottish Championship. Dunfermline play at East End Park, are nicknamed The Pars and are managed by Allan Johnston. The Pars most successful period was in the 1960s, when the won the Scottish Cup twice, in 1961 and 1968 under the management of Jock Stein. The club regularly played European football in this period, reaching the semi-finals of the 1968–69 European Cup Winners Cup under Farm. The club have played at East End Park since their formation in 1885, however, after a period of relative success in the 2000s marked by appearances in three major finals, all of which were lost against Celtic, Dunfermline were relegated to the First Division in 2007. Bobby Ancell was offered the managers post in 1950 but with the Pars making headlines for board room disputes, with a new board in place two seasons later, Ancell was offered the position again and this time accepted. Improving year on year Ancell delivered promotion back to the top flight in 1955 before leaving to start a decade at Motherwell, Jock Stein became manager in 1960 and so began the clubs golden decade. The club played regular European football in the UEFA and European Cup Winners Cups throughout the 60s, under Stein Dunfermline won the Scottish Cup in the 1960–61 season. They beat Celtic 2–0 in the final after a replay, in 1962 they reached the Cup-Winners Cup quarter finals, losing 5–3 on aggregate to Újpest Dózsa SC. On the way they beat St Patricks Athletic and FK Vardar, in the 1962–63 season Dunfermline beat Everton in the Fairs Cup and then played Valencia, losing 4–0 away before winning 6–2 at home. The Pars lost the subsequent play-off, Stein left in 1964 to join Hibernian. New manager Willie Cunningham took the club to the Scottish Cup final in the 1964–65 season and they lost the final 3–2 to a Celtic team that was at the beginning of new manager Jock Steins era. The Pars finished 3rd in the league, one point behind top two Kilmarnock and Hearts, the following year Cunningham took Dunfermline to the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup quarter-finals. Alex Ferguson was a player in the Dunfermline squad between 1964 and 1967, George Farm was manager from 1967 until 1970. He matched Stein by winning the Scottish Cup in 1968 with a 3–1 win in the final against Hearts, on the way to the semi-final Dunfermline beat APOEL, Olympiacos and West Bromwich Albion. Dunfermline, managed by Pat Stanton started the 1980s in poor form, the core of the team were Pars stalwarts, Dr Hugh Whyte in goal, John Salton, Kenny Thomson and Dr Bobby Robertson in defence and Sandy McNaughton up front. Of this quintet only Salton was not an ever-present in the league campaign, the team developed a habit of losing streaks,2 of five games and 2 of three games and this caused relegation nerves
Easter Road is a football stadium located in the Leith area of Edinburgh, Scotland, which is the home ground of Scottish Championship club Hibernian. The stadium currently has a capacity of 20,421. Easter Road is also known by Hibs fans as The Holy Ground or The Leith San Siro, the venue has also been used to stage international matches, Scottish League Cup semi-finals and was briefly the home ground of the Edinburgh professional rugby union team. Hibs first played at the present site of Easter Road in 1893, the ground holds the record attendance for a Scottish match outside Glasgow, when 65,860 attended an Edinburgh derby on 2 January 1950. The size of the terracing was greatly reduced in the 1980s, after the publication of the Taylor Report, Hibs considered leaving Easter Road and moving to a different site, but these plans were abandoned in 1994. Redevelopment of the began in 1995 and was completed in 2010. The Easter Road pitch had a slope until it was removed at the end of the 1999–00 season. Hibernian played its first match on the Meadows, on 25 December 1875, the club first moved to the Easter Road area in 1880, to a ground known as Hibernian Park. This location had the advantage of being equidistant between their two main sources of support, the Irish immigrant communities in the port of Leith and the Old Town of Edinburgh. When Hibs suffered financial difficulties in the early 1890s, the lease on Hibernian Park expired, the club was reformed in 1892 and a lease on a piece of land called Drum Park was secured. The site had restricted access from Easter Road, a slope and was in close proximity to Bank Park. There was a sense of continuity from the ground, however. The first match at Easter Road was played on 4 February 1893, Easter Road staged its first Scottish League match when Hibs joined the league in 1893. Hibs were only renting Easter Road, which Edinburgh city planners had designated for future development and this meant the club were unwilling to develop the ground and looked for alternatives. Hibs considered relocating to Aberdeen in 1902, a year before Aberdeen FC was formed by a merger of three local clubs. In 1909, work began on a new ground in the Piershill area of Ednburgh. No line was built, but Hibs interest in moving to the site was thwarted. The long-term future of Easter Road was only secured in 1922, two years later, three banks of terraces were raised, while a main stand seating 4,480 people was built on the west side of the ground
Arbroath Football Club are a Scottish football club currently playing in the Scottish League Two. The club were founded in 1878 and play matches at Gayfield Park. They play in maroon strips, and are nicknamed the Red Lichties due to the red light that used to fishing boats back from the North Sea to the burghs harbour. Arbroath share a long-standing and fierce rivalry with local neighbours Montrose, jocky Petrie scored 13 goals in that game, a record for the most goals by a single player in a British senior match. The team has had mixed success in recent years, in the 1996–97 season they hit the bottom of the Scottish senior football standard as they finished bottom of the Third Division. However, the season they were promoted to the Second Division. They spent three years at this level before winning promotion to the First Division – arguably the clubs greatest achievement in recent history and they finished 7th in their first season in the First Division,13 points clear of relegation troubles. However, in the 2002–03 season, the team struggled badly, in the 2003–04 season, Arbroath narrowly avoided back-to-back relegations, as they escaped the drop on the last day of the season. In 2004–05, however, there was no escaping a 3–0 defeat at Dumbarton on 30 April 2005, therefore, in recent years the club has risen from the depths of the Third Division to the heights of the First Division, then fallen back down to the basement league. Arbroath finished fourth in Division 3 and disposed of Cowdenbeath 2–1 on aggregate thanks to an extra time winner from Robbie Raeside in the semi final. Stranraer were the opponents in the final and the Lichties ran out 2–0 winners in the home tie first leg at Gayfield thanks to a Robbie Raeside header. At Stranraer, the Arbroath goal was pummelled for much of the match, although one goal was conceded, a resolute defence saw the Lichties hold on for a 2–1 aggregate win and promotion. Arbroath managed to consolidate their position in Division 2 in 2008–09, the performances were boosted by loan additions such as Steven Doris, Craig Forsyth and ex Scotland International, Colin Cameron and the team got results when it mattered. Safety was all but assured with a narrow 1–0 win over Queens Park at Hampden, courtesy of a fine Robbie Ross strike, a 2–2 draw against Peterhead and a 0–0 draw against Raith Rovers in May was enough to seal 7th spot. During season 2009–10, results seemed to go into free fall after a 6–0 home defeat to St Johnstone in the CIS Cup early in the season. John McGlashan resigned to be replaced by Jim Weir who after a mixed start eventually rallied the team to a spirited last few weeks of the season. With a win needed against East Fife to avoid the play-offs, after beating Queens Park in the play-off semi final, their season ended with a 2–0 loss to Forfar Athletic in the final. Weir resigned to take up the vacant position at Brechin City, arbroaths next few seasons in the third tier were a mixed rollercoaster
Gayfield Park, commonly known as Gayfield, is a football stadium in Arbroath, Angus, Scotland. It is the ground of Scottish Professional Football League team Arbroath F. C. The club have played at Gayfield since 1880, although the pitch has only been on its current alignment since the ground was redeveloped in 1925, the ground has a capacity of 6,600, including 861 seats. Arbroath F. C. was formed in 1878 and played at Woodville Park, the new ground was opened in 1880, with the first match being a Scottish Cup tie against Rob Roy. In September 1885, Arbroath played Bon Accord in the Scottish Cup at Gayfield and won 36–0, Arbroath joined the Scottish Football League in 1921, with the first League match at Gayfield being against Johnstone. The clubs plans to construct a Greater Gayfield led to the pitch being moved 60 yards, so that the original line became the goal line. The new ground was opened on 29 August 1925 against East Fife, gayfields record attendance of 13,510 was set against Rangers in February 1952. Floodlights were first installed in 1955, the main stand had to be rebuilt following a fire in 1958. This stand was replaced in 2002 by the present main stand, the stadium is situated on the sea front, to the west of Arbroath harbour, on the southern edge of the town. There is no other stadium in Europe which is as close to the sea. Due to its next to the North Sea, in winter fans can be exposed to severe cold. The ground has a capacity of 6,600, the only seating area is the new single tier, covered Gayfield Stand. The stand was opened in 2002 and seats 814 spectators, the stadium has standing terracing around the entire pitch with plenty of covered terracing at the Seaforth End, the East Terrace and the Harbour end. When segregation is required the away fans get the Seaforth End and half of the East Terrace, the pitch size is 115 by 71 yards. Record attendance,13,510 v Rangers F. C. Scottish Cup 3rd round,23 February 1952
Arbroath or Aberbrothock /ɑːrˈbroʊθ/ is a former royal burgh and the largest town in the council area of Angus in Scotland, and has a population of 23,902. It lies on the North Sea coast, around 16 miles ENE of Dundee and 45 miles SSW of Aberdeen, Arbroath grew considerably during the Industrial Revolution owing to the expansion of firstly the flax and secondly the jute industries and the engineering sector. A new harbour was built in 1839 and by the 20th century, the town is notable as the home of the Declaration of Arbroath, as well as the Arbroath smokie. The towns football team, Arbroath Football Club, hold the record for the highest number of goals scored in a professional football match. They won 36–0 against Aberdeen Bon Accord in the Scottish Cup in 1885, the name Aberbrothock can be found in numerous spelling variations. In the earliest manuscripts available, it is seen as Abirbrothoke, in the Declaration of Arbroath, it is seen as Abirbrothoc. Early maps show a number of variants including Aberbrothock, Aberbrothik, Aberbrothick, the modern name Arbroath became more common in the mid-19th century, with the older name being largely dispensed with by the time of the first edition of the Ordnance Survey Maps. However, variants of Arbroath had been used since the 17th century, the area around Arbroath has been occupied since at least the Neolithic period. Bronze age archaeology is to be found in abundance in the surrounding area, examples include the short-cist burials found near West Newbigging, about a mile to the North of the town. These burials included pottery urns, a pair of silver discs, iron Age archaeology is also well represented, for example in the souterrain nearby Warddykes Cemetery and at West Grange of Conan, as well as the better-known examples at Carlungie and Ardestie. The stones had been used in the building of the old church and, unfortunately, the first modern development in Arbroath was the Abbey, founded by King William the Lion in 1178 for monks of the Tironensian order from Kelso Abbey. It received consecration in 1197 with a dedication to Saint Thomas Becket and it was the Kings only personal foundation, and he was buried within its precincts in 1214. The Abbey was not finally completed until 1233, Arbroath was the location of the Battle of Arbroath in 1446. Lindsay was excommunicated for his troubles and it was felt that this was incompatible with his role as Chief Justiciary. The monks of Arbroath Abbey selected Alexander Ogilvy of Inverquharity as his replacement, large parts of the town were destroyed in the aftermath by the Lindsay family. The ruins were a site for travellers during the 17th and 18th centuries. The remains are now administered by Historic Scotland, on 6 April 1320 the Scottish Parliament met at Arbroath Abbey and addressed to the Pope the Declaration of Arbroath, drafted by the Abbot of the time, Bernard. This document detailed the services which their lord and sovereign Robert the Bruce had rendered to Scotland, Arbroath was created a royal burgh in 1599 by James VI
East Fife F.C.
East Fife Football Club is a semi-professional football club established in 1903 in Methil, Fife, Scotland. They are members of the Scottish Professional Football League and they compete in League One, the third tier of the Scottish football league system. The club were the first club to win the Scottish League Cup three times and one of two clubs from the second tier of the Scottish league system to win the Scottish Cup. This makes them the most successful club in Fife in terms of honours won. East Fife are one of four senior clubs based in Fife, the three other clubs are Cowdenbeath, Dunfermline Athletic and the Kirkcaldy-based Raith Rovers, all of whom have historically shared rivalries. The clubs East Fife Ladies team competes in the Scottish Womens Football League Second Division East and they are a developing club at all ages including first-team for ladies football, and play their home games in Levenmouth, Fife. Local demand for the establishment of a football team led to a public meeting being held in January 1903. The following season East Fife joined the Northern League, which included such as Dunfermline Athletic. The club remained in the Northern League until the 1908–09 season, East Fife remained in the Central League until 1921, apart from a period during the First World War when the Eastern League was reformed. In the period following the war, the clubs competing for the Central League were mainly from the coal and shale mining communities of Fife and West Lothian. As the mining towns thrived with the growth of the industry and its associated influx of miners and their families. The result of this was that by the end of the decade, in an effort to stop the migration of its players to the Central League, the Scottish League decided to admit the Central League clubs, including East Fife, to its membership. The Central League therefore became the Scottish Second Division at the start of the 1921–22 season, only six years after becoming members of the Scottish League, East Fife appeared in the 1927 Scottish Cup final, which it lost 3–1 to Celtic at Hampden Park. East Fifes only season in Scottish footballs top division before World War II was 1930–31 after finishing Second Division runners-up the year before, the 1927 cup feat was surpassed just over a decade later when The Fifers won the 1937–38 Scottish Cup. The prestigious cup was secured with a 4–2 win over Kilmarnock in the final, the game was watched by a crowd of almost 92,000 spectators. East Fifes best years were undoubtedly in the following the Second World War. In 1946–47 the club finished third missing promotion by one place, scot Symon joined as manager in 1947. At the end of East Fife were promoted to the top flight of Scottish football as B Division champions, during this Golden Period, the club won the Scottish League Cup on three separate occasions in seven seasons
Forfar Athletic F.C.
Forfar Athletic Football Club are a Scottish semi-professional football club from the town of Forfar, Angus. They are members of the Scottish Professional Football League and currently play in the Scottish League Two and they play their home games at Station Park, in the north end of Forfar. The club are nicknamed the Loons, although they are referred to as the Sky Blues. One explanation for the origins of the Loons moniker is that the string were younger than the first team. Other rival clubs in Angus include Arbroath, Brechin City and Montrose, as well as the clubs of Dundee, Dundee United, St Johnstone. As well as taking part in the Scottish Professional Football League, the club participate in the Scottish Cup, the League Cup, the Challenge Cup. The club were founded in 1885 when the team of the older Forfar club called Angus FC. Angus FC had been the senior club for a number of years, and on 24 September 1883, amalgamated with the Junior club Forfar West End. The demise of Angus in 1885 prompted the second string to go it alone, the early side played in a navy and black striped home strip. Forfar played their first match on 16 May 1885 when they beat Dundee Our Boys 1–0, on 1 September 1888 the club recorded their record win when they defeated Lindertis, a side from nearby Kirriemuir, 14–1. The club were admitted into the Scottish Football League in the 1921–22 season, entering the new Second Division, in the 1923–24 season a third division was established, Forfar were relegated into that division in the 1924–25 season by finishing bottom of Division Two. The club were lucky,12 of the 16 teams in that division were relegated as the division was to be scrapped the following season, national competitions were suspended with the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939. In this period Alec Troup was a key player for the club – he went on to play for Dundee, the clubs biggest defeat also came in this period, on 2 January 1930, when they lost 2–12 to Kings Park. When the league resumed in the 1946–47 season Forfar found themselves in the C Division of the league and this was considerable progress from the 1973–74 season when the club finished bottom of the division. The late 1970s and the 1980s can probably be considered the clubs most successful period – at the end of the 1985–86 season the club were just one point below promotion to the Premier Division, various kit colours were used throughout this period. In the 1950s and early 1960s, a home strip was used. Later the team adopted lighter blue with varying navy, the nickname The Sky Blues was introduced in the 1982–83 season to aid marketing, however it sometimes became confused with the nickname of English club Coventry City. The nickname was dropped by the club during the early 1990s, the club continued in the First Division until 1991–92, when they finished bottom under the management of Paul Hegarty
Bayview Stadium, known formerly as New Bayview, is a football stadium located in the Scottish town of Methil, Fife. It was opened in 1998, after the club relocated from the original Bayview Park across town, the stadium can accommodate up to 1,980 spectators all of whom are seated in a single stand running along one side of the pitch. There are open areas for future expansion, in 2008 plans were announced to increase capacity with the erection of a covered terrace/stand at the sea end of the stadium. Due to the climate in 2009 these plans were put on hold. The stadiums capacity was expanded to 4,700 for a Scottish League One match against Rangers in October 2013. The site of the stadium is near the mouth of the River Forth and the used to be overshadowed by Methil power station
Methil is an eastern coastal town in Scotland. It was part of the former Burgh of Buckhaven and Methil which existed between 1891 and the reorganisation of government in 1975. It lies within an urban area described as Levenmouth. Methil lies geographically between Largo Bay to the east and Wemyss Bay to the west, previously an industrial maritime powerhouse of the region and once Scotlands greatest coal port, it is now redirecting itself towards a green energy future. One boundary delineating Methil from its adjacent towns is the River Leven, prior to the Reformation when it was absorbed into the Parish of Wemyss, Methil was an independent parish centred on a church situated well inland in part of what is now Methilmill Cemetery. In the 17th century, it developed as a village, at first with a tidal harbour. Historically, the employer in the area was coal mining, most of the coal being exported through Methil Docks. A related development around 1960 was Methil Power Station, sited at the mouth of the River Leven and this power station made good use of colliery slurry which otherwise would have gone to waste. Nearby is the new Bayview Stadium, home to one side East Fife Football Club. Bayview Park had previously been located centrally in the town, at the corner of Wellesley Road. Methil Docks was particularly significant during World War II for the movement of coal, the docks had a hydraulic power station to serve the distinctive coal hoists, all of which were once local landmarks. The town was traversed by several railways linking the collieries to the docks. After the post-war nationalisation of the railways, the coal mines, now there is strong local pressure to reopen the railway line from Thornton Junction, which would arguably help both trade and improve public transport, including tourism for the whole area. The Hydrogen Office based in the aims to demonstrate the benefits of improved energy efficiency and renewable. Kirkland High School and Community College was an education and combined education college. It was amalgamated with Buckhaven High School in August 2016 to form Levenmouth Academy, Primary schools in the area include Denbeath Primary, Aberhill Primary and Methilhill Primary. Local politics is controlled by Fife Council although there is interest being shown by people in redeveloping more locally centred councils. Methilhill had a Community Council for a period of time, although it is not currently active, there is a committee of Fife councillors elected to represent the area described by Fife Council as Levenmouth
Montrose Football Club is a Scottish semi-professional football team, based in the town of Montrose, Angus. They are members of the Scottish Professional Football League and currently play in Scottish League Two, the club were founded in 1879 and play at Links Park. They joined Scottish Football in 1923, along with near-neighbours Brechin City, in the newly founded Scottish Third Division, Montrose are one of only three sides from that Third Division who are still competing today in the SFL. The club was readmitted to the Second Division in 1929–30, in the 1930s, the first few league seasons after readmission were difficult, with the club regularly finishing in the bottom four of the table. In the immediate period, Montrose spent time playing in the newly formed Division C, consisting of provincial clubs. With the re-formation of the Second Division in 1955–56, the once again joined that league. In the second round of 1974–75 Scottish Cup, Montrose recorded their largest victory when they beat Vale of Leithen 12–0, although this was an away fixture, due to a fire at their oppositions ground this tie was played at Links Park. Montrose won their first championship under the guidance of Iain Stewart in 1984–85, relegation followed in 1987 as the part-time club found themselves outgunned in a league largely consisting of full-time teams. Under co-managers Doug Rougvie and Chic McLelland, Montrose won promotion to Division One in 1991, Montrose have spent the vast majority of their recent history in the relative obscurity of the Third Division. At the end of the 1994–95 season, they were promoted to the Second Division after finishing as runners up to Forfar Athletic, however, the teams first attempt at this higher level was not successful, as they finished bottom of the table in 1995–96. The club have remained at this level ever since, and have achieved success in the league. Their most notable recent success was a surprising 5–1 win away at Second Division side Forfar Athletic in the First Round of the 2004–05 Scottish Cup, in the second round of the 2003–04 League Cup, Montrose were drawn away to SPL side Hibernian where they were crushed 9–0. Following a disappointing beginning to 2005–06 season, manager Henry Hall left the club by mutual consent, former Montrose player Eddie Wolecki was appointed new manager of the team on 12 December 2005. In July 2006 Aberdeen businessman Kenny Black invested money in the club and was offered a place on the board which he accepted, David Robertson became co-manager with Wolecki, but the latter parted company with the club in September 2006. Following a very poor run of results David Robertson left the club in early 2007, replaced in time by ex-St Johnstone stalwart Jim Weir, Links Park underwent a transformation ahead of the 2007–08 campaign. A new artificial pitch was laid, so the game on 21 April 2007 was the last game on grass for the foreseeable future, a smaller training pitch was installed beside the main stand. New state of the art catering facilities and changing rooms were also installed, the fortunes of the club on the pitch also improved with several big name signings and a great start to the season propelled Montrose into the top 4 for the majority of the season. Montrose came in third in the league and were pitted against Stranraer in the playoffs, a 1–1 draw in the first leg at Links park, was followed by a second leg in which Montrose went down 3–0
Peterhead Football Club are a football club based in Peterhead, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. They currently play in Scottish League One after winning the Scottish League Two Championship in the 2013–14 season and their home ground is Balmoor in Peterhead, with a capacity of 3,150. The current manager is Jim McInally, who was appointed on 7 October 2011 following the sacking of John Sheran on 23 September 2011 after the side won only one game in 17 matches. Peterheads traditional rivals are the Highland League team Fraserburgh, however and they now have a new rivalry with Elgin City. On 22 November 2011, Peterhead earned a game against Celtic in the Scottish Cup, on 20 January 2013 Peterhead hosted Rangers for a second time that season, the game was watched by 4,855 spectators. This is Balmoors all-time record attendance with approximately 400 more fans than the previous fixture, on Saturday 18 April 2014, Peterhead clinched their first trophy as a football league club by winning the Scottish League Two title, beating Clyde 2–0 at Broadwood Stadium. On Saturday 14 November 2015, Peterhead reached their first cup final since leaving the Highland League, the club were beaten 4–0 by Rangers at Hampden Park, with over 2,000 travelling from Peterhead to cheer the Blue Toon. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality
Links Park is a football stadium in Montrose, Scotland. It has been the ground of Montrose Football Club since 1887. Links Park was opened in 1887, to help finance the new ground, Montrose F. C. rented the pitch out for circuses and livestock grazing. The club was able to raise £150 in 1920 to buy a stand. A roof was built over the Wellington Street end of the ground in the 1960s, floodlights were installed in 1971 and first used in a match against Stranraer. The record attendance at the ground was 8,983, for a Scottish Cup quarter-final tie against Dundee in March 1973, Links Park was significantly improved in the 1990s, after the club was taken over by Bryan Keith. The wooden Main Stand was replaced by a stand, seating 1,258 people. Other improvements brought the total investment to nearly £1 million, of which the Football Trust provided £400,000, Keith bought the ground in 1995 for £500,000 and granted the club a 25-year lease, without rent. GlaxoSmithKline provided a £250,000 grant in 2006 for the club to install an all-weather surface at Links Park and this pitch was replaced by another artificial surface during the 2015 close season. The current stadium capacity is 4,936, the all-seated Main Stand has a capacity of 1,338 with the West Stand terrace holding a maximum of 1,582 spectators. There is also uncovered standing areas on the North and East sides off the ground, the pitch at the stadium measures 113 x 70 yards
Montrose is a coastal resort town and former royal burgh in Angus, Scotland. It is situated 38 miles north of Dundee between the mouths of the North and South Esk rivers and it is the northernmost coastal town in Angus and developed at a natural harbour that traded in skins, hides and cured salmon in medieval times. With a population of approximately 12,000, the functions as a port, but the major employer is GlaxoSmithKline. The skyline of Montrose is dominated by the 220-foot steeple, designed by James Gillespie Graham, Montrose is a town with a wealth of architecture, and is a centre for international trade. It is an important commercial port for the oil and gas industry. It is known for its wide thoroughfare and high street which leads to picturesque closes containing secluded gardens, the town has a view of a 2 mi square tidal lagoon, Montrose Basin, which is considered a nature reserve of international importance. It is the largest inland salt water basin in the UK, just outside Montrose is the 18th-century House of Dun, designed by the Scottish architect William Adam and built in 1730 for David Erskine, 13th Laird of Dun. Prehistoric elements are found in the vicinity of Montrose, including the Stone of Morphie located to the north, one ancient name for Montrose was Celurca. Early place names appear to show the presence of a Norse settlement in the area of the present harbour, the Norse settlement was named Stroma which translates as Tide race river, referring to the speed of the tidal emptying and filling of the aforementioned basin. It is claimed that the name Montrose stems from Mouth Hrossay due to the location at the outlets of the River Esk near Rossie Island, however the etymology is more often attributed to the gaelic words Monadh and Rois or Ros. The first documentary evidence of the existence of Montrose is the charter issued by David I who founded the town around 1140 as Sallorch or Sallork. By 1178 the name had taken the form Munross before becoming Montrose, folk etymology attributes the origin of the towns name as Mount of Roses. This is reflected by the motto on the seal, Marie ditat. Montrose was visited and plundered in numerous instances by Danes, in the year 980 it was sacked and razed to the ground. It was once believed that a castle existed in Montrose in the 10th century and was destroyed by Kenneth III, however the historicity of this account has been disputed. In the two proceeding centuries there are no dates in its history. During the 1140s it was an important trading town, the trading revenues received from Montrose as well as Forfar and Dundee were acquired by Malcolm IV and contributed to Restenneth Priory. In 1178 William the Lion built a castle nearby in which he would occasionally reside, the ruins have acquired the name Red Castle
Elgin City F.C.
Elgin City Football Club are a part-time senior professional football club based in Elgin, Moray. They currently compete in the Scottish Professional Football League in Scottish League Two, the present Elgin City club was formed on 10 August 1893 by the amalgamation of Elgin clubs, Rovers and Vale of Lossie. However the name Elgin City was used by two prior to this. The first club was formed in October 1879, but lasted for only a short time, the second Elgin City club was formed in October 1884 and lasted till early 1887. The present clubs first major honour came in the 1898–99 season when they became the first club outside Inverness to win the North of Scotland Cup beating Clachnacuddin 2–1. However, they failed after that to any success except the Elgin District Cup until 1924 when they again won the North of Scotland Cup a second time. Since then they have won honours with relative frequency, in 1968 the club reached the quarter-finals of the Scottish Cup, the furthest into the tournament that a Highland league club has ever progressed. Elgin City have played at Borough Briggs since 1921 when it replaced Cooper Park, the ground currently has a capacity of 4,520 and is the most northerly football league ground in the United Kingdom. Elgin was founded in 1893 and originally played their football in the Highland Football League, the club was granted league status in 2000 when the SPL was expanded to twelve clubs leaving two places to be filled. Peterhead joined them in the Third Division from the Highland League, since joining the SFL, Elgin have struggled with consistency, but in season 2003–04 they recaptured the North of Scotland Cup. In December 2005, assistant manager Kenny Black saw a takeover bid thwarted at the eleventh hour, many fans saw his bid as the best chance to move upward through the leagues, but a controversial sale of shares in the club meant Blacks bid was defeated. David Robertson, manager at the time, also chose to leave the club, former Lossiemouth manager Graham Tatters was subsequently named as Elgins new chairman. Early in 2006, former Aberdeen, Ross County and Scotland international, however, following a very poor start to the 2006–07 season, he left the club despite having forged a good relationship with the fans. After a brief spell under interim manager Graham Tatters, former Clachnacuddin manager Robbie Williamson was appointed in January 2007, Williamson quit on 20 December 2008, before a game with Berwick Rangers. He left the bottom of the Third Division after just two wins from 15 matches. On 23 January 2009, former player of Everton, Norwich City, Dundee, Dunfermline Athletic and Kilmarnock, Ross Jack was named as the new manager. He is a former player-manager of Montrose and former assistant coach at Ross County, on 5 January 2013, Elgin City became the first club to take a point from Rangers at Ibrox in the season, with the game finishing 1–1. Ross Jack left the club on 22 January 2014 after five years in charge, in his time at the club, the high point was reaching the divisional play-offs at the end of season 2011–12
Stirling Albion F.C.
Stirling Albion Football Club is a Scottish football club based in the city of Stirling. The club was founded in 1945 following the demise of Kings Park after World War II, the club currently competes in the Scottish League Two as a member of the Scottish Professional Football League. Its highest league came in 1958–59 with a 12th-placed position in the top flight. Its only major success is in the league where it has won the tier of Scottish football on four occasions. The club has recently competed in the third tier following its re-creation in 1975. Stirlings home ground is Forthbank Stadium, a 3,808 capacity stadium in the east of the city near the banks of the River Forth. Before the stadium was opened in 1993 the club was based at Annfield Stadium which had been the home of the club since it was founded in 1945, Stirling Albion was founded in 1945 after the towns previous football team Kings Park had failed to survive the Second World War. Kings Parks ground had been damaged during the war, having been hit by a German bomb on 20 July 1940 and this was one of only two bombs to fall on the town during the Second World War. The new club was the brainchild of local businessman Thomas Fergusson, a coal magnate. Annfield was situated within a quarter of a mile from the town centre, the name Albion supposedly came from the make of Fergussons coal trucks. This unfortunately is an urban myth, Albion Coal lorries were used as grandstands but the Club was named at a meeting of fans long before a ball was kicked. For a time it was a saying in Scotland that something or somebody was going up, in 1966 the club became the first British team to play in Japan. A period of decline set in during the late 1960s and early 1970s as the Albion were consigned to the bottom league, League reconstruction in the mid-1970s brought about a new 3 tier system and The Binos found themselves in the lowest division until 1977. A four-year spell in the 1st Division ended in humiliation in 1981 when the failed to score a league goal for eight months. Surprisingly they still finished 2nd bottom of the league, even missing penalties, relegation to Division 2 in 1981 almost killed the club as the team struggled under manager Alex Smith and dwindling gates led the club to the brink of bankruptcy. The clubs only way of escape was to sell Annfield to the local council, during this period, the team were responsible for the 20th centurys record Scottish Cup score, inflicting a 20–0 defeat on Selkirk in 1984. As the 1980s progressed the club continued to struggle, surprisingly still under the management of Alex Smith, george Peebles took charge of the team and would be the first Scottish manager to manage a team who played on Astroturf. The council had decided to make as much money as possible from Annfield, the main stand which was also demolished after being declared an unsafe building
Borough Briggs is a football ground in Elgin, Moray, Scotland and is the most northernly football league stadium in Great Britain. This venue is the ground of Elgin City who currently play in the Scottish League Two. Borough Briggs opened on 20 August 1921 when Inverness Citadel were the visitors in a Highland League fixture, which Elgin won 3-0. The first player to score at the ground was City centre-half Willie Raitt after 20 minutes of the first-half at the Lossie Green end, other scorers were Alf Mitchell, the new ground replaced Elgins temporary ground from 1919 to 1921 at Cooper Park. It has a capacity of 4,520,478 seated, all 478 seats in the main stand were formerly fixed at Newcastle Uniteds St James Park ground. When Elgin City were elected to the Scottish Football League in 2000 they obtained 500 seats from the Geordie club when it was revamping the seated areas in its main stand, Scottish Football Grounds Guide - Borough Briggs
Elgin is a former cathedral city and Royal Burgh in Moray, Scotland. It is the administrative and commercial centre for Moray, the town originated to the south of the River Lossie on the higher ground above the floodplain. Elgin is first documented in the Cartulary of Moray in 1190 AD and it was created a Royal Burgh in the 12th century by King David I of Scotland and by that time had a castle on top of the present day Lady Hill to the west of the town. In August 1040, MacBeths army defeated and killed Duncan I at Bothganowan, Elgin is first recorded in a charter of David I in 1151 in which he granted an annuity to the Priory of Urquhart. David had made Elgin a royal burgh around 1130, after his defeat of Óengus of Moray, during Davids reign the castle was established at the top of what is now Lady Hill. The town received a charter from Alexander II in 1224 when he granted the land for a new cathedral to Andrew. This finally settled the episcopal see which had been at times at Kinneddar. Elgin was a residence for the early Scottish monarchs, David I, William I, Alexander II and Alexander III all held court there. Of these kings, Alexander II was Elgins greatest benefactor and returned many times to his royal castle and he established the two religious houses of the town, the Dominicans or Blackfriars in the west side and the Franciscans or Greyfriars in the east. Further to the east stood the Hospital of Maison Dieu, or House of God, on 19 July 1224, the foundation stone of the new Elgin Cathedral was ceremoniously laid. The cathedral was completed sometime after 1242 but was destroyed by fire in 1270. The reasons for this are unrecorded, the buildings which now remain as ruins date from the reconstruction following that fire. The Chartulary of Moray described the cathedral as Mirror of the country. Edward I of England travelled twice to Elgin, during his first visit in 1296 he was impressed by what he saw. Preserved in the Cotton library now held in the British Library is the journal of his stay, describing the castle, by his second visit in September 1303, the castles wooden interior had been burned while held by the English governor, Henry de Rye. As a result, he stayed in Elgin for two days and then camped at Kinloss Abbey from 13 September until 4 October. After Edwards death in July 1307, Robert the Bruce retook Scotland in 1308 and he attacked Elgin castle to be twice repulsed before finally succeeding. In August 1370 Alexander Bur, Bishop of Moray began payments to Alexander Stewart, Wolf of Badenoch, King Robert IIIs brother, for the protection of his lands and men
Penalty kick (association football)
A penalty kick is a method of restarting play in association football, taken from 11 metres out from the goal, on the penalty mark. Penalty kicks are performed during normal play and they are awarded when a foul that is punishable by a direct free kick is committed within the offending players own penalty area. Similar kicks are made in a penalty shootout in some tournaments to determine which team is victorious after a drawn match, in practice, penalties are converted to goals more often than not, even against world class goalkeepers. This means that penalty awards are often decisive, especially in low-scoring games, the referee gives the ball to the non-offending team. The goalkeeper must stand on the line between the post until the ball is kicked. Lateral movement is allowed, but the keeper is not permitted to come off the goal line by stepping or lunging forward until the ball is in play. When the goalkeeper indicates to the referee that they are ready, once the shooter has started their approach to the ball, they are not permitted to interrupt it. The ball must be stationary before the kick, and must be struck forwards, violation of these rules will result in a re-kick. After the penalty is taken properly, the ball may be played by any player except the one who executed the penalty kick. The kicker may not play the ball again until it has touched or played by another player on either team. For penalties taken near the end of time, play may be extended so that the penalty kick may be taken. A two-man penalty, or tap penalty, occurs when the penalty-taker, instead of shooting for goal, taps the ball slightly forward so that a team-mate can run on to it and shoot. The team-mate, like all other players, must be at least ten yards from the penalty mark when the ball is initially kicked and this strategy depends on the element of surprise, so that the team-mate can reach the ball ahead of any defenders. There is no requirement for the penalty taker to shoot for goal, the first recorded tap penalty was taken by Jimmy McIlroy and Danny Blanchflower of Northern Ireland against Portugal on 1 May 1957. Another was taken by Rik Coppens and André Piters in the World Cup Qualifying match Belgium v Iceland on 5 June 1957, arsenal players Thierry Henry and Robert Pirès failed in an attempt at a similar penalty in 2005, during a Premier League match against Manchester City at Highbury. Lionel Messi tapped a penalty for Luis Suárez as Suárez completed his hat-trick on 14 February 2016 against league opponents Celta De Vigo, in the case of a player repeatedly infringing the laws during the penalty kick, the referee may caution the player for persistent infringement. Note that all offences that occur before kick may be dealt with in this manner, as with a direct free kick, the kicker may not touch the ball a second time, until another player has touched the ball. Another example of an infringement is when a player will run up, stop directly at the ball and this gives the goalkeeper no chance at saving it, and the result of this would be a free kick for the opposing team