Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Nissan Motor Co. Ltd. shortened to Nissan, is a Japanese multinational automobile manufacturer headquartered in Nishi-ku, Yokohama. The company sells its cars under the Nissan and Datsun brands with in-house performance tuning products labelled Nismo; the company traces its name to the Nissan zaibatsu, now called Nissan Group. Since 1999, Nissan has been part of the Renault–Nissan–Mitsubishi Alliance, a partnership between Nissan of Japan, Mitsubishi Motors of Japan and Renault of France; as of 2013, Renault holds a 43.4% voting stake in Nissan, while Nissan holds a 15% non-voting stake in Renault. From 2009 to 2017 Carlos Ghosn served as CEO of both companies. In February 2017 Ghosn announced he would step down as CEO of Nissan on 1 April 2017, while remaining chairman of the company. On 19 November 2018, Ghosn was fired as chairman following his arrest for the alleged underreporting of his income to Japanese financial authorities. After 108 days in detention, Ghosn was released on bail, but after 29 days he was again detained on new charges.
He'd been due to hold a news conference, but instead his lawyers released a video of Ghosn alleging this 2018-2019 Nissan scandal is itself evidence of value destruction and Nissan corporate mismanagement. In 2013, Nissan was the sixth largest automaker in the world, after Toyota, General Motors, Volkswagen Group, Hyundai Motor Group, Ford. Taken together, the Renault–Nissan Alliance would be the world's fourth largest automaker. Nissan is the leading Japanese brand in China and Mexico. In 2014 Nissan was the largest car manufacturer in North America. Nissan is the world's largest electric vehicle manufacturer, with global sales of more than 320,000 all-electric vehicles as of April 2018; the top-selling vehicle of the car-maker's electric lineup is the Nissan LEAF, an all-electric car and the world's top-selling highway-capable plug-in electric car in history. In January 2018, Nissan CEO Hiroto Saikawa announced that all Infiniti vehicles launched from 2021 will be hybrid vehicles or all-electric vehicles.
Masujiro Hashimoto founded the Kaishinsha Motor Car Works 1 July 1911 in Tokyo's Azabu-Hiroo district, Japan's first automobile manufacturer. In 1914, the company produced its first car, called DAT; the new car's model name was an acronym of the company's investors' surnames: Kenjiro Den Rokuro Aoyama Meitaro Takeuchi It was renamed to Kaishinsha Motorcar Co. Ltd. in 1918, again to DAT Jidosha & Co. Ltd. in 1925. DAT Motors built trucks in addition to the Datsun passenger cars; the vast majority of its output were trucks, due to an non- existent consumer market for passenger cars at the time, disaster recovery efforts as a result of the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake. Beginning in 1918, the first DAT trucks were produced for the military market. At the same time, Jitsuyo Jidosha Co. Ltd. produced small trucks using parts, materials imported from the United States. Commercial operations were placed on hold during Japan's participation in World War I, the company contributed to the war effort. In 1926 the Tokyo-based DAT Motors merged with the Osaka-based Jitsuyo Jidosha Co.
Ltd a.k.a. Jitsuyo Jidosha Seizo to become DAT Jidosha Seizo Co. Ltd Automobile Manufacturing Co. Ltd. in Osaka until 1932. From 1923 to 1925, the company produced light trucks under the name of Lila. In 1931, DAT came out with a new smaller car, called the Datsun Type 11, the first "Datson", meaning "Son of DAT". In 1933 after Nissan Group zaibatsu took control of DAT Motors, the last syllable of Datson was changed to "sun", because "son" means "loss" ) in Japanese, hence the name "Datsun". In 1933, the company name was moved to Yokohama. In 1928, Yoshisuke Aikawa founded the holding company Nihon Sangyo; the name'Nissan' originated during the 1930s as an abbreviation used on the Tokyo Stock Exchange for Nihon Sangyo. This company was Nissan "Zaibatsu" which included Tobata Hitachi. At this time Nissan controlled foundries and auto parts businesses, but Aikawa did not enter automobile manufacturing until 1933; the zaibatsu grew to include 74 firms, became the fourth-largest in Japan during World War II.
In 1931, DAT Jidosha Seizo became affiliated with Tobata Casting, was merged into Tobata Casting in 1933. As Tobata Casting was a Nissan company, this was the beginning of Nissan's automobile manufacturing. In 1934, Aikawa separated the expanded automobile parts division of Tobata Casting and incorporated it as a new subsidiary, which he named Nissan Motor Co. Ltd.. The shareholders of the new company however were not enthusiastic about the prospects of the automobile in Japan, so Aikawa bought out all the Tobata Casting shareholders in June 1934. At this time, Nissan Motor became owned by Nihon Sangyo and Hitachi. In 1935, construction of its Yokohama plant was completed. 44 Datsuns were shipped to Asia and South America. In 1935, the first car manufactured by an integrated assembly system rolled off the line at the Yokohama plant. Nissan built trucks and engines for the Imperial Japanese Army. November 1937 Nissan'
Sports car racing
Sports car racing is a form of motorsport road racing which utilizes sports cars that have two seats and enclosed wheels. They may be related to road-going models. A type of hybrid between the purism of open-wheelers and the familiarity of touring car racing, this style is associated with the annual Le Mans 24 Hours endurance race. First run in 1923, Le Mans is one of the oldest motor races still in existence. Other classic but now defunct sports car races include the Italian classics, the Targa Florio and Mille Miglia, the Mexican Carrera Panamericana. Most top class sports car races emphasize endurance and strategy, over pure speed. Longer races involve complex pit strategy and regular driver changes; as a result, sports car racing is seen more as a team endeavor than an individual sport, with team managers such as John Wyer, Tom Walkinshaw, driver-turned-constructor Henri Pescarolo, Peter Sauber and Reinhold Joest becoming as famous as some of their drivers. The prestige of storied marques such as Porsche, Corvette, Jaguar, Aston Martin, Maserati, Alfa Romeo, Mercedes-Benz, BMW is built in part upon success in sports car racing and the World Sportscar Championship.
These makers' top road cars have been similar both in engineering and styling to those raced. This close association with the'exotic' nature of the cars serves as a useful distinction between sports car racing and touring cars; the 12 Hours of Sebring, 24 Hours of Daytona, 24 Hours of Le Mans were once considered the trifecta of sports car racing. Driver Ken Miles would have been the only to win all three in the same year but for an error in the Ford GT40's team orders at Le Mans in 1966 that cost him the win in spite of finishing first. According to historian Richard Hough, "It is impossible to distinguish between the designers of sports cars and Grand Prix machines during the pre-1914 period; the late Georges Faroux always contended that sports-car racing was not born until the first 24 Hours of Le Mans race in 1923, while as a joint-creator of that race he may have been prejudiced in his opinion, it is true that sports-car racing as it was known after 1919 did not exist before the First World War."
In the 1920s, the cars used in endurance racing and Grand Prix were still identical, with fenders and two seats, to carry a mechanic if necessary or permitted. Cars such as the Bugatti Type 35 were equally at home in Grands Prix and endurance events, but specialisation started to differentiate the sports-racer from the Grand Prix car; the legendary Alfa Romeo Tipo A Monoposto started the evolution of the true single-seater in the early 1930s. During the 1930s, French constructors, unable to keep up with the progress of the Mercedes-Benz and Auto-Union cars in GP racing, withdrew into domestic competition with large-capacity sports cars – marques such as Delahaye and the Bugattis were locally prominent. Through the 1920s and 1930s the roadgoing sports/GT car started to emerge as distinct from fast tourers and sports cars, whether descended from roadgoing vehicles or developed from pure-bred racing cars came to dominate races such as Le Mans and the Mille Miglia. In open-road endurance races across Europe such as the Mille Miglia, Tour de France and Targa Florio, which were run on dusty roads, the need for fenders and a mechanic or navigator was still there.
As Italian cars and races defined the genre, the category came to be known as Gran Turismo, as long distances had to be travelled, rather than running around on short circuits only. Reliability and some basic comfort were necessary. After the Second World War, sports car racing emerged as a distinct form of racing with its own classic races, from 1953, its own FIA sanctioned World Sportscar Championship. In the 1950s, sports car racing was regarded as as important as Grand Prix competition, with major marques like Ferrari, Maserati and Aston Martin investing much effort in their works programmes and supplying cars to customers. Top Grand Prix drivers competed in sports car racing. After major accidents at the 1955 24 Hours of Le Mans and the 1957 Mille Miglia the power of sports cars was curbed with a 3-litre engine capacity limit applied to them in the World Championship from 1958. From 1962 sports cars temporarily took a back seat to GT cars with the FIA replacing the World Championship for Sports Cars with the International Championship for GT Manufacturers.
In national rather than international racing, sports car competition in the 1950s and early 1960s tended to reflect what was locally popular, with the cars that were successful locally influencing each nation's approach to competing on the international stage. In the US, imported Italian and British cars battled local hybrids, with very distinct East and West Coast scenes; the US scene tended to featu
Joest Racing is a sports car racing team, established in 1978 by former Porsche works racer Reinhold Joest. The headquarters are in Germany; the team competes in the IMSA WeatherTech SportsCar Championship as Mazda Team Joest under a works contract with Mazda. As a combined driver/team owner, Reinhold Joest first began to race a Porsche 908/3 in the European Sportscar Championship, winning the driver's title, he switched to Porsche 935s, winning the 24 Hours of Daytona in 1980. The team won the DRM back to back with driver Bob Wollek, in 1982 and 1983. During the 1982 season, whilst the Porsche 956 was only available to the works team, Joest adapted a roof onto a Porsche 936 to enter the Group C World Endurance Championship, they would race the car into the 1983 season. In 1984, in absence of the works team, Joest Racing would score the first of their thirteen wins at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, with Klaus Ludwig and Henri Pescarolo driving their "lucky #7" car a Porsche 956, chassis number 117. In 1985, the works team returned, despite having little factory support, they defended their title with Ludwig, Paolo Barilla and incognito German businessman "John Winter" driving the #7 chassis number 117 again.
This would make them the second team to score back to back wins with the same car, the other being JW Automotive whose Ford GT40 Mk. I won in 1968 and 1969. In 1986, 1988, 1989 Joest won the Supercup title for teams and Wollek winning the drivers cup in 1989, they took the Interserie title for drivers with Winter in 1985 and Bernd Schneider in 1991, the teams title in 1991. In 1989, FIA introduced the new 3.5 litre Formula One engine rule to Group C, which not many teams were happy about, because few, if any, such engines were available to privateer teams like Joest. The previous fuel economy based rules were phased out in favour of short races with cars that were two-seater Formula 1 cars; the team would instead compete in the IMSA GTP category beginning in 1990, winning the 24 Hours of Daytona in 1991 with Wollek, Frank Jelinski, "Winter" and Hurley Haywood. With their Porsche 962 now being outmoded by the Nissans and Toyotas, the team would not score any more victories. In 1993, the Nissan and TWR Jaguar team had withdrawn, the AAR Eagle Toyota would continue to dominate the series final year.
Joest managed to score the car's last IMSA victory at the Road America 500, due to Toyota's absence. In the 1990s, the team had a successful career developing and racing an Opel Calibra in the Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft, they first won the ITR Gold Cup at the Donington Park round in 1994 with Manuel Reuter driving, when the leading Alfa Romeo of Alessandro Nannini was disqualified for running out of fuel. They would continue to have a successful career there by the time the series became a full-fledged international championship, winning the title for the final year in 1996 for Opel. In late 1995, Tom Walkinshaw Racing were commissioned by Porsche to produce a WSC car to compete in the 1996 Daytona 24-hour race; the resulting Porsche WSC-95 was based on the TWR's 1991 Jaguar XJR-14 chassis, with the roof removed and a flat-six Porsche engine fitted. The car was withdrawn because of a sudden rule change. For 1996 the concept was revived and Joest were chosen to run the WSC-95s at Le Mans as backup for Porsche's own team of works 911 GT1s.
Joest won the race with Davy Jones, Manuel Reuter, Alexander Wurz. They returned in 1997, this time without works support, but again with the same car wearing #7; the winning pilots were by Michele Alboreto, Stefan Johansson and Tom Kristensen, the latter scoring the first of his nine wins. As with the #7 956 of the 1980s, Joest attempted for a third straight win, although without success, as neither car finished, while Porsche itself prevailed in the 1998 race. In 1998, after being associated with Porsche for many years, the team signed a works contract with Audi to support them for the 1999 24 Hours of Le Mans. Joest helped them build and develop the Audi R8R. Audi, not being sure which concept was the better one supported an LM-GTP entry, the R8C, developed by RTN. While the British R8Cs never worked properly, the two Joest R8R were reliable, yet too slow to finish better than 3rd and 4th against one of the works BMW V12 LMR and a Toyota GT-One. Audi and Joest went back to develop the successful R8, winning its maiden race at the 2000 12 Hours of Sebring, going on the win at Le Mans.
Between 2000 and 2002, the R8 cars took a hat-trick of wins at Le Mans and Petit Le Mans, as well as American Le Mans Series titles in each year. Audi scaled their sports car racing operation down at the end of 2002, preferring to focus their attention on the Bentley Speed 8 for a year, allowing it to win in 2003. In 2004, Audi returned to DTM touring car racing, now backing up the Abt Sportsline effort, called "private" since 2000. Joest and Abt fielded Audi A4s in the series. In 2006, Joest began racing the new diesel-powered Audi R10 sports car, they began the 2006 season with a win at the 12 Hours of Sebring, took the 2006 24 Hours of Le Mans, replicating that performance a year and again in 2008, both times against Peugeot's diesel 908 HDi FAP coupe. In 2009, Joest and Audi introduced the Audi R15 sports car, the replacement for the R10. However, reliability issues allowed Peugeot to finish first and second at the 2009 24 Hours of Le Mans, with their 908 HDi FAP, perfected over its three-year his
Aston Martin Racing
Aston Martin Racing is a British auto racing team established in 2004 as a partnership between automobile manufacturer Aston Martin and engineering group Prodrive. The partnership was created for the purpose of returning Aston Martin to sports car racing with the DBR9, a modified variant of the Aston Martin DB9. Since the DBR9's racing debut in 2005, Aston Martin Racing has expanded to build a variety of cars available to customers, as well as development of Aston Martin's V12 engine for Le Mans Prototype use. Aston Martin Racing's program has earned several successes over the years. Although all cars are built by Prodrive at their factory, Aston Martin plays an integral part in designing the race cars, as well as integrating elements of the race cars back into Aston Martin's road cars. On 23 April 2009, Aston Martin chairman and Prodrive founder David Richards announced his intent to return to Formula One in 2010 with the possibility of using the Aston Martin name, however this never materialised.
Aston Martin had raced in the 1959 and 1960 Formula One seasons but failed to score points in either year. Aston Martin Racing builds cars for international grand tourer classes; the team itself run a squad of DBR9s in the former top class, GT1, while other cars were offered to customers. The GTE class became their next target after the failure of the 2011 season, the car is based on the V8 Vantage; the V8 Vantage is featured in GT3 and GT4 classes. Before GT3 Vantage was introduced the DBRS9 was solely racing in GT3. In 2008, Aston Martin Racing began their entry into the Le Mans Prototype category with the aid of Charouz Racing System, installing a DBR9 V12 into a Lola B08/60 LMP1 prototype. On 27 January 2009, the team announced a full works entry in the Le Mans Prototype category for the 2009 24 Hours of Le Mans with the Lola-Aston Martin B09/60; the entry marks the 50th anniversary of its last outright win at Le Mans. The 2009 programme got off to an unfortunate start at the pre season Paul Ricard test on 8 March when Tomáš Enge destroyed the 007 car in an accident.
Aston Martin Racing subsequently took delivery of a new Lola to replace the written off chassis. The team entered two LMP1 cars bearing the iconic orange livery of Gulf Oil; the aim was to emulate the achievements of the 1959 race win with the DBR1 driven by Carroll Shelby and Roy Salvadori. At Le Mans the AMR Eastern Europe 007 car of Jan Charouz, Tomáš Enge and Stefan Mücke finished fourth behind the factory entries of Peugeot and Audi, as well as being the highest finishing petrol-fuelled car; the 008 car was running as high as 3rd overall in the morning until Anthony Davidson had a collision with a GT1 Aston. Subsequent repairs and a 5-minute stop and go penalty—for causing the collision—dropped the car out of contention; the 009 car was retired after 252 laps. Three cars were entered in the 2010 24 Hours of Le Mans, although only the 007 and 009 cars were run by Aston Martin Racing. Both the 008 and 009 cars suffered from problems and had to be retired, leaving only the 007 to finish 6th overall and completing 365 laps, less than it did in 2009.
In 2011 the B09/60 was succeeded by the Aston Martin AMR-One, powered by a downsized, 2.0 litre turbocharged straight six petrol engine. The car was running poorly. In its first racing event, the 2011 6 Hours of Castellet, it was only as fast as some of the LMP2 cars in qualifying and was plagued with mechanical issues, it completed only 96 laps. They decided not to race it in the rounds of the Intercontinental Le Mans Cup leading up to Le Mans so they can continue private testing with the troubled car in order to sort out the mechanical issues. So around came Le Mans and despite the testing and extra car, they were still lapping in the middle of the LMP2 pack in qualifying and in the race it was much a much worse scenario. Car #009 retired after only two laps around the Circuit de la Sarthe and car #007 retired two laps on lap four. Both cars completed a combined six laps at the 79th Grand Prix of Endurance. After this shocking result, the team raced the old B09/60 for the remainder of the season although a much downgraded version in order to comply with the new 2011 regulations.
For 2012, Aston Martin Racing returned to GT racing with the V8 Vantage GT2. They entered two cars at the 2012 24 Hours of Le Mans with one in the LMGTE-Pro class and one in the LMGTE-Am class, they had a third Vantage in the GTE-Pro class as a reserve entrant. One of the existing AMR-One's has been sold to Pescarolo Sport who are set to compete with that car and naming it the Pescarolo 03, they will use an engine from Judd Power rather than the Aston Martin powerplant. The other AMR-One has formed the base for the new DeltaWing project which debuted at Le Mans in 2012 with Highcroft Racing; the DeltaWing uses the AMR-One's carbon fibre tub. In 2013 to celebrate the centenary of the marque, the team will be entering two 2013 specification Aston Martin Vantage GTE's in the LMGTE PRO class and two 2012 specification Vantage GTE's in LMGTE AM; the team will compete in the full season of the FIA World Endurance Championship with the same cars. Ex-Formula 1 driver Bruno Senna will join the team for the season in the one of the GTE Pro cars partnered by Frédéric Makowiecki and Robert Bell.
The main GTE Pro car will feature AMR regulars Darren Turner and Stefan Mücke and will be joined by Peter Dumbreck for the 24 hours of Le Mans and the Six hours of Spa-Franchorchamps. On the 21st November 2017 Aston Martin revealed the new Vantage: a dynamic successor to the biggest-selling road car in the British marque's history; this evening, in an unprecedented synchronised launch, Aston Martin Racing revealed the new 2018 Vantage GTE: the spectacular
Toyota Motor Corporation is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota City, Japan. In 2017, Toyota's corporate structure consisted of 364,445 employees worldwide and, as of September 2018, was the sixth-largest company in the world by revenue; as of 2017, Toyota is the world's second-largest automotive manufacturer. Toyota was the world's first automobile manufacturer to produce more than 10 million vehicles per year which it has done since 2012, when it reported the production of its 200-millionth vehicle; as of July 2014, Toyota was the largest listed company in Japan by market capitalization and by revenue. Toyota is the world's market leader in sales of hybrid electric vehicles, one of the largest companies to encourage the mass-market adoption of hybrid vehicles across the globe. Toyota is a market leader in hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. Cumulative global sales of Toyota and Lexus hybrid passenger car models achieved the 10 million milestone in January 2017.
Its Prius family is the world's top selling hybrid nameplate with over 6 million units sold worldwide as of January 2017. The company was founded by Kiichiro Toyoda in 1937, as a spinoff from his father's company Toyota Industries to create automobiles. Three years earlier, in 1934, while still a department of Toyota Industries, it created its first product, the Type A engine, its first passenger car in 1936, the Toyota AA. Toyota Motor Corporation produces vehicles under five brands, including the Toyota brand, Lexus and Daihatsu, it holds a 16.66% stake in Subaru Corporation, a 5.9% stake in Isuzu, as well as joint-ventures with two in China, one in India, one in the Czech Republic, along with several "nonautomotive" companies. TMC is part of one of the largest conglomerates in Japan. Toyota is listed on New York Stock Exchange and Tokyo Stock Exchange. Toyota is headquartered in Aichi; the main headquarters of Toyota is located in a 4-story building in Toyota. As of 2006, the head office has the "Toyopet" Toyota logo and the words "Toyota Motor".
The Toyota Technical Center, a 14-story building, the Honsha plant, Toyota's second plant engaging in mass production and named the Koromo plant, are adjacent to one another in a location near the headquarters. Vinod Jacob from The Hindu described the main headquarters building as "modest". In 2013, company head Akio Toyoda reported that it had difficulties retaining foreign employees at the headquarters due to the lack of amenities in the city, its Tokyo office is located in Tokyo. Its Nagoya office is located in Nagoya. In addition to manufacturing automobiles, Toyota provides financial services through its Toyota Financial Services division, builds robots. Presidents of Toyota Motor Company: Rizaburo Toyoda Kiichiro Toyoda Taizo Ishida Fukio Nakagawa Eiji Toyoda In 1981, Toyota Motor Co. Ltd. announced plans to merge with its sales entity Toyota Motor Sales Co. Ltd. Since 1950, the two entities had existed as separate companies as a prerequisite for reconstruction in postwar Japan. Shoichiro Toyoda presided over Toyota Motor Sales in preparation for the consummation of the merger that occurred in 1982.
Shoichiro succeeded his uncle Eiji as the President of the combined organization that became known as Toyota Motor Corporation. Chairmen of Toyota Motor Corporation: Eiji Toyoda Shoichiro Toyoda Hiroshi Okuda Fujio Cho Takeshi Uchiyamada Presidents of Toyota Motor Corporation: Shoichiro Toyoda Tatsuro Toyoda Hiroshi Okuda Fujio Cho Katsuaki Watanabe Akio Toyoda On June 14, 2013, Toyota Motor Corporation. Announced the appointment of external board members. Additionally, Vice Chairman Takeshi Uchiyamada replaced Fujio Cho as chairman, as the latter became an honorary chairman while Toyoda remains in the post of President. Toyota is publicly traded on the Tokyo, Nagoya and Sapporo exchanges under company code TYO: 7203. In addition, Toyota is foreign-listed on the New York Stock Exchange under NYSE: TM and on the London Stock Exchange under LSE: TYT. Toyota has been publicly traded in Japan since 1949 and internationally since 1999; as reported on its consolidated financial statements, Toyota has 606 consolidated subsidiaries and 199 affiliates.
Toyota Motor North America Toyota Canada Inc. Toyota Tsusho – Trading company for the Toyota Group Daihatsu Motor Company Hino Motors Lexus 100% Scion 100% DENSO Toyota Industries Aisin Seiki Co. Subaru Corporation Isuzu Motors PT Toyota-Astra Motor Noble Automotive PT Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indonesia Toyota, which earlier was the world's third largest automotive manufacturer behind American General Motors and Ford, produced for the first time in history more vehicles than Ford in 2005, in 2006 more than General Motors and has been the world's largest automotive manufacturer since except in 2011 when, triggered by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, it fell to the #3 position behind General Motors and German Volkswagen Group. In 1924, Sakichi Toyoda invented the Toyoda Model G Auto
A sports prototype, sometimes referred to as a prototype, is a type of race car, used in the highest level categories of sports car racing. These purpose-built racing cars, unlike street-legal and production-based racing cars, are not intended for consumer purchase or production beyond that required to compete and win races. Prototype racing cars have competed in sports car racing since before World War II, but became the top echelon of sports cars in the 1960s as they began to replace homologated sports cars. Current ACO regulations allow most sports car series to use two forms of cars: grand tourers, based on street cars, prototypes, which are allowed a great amount of flexibility within set rule parameters. In historic racing, they are called "sports racing cars". Sometimes, they are incorrectly referred to as "Le Mans cars", whether they are competing in the Le Mans race or not. Since the 1960s, various championships have allowed prototypes to compete. However, most championships have had their own set of rules for their prototype classes.
Listed here are some of the more known types of prototypes. Group 7 Group 6 Group C Grand Touring Prototype Le Mans Prototype Le Mans Prototype Challenge Daytona Prototype Group CN Sports 2000