Kristalina Ivanova Georgieva-Kinova is a Bulgarian economic analyst serving as Chief Executive of the World Bank since 2017. She served as Acting President of the World Bank Group from 1 February 2019 to 8 April 2019, she served as Vice-President of the European Commission under Jean-Claude Juncker from 2014 to 2016. From 1993–2010, she served in a number of positions in the World Bank Group rising to become its vice president and corporate secretary in March 2008, she has served as a member of the board of trustees and associated professor in the Economics Department of the University of National and World Economy in Bulgaria. On 27 September 2016, the Bulgarian government nominated Kristalina Georgieva for the post of United Nations Secretary-General, her short run Secretary-General at the UN ended following a vote at the UN Security Council on 5 October, where Georgieva ranked number eight out of ten candidates. In the same vote, António Guterres got the support of the Security Council for the post of UN Secretary-General.
On 28 October, the World Bank announced that Georgieva would become the first CEO of the bank starting on 2 January 2017. Georgieva was named "European of the Year" in 2010 and "EU Commissioner of the Year" as an acknowledgment of her work, in particular, her handling of the humanitarian disasters in Haiti and Pakistan, she had been nominated among the candidates for the category "Commissioner of the Year", the prestigious award organized by the European Voice newspaper. Kristalina Georgieva holds a PhD in Economics and an MA in Political Economy and Sociology from the University of National and World Economy in Sofia, Bulgaria, her thesis was on "Environmental Protection Policy and Economic Growth in the USA". She did post-graduate research and studies in natural resource economics and environmental policy at the London School of Economics in the late 1980s and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, she has written over 100 academic papers and has authored a microeconomics textbook. She held a range of academic and consulting positions in Bulgaria and the US, has lectured on development topics in universities, including the Australian National University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Tsinghua University, Yale University, Harvard University, London School of Economics, the University of the South Pacific and others.
Georgieva is fluent in Bulgarian and Russian, can speak some French. Georgieva started her career at the World Bank Group in 1993 as an environmental economist for Europe and Central Asia. Following this, she served in various positions in the bank rising to become Director of the Environment Department in charge of World Bank's environmental strategy and lending. In this role she oversaw around 60% of lending operations of the World Bank Group. From 2004–2007 she was the institution's Director and Resident Representative in the Russian Federation, based in Moscow, she returned to Washington DC, to become director of Strategy and Operations, Sustainable Development. Her final position at the World Bank, vice president and corporate secretary, conveyed lead responsibility for liaison with the members of the institution's Board of Executive Directors, representing the Bank's shareholders. During that time, she worked on accompanying capital increase. In January 2010, Georgieva announced her intention to resign from this post in view of her nomination to the Commission of the European Union.
Nomination and confirmation After the former Bulgarian nominee, Rumiana Jeleva, came under fire during the confirmation hearing from members of the European Parliament over both her competence for the post and allegations of gaps in her declaration of financial interests, she withdrew her bid. The Bulgarian government proposed Kristalina Georgieva as their new candidate. On 21 January 2010 the European Commission President José Manuel Barroso met with Georgieva and expressed his approval, stating that "Mrs. Georgieva has solid international experience and knowledge with which she is going to contribute in her capacity as a EU Commissioner"; the confirmation hearing of Georgieva took place at the European Parliament on 4 February 2010. She faced questions on her suitability for the portfolio. Georgieva identified Haiti as a priority the need to provide shelter and health services and to restore the functions and service of the government, so as to start work on reconstruction and long-term development.
Other key issues raised in discussions with MEPs had been improving co-ordination within the EU, between humanitarian and military players in order to meet the dual challenge posed by expanding needs and shrinking budgets. The need to improve the effectiveness of EU actions and for better response capacity had been stressed, together with the establishment of European Voluntary Humanitarian Corps. Georgieva was given a warm response by MEPs, with Labour MEP Michael Cashman praising her "honesty and deep breadth of knowledge", she was applauded by committee members when she told British Conservative MEP Nirj Deva that she would stand up for the interests of the EU and be an independent mind. Ivo Vajgl, a Liberal MEP praised her, saying: "let me compliment you on your peaceful manner and the confidence you are exuding today", her performance at the hearing was publicized in Bulgaria and broadcast live on many national media, where it was seen as question of restoration of national honor following Jeleva's unsuccessful hearing.
The second college of the Barroso Commission, including Georgieva, was approved by the European Parliament on 9 February 2010
Bulgaria the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north and North Macedonia to the west and Turkey to the south, the Black Sea to the east; the capital and largest city is Sofia. With a territory of 110,994 square kilometres, Bulgaria is Europe's 16th-largest country. One of the earliest societies in the lands of modern-day Bulgaria was the Neolithic Karanovo culture, which dates back to 6,500 BC. In the 6th to 3rd century BC the region was a battleground for Thracians, Persians and ancient Macedonians; the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire lost some of these territories to an invading Bulgar horde in the late 7th century. The Bulgars founded the First Bulgarian Empire in AD 681, which dominated most of the Balkans and influenced Slavic cultures by developing the Cyrillic script; this state lasted until the early 11th century, when Byzantine emperor Basil II conquered and dismantled it. A successful Bulgarian revolt in 1185 established a Second Bulgarian Empire, which reached its apex under Ivan Asen II.
After numerous exhausting wars and feudal strife, the Second Bulgarian Empire disintegrated in 1396 and its territories fell under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 resulted in the formation of the current Third Bulgarian State. Many ethnic Bulgarian populations were left outside its borders, which led to several conflicts with its neighbours and an alliance with Germany in both world wars. In 1946 Bulgaria became part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc; the ruling Communist Party gave up its monopoly on power after the revolutions of 1989 and allowed multi-party elections. Bulgaria transitioned into a democracy and a market-based economy. Since adopting a democratic constitution in 1991, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political and economic centralisation; the population of seven million lives in Sofia and the capital cities of the 27 provinces, the country has suffered significant demographic decline since the late 1980s.
Bulgaria is a member of the European Union, NATO, the Council of Europe. Its market economy is part of the European Single Market and relies on services, followed by industry—especially machine building and mining—and agriculture. Widespread corruption is a major socioeconomic issue; the name Bulgaria is derived from a tribe of Turkic origin that founded the country. Their name is not understood and difficult to trace back earlier than the 4th century AD, but it is derived from the Proto-Turkic word bulģha and its derivative bulgak; the meaning may be further extended to "rebel", "incite" or "produce a state of disorder", i.e. the "disturbers". Ethnic groups in Inner Asia with phonologically similar names were described in similar terms: during the 4th century, the Buluoji, a component of the "Five Barbarian" groups in Ancient China, were portrayed as both a "mixed race" and "troublemakers". Neanderthal remains dating to around 150,000 years ago, or the Middle Paleolithic, are some of the earliest traces of human activity in the lands of modern Bulgaria.
The Karanovo culture arose circa 6,500 BC and was one of several Neolithic societies in the region that thrived on agriculture. The Copper Age Varna culture is credited with inventing gold metallurgy; the associated Varna Necropolis treasure contains the oldest golden jewellery in the world with an approximate age of over 6,000 years. The treasure has been valuable for understanding social hierarchy and stratification in the earliest European societies; the Thracians, one of the three primary ancestral groups of modern Bulgarians, appeared on the Balkan Peninsula some time before the 12th century BC. The Thracians excelled in metallurgy and gave the Greeks the Orphean and Dionysian cults, but remained tribal and stateless; the Persian Achaemenid Empire conquered most of present-day Bulgaria in the 6th century BC and retained control over the region until 479 BC. The invasion became a catalyst for Thracian unity, the bulk of their tribes united under king Teres to form the Odrysian kingdom in the 470s BC.
It was weakened and vassalized by Philip II of Macedon in 341 BC, attacked by Celts in the 3rd century, became a province of the Roman Empire in AD 45. By the end of the 1st century AD, Roman governance was established over the entire Balkan Peninsula and Christianity began spreading in the region around the 4th century; the Gothic Bible—the first Germanic language book—was created by Gothic bishop Ulfilas in what is today northern Bulgaria around 381. The region came under Byzantine control after the fall of Rome in 476; the Byzantines were engaged in prolonged warfare against Persia and could not defend their Balkan territories from barbarian incursions. This enabled the Slavs to enter the Balkan Peninsula as marauders through an area between the Danube River and the Balkan Mountains known as Moesia; the interior of the peninsula became a country of the South Slavs, who lived under a democracy. The Slavs assimilated the Hellenized and Gothicized Thracians in the rural areas. Not l
Movement for Rights and Freedoms
The Movement for Rights and Freedoms is a centrist political party in Bulgaria. It is a member of the Liberal International and the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party, is a liberal party, whose main goal are the interests of the Muslims Turks. However, its principal electorate are the Pomaks and the party relies on the biggest share of all the Romani voters 9 out of its 36 deputies are not of Muslim background. At the 2014 parliamentary elections, 3% of Bulgarian voters, 83% of Turkish voters and 44% of Romani voters voted for the movement, a record high share of Romani voters; the party won in Christian Romani villages and thus was alleged for trading with their vote. The party was established in 1990, but the official website of the party traces the roots of the foundation to 1983 when an illegal terrorist group Turkish National Freedom Movement was established, which committed over 50 fire-raisings, bomb attempts and murders on regular citizens until 1989 as a rebellion against the assimilation policies of Todor Zhivkov's communist regime.
After he had been set free out of the jail in 1989, Ahmed Dogan, a former member of the Bulgarian communist secret service, established the party. He headed it from its official establishment on 4 January 1990 until 19 January 2013, when a disgruntled Bulgarian Turk attacked him with a gas pistol. Ahmed Dogan has been recorded promoting changes of the international boundaries in accordance with the ethnic borders, clarifying that there are either peaceful and political means for this or military and aggressive; the ethnic or religious minority parties are not allowed according to Article 11, Paragraph 4 of the Constitution of Bulgaria, but the Constitutional Court denied to ban the party in 1992. On 19 January 2013, Lyutfi Mestan was elected as the second chairman of the Movement for Rights and Freedoms. Mestan was removed from power by the insistence of the founder Dogan because he had declared support for Turkey for the shot Russian airplane Erdoğan blacklisted Ahmed Dogan banning him from entering Turkey.
Mestan formed his own party, named Democrats for Responsibility and Tolerance. Starting in 1990 as the first political party of the Muslim minority participating in the parliamentary elections, in the first elections in 1990 after the end of the communist regime, which the Muslims had boycotted, the party won 6.0% of the popular vote and 24 out of 400 seats and became the fourth largest party in the parliament. In the parliamentary elections in 1991 it won 7.6% of the vote and remained with 24 seats in а 240-seater parliament. In the elections in 1994 it won 5.4% of the vote and its seats decreased to 15. In the elections in 1997 it won 19 out of 240 seats. From 2001 to 2009, the party was part of the government, first in a coalition with the National Movement Simeon II party and with the Bulgarian Socialist Party; the party had ministers in the Sakskoburggotski Government, Stanishev Government and Oresharski Government. It won in the elections in 21 out of 240 seats. Subsequently, for the first time the party joined a coalition government, led by the winner of the elections.
Under the control of the party were two out of the 17 Bulgarian ministries – the Ministry of Agriculture and Forests and the Minister without portfolio, the other 15 remained under the control of senior coalition partner NDSV. At the 2005 elections it increased to 12.8% of vote and 34 out of 240 seats and was kept in power as a part of the coalition led by the Bulgarian Socialist Party and National Movement Simeon II party. The ministries under the control of the Movement of Rights and Freedoms increased to three out of 18. At the 2009 elections it increased to 37 out of 240 seats. Following the election, the government was occupied by the decisive winner, the Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria party and the Movement for Rights and Freedoms was еxcluded from the government and remained in opposition after having been part of coalition governments for the two consecutive preceding terms between 2001 and 2009. At the 2009 European Parliament elections the party won 14.1% of the vote and three MEPs out of Bulgaria's total representation of 18.
Two of the MEPs are ethnic Turks and one is ethnic Bulgarian. In the Bulgarian parliamentary election in 2013, the Movement for Rights and Freedoms decreased to 11.3% of the vote. The DPS won the elections abroad with 41.3% and the most polling stations and voters in a foreign country were in Turkey. The DPS won four MEPs in the 2014 European Parliament elections. On 8 October 1991, ninety-three members of Bulgaria's National Assembly — all of them affiliated with the former Communist Party — asked the constitutional court to declare the DPS unconstitutional citing article 11.4 of the constitution which explicitly bans political parties "formed on ethnic and religious basis". On 21 April 1992, the court rejected the petition and affirmed the constitutionality of the DPS. Though the DPS has been a part of Bulgarian political life since some Bulgarian nationalists the far-right National Union Attack, continue to assert that it is anti-constitutional because it consists of ethnic Turks. However, the statute of the DPS states quite that it "is an independent public and political organization, founded with the purpose of contributing to the
Bulgarian Socialist Party
The Bulgarian Socialist Party, known as the Centenarian, is a social-democratic political party in Bulgaria and the successor to the Bulgarian Communist Party. It is a member of the Party of European Socialists with a pro-EU stance, although it has taken some eurosceptic positions and called for an end to EU sanctions against Russia. BSP is a member of the Socialist International, it is Bulgaria's largest political party by membership. The Bulgarian Socialist Party is recognized as the successor of the Bulgarian Social Democratic Workers' Party created on 2 August 1891 on Buzludzha peak by Dimitar Blagoev, designated in 1903 as the Bulgarian Social Democratic Workers' Party and as the Bulgarian Communist Party; the party was formed after the political changes of 1989, when the Communist Party abandoned Marxism–Leninism and refounded itself as the "Bulgarian Socialist Party" in April 1990. The party formed a government after the Constitutional Assembly elections of 1990, but was forced to resign after a general strike that December.
A non-partisan government led by Dimitar Popov took over until the next elections in October 1991. In the aftermath the party was confined to opposition; as part of the Democratic Left coalition, it helped form a new government in 1995, headed by BSP leader Zhan Videnov as Prime Minister. Its term ended at the end of 1996, after the country entered into a spiral of hyperinflation, the most serious economic and financial crisis in its recent history. Large-scale demonstrations in the cities and a general strike prevented the formation of a new socialist government. In 2001, party chairman Georgi Parvanov was elected President of Bulgaria on the second round, defeating incumbent SDS candidate on the second ballot. Parvanov was succeeded by Sergei Stanishev. After two full terms out of power, the BSP and its allies in the Coalition for Bulgaria won the national elections of 2005 with 31.0% of the vote and formed a coalition government with the centrist party National Movement Simeon II and the Movement for Rights and Freedoms.
The cabinet was headed by BSP chairman Sergei Stanishev. In 2006, Georgi Parvanov was reelected president in a landslide, becoming the first Bulgarian president to be reelected directly by the public. In 2007, Bulgaria joined the European Union; the triple-coalition lost millions of Euros of European financial aid in the wake of allegations of widespread political corruption. The cabinet was unable to react to the encroaching world economic crisis and its term ended with a budget deficit after several successive surplus years. In the 2009 parliamentary elections, the BSP was defeated by the new conservative party GERB, obtaining 37 out of 240 parliamentary seats, went into opposition. In the 2013 parliamentary elections the party took 26.6% of the votes, second behind GERB with 30.5%. The party's candidate for prime minister, Plamen Oresharski, his proposed government were elected with the parliament support of the BSP and the DPS; the appointment of the controversial media mogul Delyan Peevski as head of the state security agency DANS, sparked large-scale protests on 14 June.
Demonstrations urging the government to step down continued until the government resigned in July of the following year. The party is the largest in Bulgaria by number of members, as of 2016 having 105,000 members, down from 130,000 in 2013, 150,000 in 2012, 210,000 in 2009, 250,000 in 1996 and around 1 million members during late Communist rule; the following is a summary of BSP's results in legislative elections for the Bulgarian National Assembly. Official website
The Tarnovo Constitution was the first constitution of Bulgaria. It was adopted on 16 April 1879 by the Constituent National Assembly held in Veliko Tarnovo as part of the establishment of the Principality of Bulgaria, it remained the fundamental law of Bulgaria after the country was elevated to a kingdom in 1908. Based on the Belgian charter of 1831, the constitution was bourgeois-liberal in character, was considered advanced for its time, it defined the function and competence of the central organs of state authority according to the principle of separation of powers among an executive, a legislative, a judiciary branch. It provided for ministerial responsibility, immunity of the deputies, inviolability of private property; the constitution included a clause that formally established the Bulgarian Orthodox Church as the official religion of the nation, although people of other religions were considered equal to those who followed the official faith. With amendments in 1893 and 1911 that strengthened royal power, the Tarnovo Constitution remained in use until 4 December 1947, when it was replaced by the Dimitrov Constitution.
According to the constitution of 1879, Bulgaria was declared to be a constitutional, hereditary monarchy with a parliament whose members were elected by the people. The monarch bore the title of Prince and not tsar, as it was during the First and the Second Bulgarian Empire, since the treaty of Berlin from 1878 restricted Bulgaria’s independence to a certain degree and made it a de facto vassal state of Turkey; the Prince was supposed to be male and of Orthodox religion, although, in a legal act, an exception to the religious restriction was made when electing Alexander of Battenberg as the first Prince. The Prince had the power to initiate a legislative campaign and to coordinate the activities of the prime minister and the cabinet. Although the ministers were entitled to act as if they were representing the Prince, by signing with their own signature they agreed to take responsibility for what resulted from their actions; the Prince’s signature was required for a bill to become law after it had passed through parliament.
In 1908, when Prince Ferdinand Saxe-Coburg-Gotha proclaimed the independence of Bulgaria, he raised the country to a kingdom and assumed the title "tzar". The Tarnovo Constitution was amended to change the official name of the country to the "Kingdom of Bulgaria" and substituting the word "Prince" with "tzar" wherever it occurred throughout the document. In accordance with its constitution, Bulgaria promulgated equality for all its citizens and, despite being a monarchy, prohibited the promotion of any kind of aristocratic titles. Censorship was prohibited. Article 61, which dealt with slavery and human trafficking, was one of the reasons why the Tarnovo Constitution was considered to be liberal and ahead of its time: The Constitution declared property rights to be sacrosanct and implied that all citizens, except for the monarch and his successor, must pay taxes to the state. All citizens were obliged to serve in the military. All citizens were allowed freedom of association, were free to form political parties or start their own companies.
The Tarnovo Constitution prohibited punishment of a citizen whose case had not been examined by a court. This rule was ignored by the “People’s Tribunal” of 1945, during the Soviet occupation of the country; the tribunal did not hold the statute of а court yet passed on more than 10,000 sentences to people who were seen as a threat by the Bulgarian Communist Party, coming to power at the time. The article prohibiting censorship was suspended in the 1880s by a law enforced by the Russian general Sobolev. Similar regulations were in effect in the late era of Stefan Stambolov's government. In 1881, the Grand National Assembly was manipulated by the principal Alexander I of Battenberg in order to suspend the entire constitution. During the next seven years, the monarch had unlimited power and issued a series of ordinances which were only technically approved by the ministers; this period, which Bulgarian historians refer to as a regime, ended in 1888 when the constitution was restored. The Tarnovo Constitution was temporarily suspended several times more, most notably during the Coup d’état of 1934 led by Kimon Georgiev and the Coup d’état of 1944 organized by the Bulgarian Communist Party.
The Referendum of 1946 led to the transition from a constitutional monarchy to a people’s republic. The referendum took place during the Soviet occupation of the country, was technically illegal since the Tarnovo Constitution did not provide for a change in the type of government; the Tarnovo Constitution was permanently abolished in 1947 when another one, bearing the name of the communist party’s leader Georgi Dimitrov, came into effect. The Dimitrov Constitution was a Communist document that allowed censorship and the establishment of a one-party system while depriving citizens of certain fundamental rights including the right of private property; the text of the Constitution in Bulgarian at the site of the Bulgarian Parliament. Translation of the Constitution into English can be found in Wright, Herbert F. ed. "Bulgaria", The Constitutions of the States at War 1914-1918, Washington: Government Printing Office, pp. 87–104, retrieved 2012-12-24
2016 Bulgarian presidential election
Presidential elections were held in Bulgaria on 6 November 2016, alongside a referendum on changes to the electoral system and political party funding. The second round was held on 13 November 2016; the President of Bulgaria is elected using the two-round system. For the first time, voters were allowed to vote for none of the above; the incumbent President, Rosen Plevneliev, announced in May 2016 that he would not be running for re-election. Following the results of the second round, Prime Minister and GERB leader Boiko Borisov tendered his resignation. Two days on 16 November, the National Assembly voted 218–0 to accept it, resulting in early parliamentary elections
Radan Milenov Kanev is a Bulgarian politician, one of the leading members of the Reformist Bloc. Kanev was born in Sofia, he graduated from the French language high school in the capital, subsequently completing his legal studies at Sofia University. In the 1990s, Kanev was chairman of the youth organization of the Bulgarian Red Cross. Kanev is known as a prominent political blogger and his active involvement in politics began in 2004, he joined DSB in 2007 and became the party's leader on 23 June 2013. Kanev has been labeled as Ivan Kostov's successor. After DSB could not make the 4% bar for entry into Parliament during the 2017 elections, Kanev resigned as a leader of the party. Kanev built a reputation as a strong critic of Bulgaria's Prime Minister Boyko Borisov, he has underlined that in Bulgaria there are major problems with the justice system and the respect for private property. He blames the issues on the Borisov-Peevski model of governance, which has "dominated Bulgarian politics in the past ten years."
Kanev is married and has one child