Dwight David Howard is an American professional basketball player for the Washington Wizards of the National Basketball Association. Howard, who plays center, spent his high school career at Southwest Atlanta Christian Academy, he chose to forgo college, entered the 2004 NBA draft, was selected first overall by the Orlando Magic. An eight-time All-Star, eight-time All-NBA Team honoree, five-time All-Defensive Team member, three-time Defensive Player of the Year, Howard set numerous franchise and league records during his time with the Magic. In 2012, after eight seasons with Orlando, Howard was traded to the Los Angeles Lakers. After one season with the Lakers, he joined the Houston Rockets. One-season stints followed with the Atlanta Hawks and Charlotte Hornets before he joined the Wizards in July 2018. Howard was born in Atlanta, to Dwight Sr. and Sheryl Howard, into a family with strong athletic connections. His father is a Georgia State Trooper and serves as Athletic Director of Southwest Atlanta Christian Academy, a private academy with one of the best high school basketball programs in the country, while his mother played on the inaugural women's basketball team at Morris Brown College.
Howard's mother had seven miscarriages. A devout Christian since his youth, Howard became serious about basketball around the age of nine. Despite his large frame, Howard was versatile enough to play the guard position, he elected to attend Southwest Atlanta Christian Academy for high school, in his four years he played as power forward, averaging 16.6 points, 13.4 rebounds and 6.3 blocks per game in 129 appearances. As a senior, Howard led his team to a 31–2 record and the 2004 state title, while averaging 25 points, 18 rebounds, 8.1 blocks and 3.5 assists per game. That same year, Howard was recognized as the best American high school basketball player, he was awarded the Naismith Prep Player of the Year Award, the Morgan Wootten High School Player of the Year Award, Gatorade National Player of the Year and the McDonald's National High School Player of the Year honor, he was co-MVP of the McDonald's All-American Game that year. On January 31, 2012, Howard was honored as one of the 35 greatest McDonald's All-Americans.
Following his high school successes, Howard chose to forego college and declared for the 2004 NBA draft—a decision inspired by his idol Kevin Garnett who had done the same in 1995—where the Orlando Magic selected him first overall over UConn junior Emeka Okafor. He took the number 12 for his jersey, in part because it was the reverse of Garnett's 21 when he played for Minnesota. Howard joined a depleted Magic squad. Howard, made an immediate impact, he finished his rookie season with an average of 12 points and 10 rebounds, setting several NBA records in the process. He became the youngest player in NBA history to average a double double in the regular season, he became the youngest player in NBA history to average at least 10 rebounds in a season and youngest NBA player to record at least 20 rebounds in a game. Howard's importance to the Magic was highlighted when he became the first player in NBA history directly out of high school to start all 82 games during his rookie season. For his efforts, he was selected to play in the 2005 NBA Rookie Challenge, was unanimously selected to the All-Rookie Team.
He finished third in the Rookie of the Year voting. Howard reported to camp for his second NBA season having added 20 pounds of muscle during the off-season. Orlando coach Brian Hill—responsible for grooming former Magic superstar Shaquille O'Neal—decided that Howard should be converted into a full-fledged center. Hill identified two areas where Howard needed to improve: his defense, he exerted extra pressure on Howard, saying that the Magic would need him to emerge as a force in the middle before the team had a chance at the playoffs. On November 15, 2005, in a home game against the Charlotte Bobcats, Howard recorded 21 points and 20 rebounds, becoming the youngest player to score 20 or more points and gather 20 or more rebounds in the same game, he was selected to play on the Sophomore Team in the 2006 Rookie Challenge during the All-Star break. Overall, he averaged 15.8 points and 12.5 rebounds per game, ranking second in the NBA in rebounds per game, offensive rebounds, double-doubles and sixth in field goal percentage.
Despite Howard's improvement, the Magic finished the season with a 36–46 record and failed to qualify for the playoffs for the second consecutive season since Howard's arrival. In the 2006–07 season, Howard played in all 82 regular-season games. On February 1, 2007, he received his first NBA All-Star selection as a reserve on the Eastern Conference squad for the 2007 NBA All-Star Game. On February 9, he made a game-winning alley-oop off an inbound pass at the buzzer against the San Antonio Spurs. Howard set a new career high with 35 points against the Philadelphia 76ers on April 14. Under his leadership, the Magic qualified for the 2007 NBA Playoffs as the eighth seed in the Eastern Conference. There, the Magic were swept by the Detroit Pistons in the first round. For the season, Howard averaged 17.6 points and 12.3 rebounds per game, finishing first in the NBA in total rebounds, second in field goal percentage, ninth in blocks. He was named to the All-NBA Third Team at the end of the 2006–07 campaign.
Howard continued posting impressive numbers in the 2007–08 season and helped the Magic have their best season to date. Howard was named as a start
In basketball, an official enforces the rules and maintains order in the game. The title of official applies to the scorers and timekeepers, as well as other personnel that have an active task in maintaining the game. Basketball is regarded as among the most difficult sports to officiate due to the speed of play, complexity of rules, the case-specific interpretations of rules, the instantaneous decision required. There is one lead referee and one or two umpires, depending on whether there is a two- or three-person crew. In the NBA, the lead official is called the other two officials are referees. In FIBA-sanctioned play, two-man crews consist of a referee and an umpire, three-man crews contain a referee and two umpires. Regardless, both classes of officials have equal rights to control all aspects of the game. In most cases, the lead official performs the jump ball to begin the contest, though NFHS and NCAA have allowed the referee to designate which official shall perform the jump ball. In American high school and college basketball, officials wear black-and-white-striped shirts with black side panels, black pants, black shoes.
Some state high school association allow officials to wear grey shirts with black pin-stripes instead of black-and-white-striped shirts. NBA officials wear light grey shirts with black shoes; the NBA shirt is light grey with one black colored stripe on either shoulder, a black stripe on either side, the official's number in the center at the top on the back, the NBA logo above the breast. NBA officials sometimes wear alternate uniforms consisting of a white shirt with light gold shoulders and black stripes. NBA Summer League officials wear the same light grey shirt but with blue shoulders; the WNBA referee shirt is similar to the NBA referee shirt except that its shoulder and sleeve colors are orange, the WNBA logo takes the place of the NBA logo. FIBA officials wear a grey and black shirt, black trousers, black socks, black shoes. Officials in competitions organized by Euroleague Basketball – the Euroleague and Eurocup – wear an orange shirt. Officials in the Israel Basketball Association wear the Euroleague's orange shirt but sometimes wear royal blue shirts for contests between two Israeli teams.
NBL officials wear orange stripes on the sides. The NBL logo is atop the breast and a sponsor's name is on the back. Shirts are V-neck, without a collar, pants lack belts. All officials wear a whistle, used to stop play as a result of a foul or a violation on the court. Hand signals are used to administer the game. In higher levels of college and professional basketball, officials wear a timing device on the belt-line called PTS; the device is used by on court officials to start and stop the game clock in a timely manner, rather than waiting for the scoreboard operator to do so. The officials must ensure that the game runs smoothly, this encompasses a variety of different responsibilities, from calling the game to player and spectator management, they carry a duty of care to the players they officiate and to ensure that the court and all equipment used is in a safe and usable condition. Should there be an issue that inhibits the safe playing of the game it is the job of the officials to rectify the problem.
Quite the job of an official surpasses that of the game at hand, as they must overcome unforeseen situations that may or may not have an influence on the game. There are two standard methods for officiating a basketball game, either "two-person" or "three-person" mechanics depending on how many officials are available to work the game. In "two-person" mechanics, each official works either the trail position; the lead position is along the baseline of the court, with the trail position having its starting point at the free throw line extended on the left side of the court facing the basket. Officials change position during the game to cover the area in the best possible way; as the game transitions from one end of the court to the other, the lead becomes the trail and vice versa. Between the two positions, each is responsible for a specific part of the court as well as two each of the side, base or back court lines. Officials change position after certain calls; this allows officials to alternate between positions to increase the speed of play.
This prevents one official from always working one particular team's basket throughout the course of the game. In "three-person" mechanics, the court is further divided among three officials, with the lead official determining the position of the other two officials; the lead official will move to the side of the court in which the ball is located if there is a "post-up" player in that position. The official, on the same sideline as the lead official takes up a position level with the top of the three-point line and becomes the "trail" official, while the third official will stand across the court near the free throw line in what is called the center position; this creates a triangle coverage of the court. The lead will switch sides of the baseline during a play, requiring the trail to move down to be level with the free-throw line and become the new center, while the center will move up and become the trail; as the ball moves to the other end of the court in transition, the lead will become the trail, the trail will b
Janelle Monáe Robinson is an American singer, songwriter and producer signed to Atlantic Records, as well as her own imprint, the Wondaland Arts Society. Monáe's musical career began in 2003. In 2007, she publicly debuted with a conceptual EP titled Metropolis: Suite I, it peaked at number two on the US Top Heatseekers chart, in 2010, through Bad Boy Records, Monáe released her first full-length studio album, The ArchAndroid, a concept album and sequel to her first EP. In 2011, Monáe was featured as a guest vocalist on fun.'s single "We Are Young", which achieved major commercial success, topping the charts of over ten countries and garnering Monáe a wider audience. Her second studio album, The Electric Lady, was released in 2013 and debuted at number five on the Billboard 200 chart, serving as the fourth and fifth installments of her seven-part Metropolis concept series. In 2016, Monáe made her theatrical film debut in two high profile productions. Hidden Figures was a box office success, while Moonlight won the Academy Award for Best Picture at the 89th annual ceremony.
Monáe's third studio album, Dirty Computer described as a concept album, was released in 2018 to widespread critical acclaim. The album peaked at number six on the Billboard 200 and was further promoted by Monáe's Dirty Computer Tour, which lasted from June–August 2018. Throughout her career, Monáe has received eight Grammy Award nominations, she won a MTV Video Music Award and the ASCAP Vanguard Award in 2010. She was honored with the Billboard Women in Music Rising Star Award in 2015 and the Trailblazer of the Year Award in 2018. In 2012, she became a CoverGirl spokeswoman. Boston City Council named October 16, 2013 "Janelle Monáe Day" in the city of Boston, Massachusetts, in recognition of her artistry and social leadership. Monáe was born in Kansas City and was raised in its working-class community Quindaro, she is the daughter of Janet and a truck driver father, Michael Robinson Summers. She dreamed of being a singer and a performer from a young age and has cited the fictional character of Dorothy Gale from The Wizard of Oz as a musical influence.
She moved to New York City to study drama at the American Musical and Dramatic Academy, attending a performing arts camp called Freedom Theatre, the oldest African-American theatre in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. After moving to Atlanta, Georgia in 2001, she met OutKast's Big Boi, who served as a mentor and sponsor for the early part of her career, before founding the Wondaland Arts Society with some like-minded young artists, she released her first EP The Audition in 2003. Limited to only 400 physical copies, it showcased her vocal abilities and alluded to the film Metropolis, a concept that would figure in her future releases. Monáe appeared on OutKast's album Idlewild, where she is featured on the songs "Call the Law" and "In Your Dreams". Big Boi told his friend Sean Combs about Monáe. Combs soon visited Monáe's MySpace page and according to a HitQuarters interview with Bad Boy Records A&R person Daniel'Skid' Mitchell, Combs loved it right away: " loved her look, loved that you couldn't see her body, loved the way she was dancing, just loved the vibe.
He felt like she has something, different – something new and fresh." Monáe signed to Bad Boy in 2006. The label's chief role was in facilitating her exposure on a much broader scale rather than developing the artist and her music, because in the words of Mitchell, "She was moving, she had her records – she had a self-contained movement." Combs and Big Boi wanted to take their time and build her profile organically and allow the music to grow rather than put out "a hot single which everyone jumps on, they fade because it's just something of the moment". In 2007, Monáe released her first solo work, titled Metropolis, it was conceived as a concept album in four parts, or "suites", which were to be released through her website and mp3 download sites. After the release of the first part of the series, Metropolis: Suite I in mid-2007, these plans were altered following her signing with Sean Combs's label, Bad Boy Records in the year; the label gave an official and physical release to the first suite in August 2008, retitled Metropolis: The Chase Suite and included two new tracks.
The EP was critically acclaimed, garnering Monáe a 51st Annual Grammy Awards Grammy nomination for Best Urban/Alternative Performance for her single "Many Moons", festival appearances and opening slots for indie pop band of Montreal. Monáe toured as the opening act for band No Doubt on their summer 2009 tour, her single. Monáe told MTV about her concept for her new album and discussed her alter-ego named Cindi Mayweather, she said: Cindi is an android and I love speaking about the android because they are the new "other". People are afraid of the other and I believe we're going to live in a world with androids because of technology and the way it advances; the first album she was running because she had fallen in love with a human and she was being disassembled for that. In a November 2009 interview, Monáe revealed the title and concept behind her album, The ArchAndroid; the album was released on May 18, 2010. The second and third suites of Metropolis are combined into this full-le
Wardell Stephen Curry II is an American professional basketball player for the Golden State Warriors of the National Basketball Association. A six-time NBA All-Star, he has been named the NBA Most Valuable Player twice and won three NBA championships with the Warriors. Many players and analysts have called him the greatest shooter in NBA history, he is credited with revolutionizing the game of basketball by inspiring teams to employ the three-point shot as part of their winning strategy. In 2014–15, Curry won his first MVP award and led the Warriors to their first championship since 1975; the following season, he became the first player in NBA history to be elected MVP by a unanimous vote and to lead the league in scoring while shooting above 50–40–90. That same year, the Warriors broke the record for the most wins in an NBA season en route to reaching the 2016 NBA Finals, which they lost to the Cleveland Cavaliers. Curry helped the Warriors return to the NBA Finals in 2017 and 2018, where they won back-to-back titles.
Curry is older brother of current NBA player Seth Curry. He played college basketball for Davidson. There, he was twice named Southern Conference Player of the Year and set the all-time scoring record for both Davidson and the Southern Conference. During his sophomore year, he set the single-season NCAA record for three-pointers made. During the 2012–13 season, Curry set the NBA record for three-pointers made in a regular season with 272, he surpassed that record in 2015 with 286, again in 2016 with 402. Curry is third in all-time made three-pointers in NBA history; the 2012–13 season saw Curry and teammate Klay Thompson earn the nickname of the Splash Brothers, with the pair going on to set the NBA record for combined three-pointers in a season with 484 in 2013–14, a record they broke the following season and again in the 2015–16 season. Wardell Stephen Curry II is the son of Dell Curry, he was born in Ohio while his father was a member of the Cleveland Cavaliers. He grew up in Charlotte, North Carolina, where his father spent most of his NBA career with the Charlotte Hornets.
Dell took Curry and his younger brother Seth to his games, where they would shoot with the Hornets during warm-ups. The family relocated to Toronto, where Dell finished out his career as a member of the Raptors. During this time, Curry played for the Queensway Christian College boys' basketball team, leading them to an undefeated season, he was a member of Toronto 5–0, a club team that plays across Ontario, pitting him against fellow future NBA players Cory Joseph and Kelly Olynyk. Curry led the team to a 33–4 record, en route to winning the provincial championship. Following Dell's retirement, the family moved back to Charlotte and Curry enrolled at Charlotte Christian School, where he was named all-conference, all-state, led his team to three conference titles and three state playoff appearances; because of his father's storied career at Virginia Tech, Curry wanted to play college basketball for the Hokies, but was only offered a walk-on spot due in part to his slender 160-pound frame. He chose to attend Davidson College, who had aggressively recruited him from the tenth grade.
Before Curry played in his first game for the Wildcats, head coach Bob McKillop praised him at a Davidson alumni event, "Wait'til you see Steph Curry. He is something special." In his first collegiate game, against Eastern Michigan, Curry finished with 15 points but committed 13 turnovers. In the next game, against Michigan, he scored 32 points, dished out 4 assists, grabbed 9 rebounds. Curry finished the season leading the Southern Conference in scoring with 21.5 points per game. He was second in the nation behind only Kevin Durant of Texas. Curry's scoring ability helped the Wildcats to a 29–5 overall record and a Southern Conference regular season title. On March 2, 2007, in the Southern Conference tournament semi-finals against Furman, Curry made his 113th three-pointer of the year, breaking Keydren Clark's NCAA freshman season record for 3-point field goals. Curry eclipsed the school freshman scoring record with his 502nd point against Chattanooga on February 6, 2007. On March 15, 2007, Davidson marched into the NCAA tournament.
At the end of his freshman season, Curry was named Southern Conference Freshman of the Year, SoCon Tournament MVP, selected to the SoCon All-tournament team, All-freshman team, first team All-SoCon. He was honorable mention in Sports Illustrated's All-Mid-Major. After the season ended, he was selected for the USA team to appear at the 2007 FIBA U19 World Championships in which he averaged 9.4 points, 3.8 rebounds, 2.2 assists in 19.4 minutes, helping Team USA to a silver medal finish. In his sophomore season in 2007–08, Curry had grown to his adult height of 6 ft 3 in and again led the Southern Conference in scoring, averaging 25.5 points per game while adding 4.7 rebounds per game and 2.8 assists per game. He led the Wildcats to a 26–6 regular season record, a 20–0 conference record; as a result of Curry's exceptional play, Davidson earned its third straight NCAA Tournament bid. On March 21, 2008, Davidson matched up with seventh-seeded Gonzaga. Gonzaga led by 11 points early in the second half but Curry went on to score 30 points in the half to push Davidson to their first NCAA Tournament win since 1969, 82–76.
Curry ended the game with 40 points while going 8-for-10 from 3-point range. On March 23, Davidson played second seeded Georgetown in the second round of the NCAA Tournament. Georgetown, ranked eighth nationally, entered the game as a h
Oklahoma City Thunder
The Oklahoma City Thunder is an American professional basketball team based in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The Thunder competes in the National Basketball Association as a member of the league's Western Conference Northwest Division; the team plays its home games at Chesapeake Energy Arena. The Thunder's NBA G League affiliate is the Oklahoma City Blue; the Thunder are the only team in the major professional North American sports leagues based in the state of Oklahoma. Oklahoma City hosted the New Orleans Hornets for two seasons following devastation caused by Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans; the team was established as the Seattle SuperSonics, an expansion team that joined the NBA for the 1967–68 season. The SuperSonics moved in 2008 after a settlement was reached between the ownership group led by Clay Bennett and lawmakers in Seattle, Washington following a lawsuit. In Seattle, the SuperSonics qualified for the NBA playoffs 22 times, won their division six times, won the 1979 NBA Championship.
In Oklahoma City, the Thunder qualified for their first playoff berth during the 2009–10 season. They won their first division title as the Thunder in the 2010–11 season and their first Western Conference championship as the Thunder in the 2011–12 season, appearing in the NBA Finals for the fourth time in franchise history and first since 1996, when the team was based in Seattle; the Thunder's previous incarnation, the Seattle SuperSonics, were formed in 1967. In their 41 seasons in Seattle, the SuperSonics compiled a 1745–1585 win–loss record in the regular season and went 107–110 in the playoffs; the franchise's titles include three Western Conference championships and one NBA title in 1979. In 2006, former Starbucks CEO Howard Schultz sold the SuperSonics and its Women's National Basketball Association sister franchise, the Seattle Storm, for $350 million to the Professional Basketball Club LLC, a group of Oklahoma City investors led by Clay Bennett; the sale of the SuperSonics and Storm was approved by NBA owners the following October.
In 2007, Bennett announced that the franchise would move to Oklahoma City as soon as the lease with KeyArena expired. In June 2008, a lawsuit brought by the city of Seattle against Bennett due to his attempts to break the final two years of the Sonics' lease at KeyArena went to federal court. Nearly a month the two sides reached a settlement agreement; the terms awarded the city $45 million to get out of the remaining lease at KeyArena, would have provided an additional $30 million payment to Seattle in 2013 if certain conditions had been met. The owners agreed to leave the SuperSonics name and colors in Seattle for a possible future NBA franchise. On September 3, 2008, the team name and colors for the Oklahoma City franchise were revealed to the public; the name "Thunder" was chosen in reference to Oklahoma's location in Tornado Alley and Oklahoma City as the home of the U. S. Army's 45th Infantry Division, the Thunderbirds; the Thunder participated in the Orlando Pro Summer League featuring their second-year players, potential free agents and rookies.
The players wore generic black and white jerseys reading "OKC-NBA" against an outline of a basketball. The Thunder's temporary practice facility was the Sawyer Center at Southern Nazarene University, used by the New Orleans Hornets when they relocated to Oklahoma City after Hurricane Katrina; the Thunder played several preseason games before the 2008–2009 regular season, but only one of those games was in Oklahoma City. The Thunder made their first appearance in Billings, Montana on October 8, 2008 in an 88–82 preseason loss against the Minnesota Timberwolves; the Thunder played their first Ford Center game on October 14 against the Los Angeles Clippers. In their regular-season home opener, the Thunder faced the Milwaukee Bucks. Earl Watson scored the first points of the season with a layup. Three nights on November 2, the Thunder won their first game by defeating the Timberwolves, improving their record to 1–3; the team went on a 10-game losing streak before deciding on November 22 to fire head coach P. J. Carlesimo and assistant Paul Westhead.
Assistant coach Scott Brooks took over on an interim basis. Oklahoma City lost its next four games to tie the franchise losing streak of 14 set in Seattle the previous season, but the team managed to prevent history by winning their next game on the road against the Memphis Grizzlies. As the season continued, the Thunder began to improve. After starting 3–29, the Thunder finished the regular season 20–30 for the remaining fifty games. Not only were they winning more they played much more competitively than in the first part of the season; the team brought their record to 23–59 and improved upon their record of 20–62 from the team's final season in Seattle. The late-season successes of the Thunder contributed to the signing of Scott Brooks as the team's official head coach. After moving to Oklahoma City from Seattle, the team's operating situation improved markedly. In December 2008, Forbes magazine estimated the team's franchise value at $300 million – a 12 percent increase from the previous year's $268 million, when the club was located in Seattle.
Forbes noted an increase in percentage of available tickets sold, from 78 percent in the team's last season in Seattle to 100 percent in 2008–09. After an inaugural season filled with many adjustments, the Thunder hoped to improve during their second season in Oklahoma City. Oklahoma City did not make any major moves in the off-season, other than drafting James Harden from Arizona State University with the third overall pick i
National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association is a men's professional basketball league in North America. It is considered to be the premier men's professional basketball league in the world; the NBA is an active member of USA Basketball, recognized by FIBA as the national governing body for basketball in the United States. The NBA is one of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. NBA players are the world's best paid athletes by average annual salary per player; the league was founded in New York City on June 1946, as the Basketball Association of America. The league adopted the name National Basketball Association on August 3, 1949, after merging with the competing National Basketball League; the league's several international as well as individual team offices are directed out of its head offices located in the Olympic Tower at 645 Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan. NBA Entertainment and NBA TV studios are directed out of offices located in New Jersey; the Basketball Association of America was founded in 1946 by owners of the major ice hockey arenas in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States and Canada.
On November 1, 1946, in Toronto, Canada, the Toronto Huskies hosted the New York Knickerbockers at Maple Leaf Gardens, in a game the NBA now refers to as the first game played in NBA history. The first basket was made by Ossie Schectman of the Knickerbockers. Although there had been earlier attempts at professional basketball leagues, including the American Basketball League and the NBL, the BAA was the first league to attempt to play in large arenas in major cities. During its early years, the quality of play in the BAA was not better than in competing leagues or among leading independent clubs such as the Harlem Globetrotters. For instance, the 1948 ABL finalist Baltimore Bullets moved to the BAA and won that league's 1948 title, the 1948 NBL champion Minneapolis Lakers won the 1949 BAA title. Prior to the 1948–49 season, however, NBL teams from Fort Wayne, Indianapolis and Rochester jumped to the BAA, which established the BAA as the league of choice for collegians looking to turn professional.
On August 3, 1949, the remaining NBL teams–Syracuse, Tri-Cities, Sheboygan and Waterloo–merged into the BAA. In deference to the merger and to avoid possible legal complications, the league name was changed to the present National Basketball Association though the merged league retained the BAA's governing body, including Podoloff. To this day, the NBA claims the BAA's history as its own, it now reckons the arrival of the NBL teams as an expansion, not a merger, does not recognize NBL records and statistics. The new league had seventeen franchises located in a mix of large and small cities, as well as large arenas and smaller gymnasiums and armories. In 1950, the NBA consolidated to eleven franchises, a process that continued until 1953–54, when the league reached its smallest size of eight franchises: the New York Knicks, Boston Celtics, Philadelphia Warriors, Minneapolis Lakers, Rochester Royals, Fort Wayne Pistons, Tri-Cities Blackhawks, Syracuse Nationals, all of which remain in the league today.
The process of contraction saw. The Hawks shifted from the Tri-Cities to Milwaukee in 1951, to St. Louis in 1955; the Rochester Royals moved from Rochester, New York, to Cincinnati in 1957 and the Pistons relocated from Fort Wayne, Indiana, to Detroit in 1957. Japanese-American Wataru Misaka broke the NBA color barrier in the 1947–48 season when he played for the New York Knicks, he remained the only non-white player in league history prior to the first African-American, Harold Hunter, signing with the Washington Capitols in 1950. Hunter was cut from the team during training camp, but several African-American players did play in the league that year, including Chuck Cooper with the Celtics, Nathaniel "Sweetwater" Clifton with the Knicks, Earl Lloyd with the Washington Capitols. During this period, the Minneapolis Lakers, led by center George Mikan, won five NBA Championships and established themselves as the league's first dynasty. To encourage shooting and discourage stalling, the league introduced the 24-second shot clock in 1954.
If a team does not attempt to score a field goal within 24 seconds of obtaining the ball, play is stopped and the ball given to its opponent. In 1957, rookie center Bill Russell joined the Boston Celtics, which featured guard Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, went on to lead the club to eleven NBA titles in thirteen seasons. Center Wilt Chamberlain entered the league with the Warriors in 1959 and became a dominant individual star of the 1960s, setting new single game records in scoring and rebounding. Russell's rivalry with Chamberlain became one of the greatest rivalries in the history of American team sports; the 1960s were dominated by the Celtics. Led by Russell, Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, Boston won eight straight championships in the NBA from 1959 to 1966; this championship streak is the longest in NBA history. They did not win the title in 1966–67, but regained it in the 1967–68 season and repeated in 1969; the domination totaled nine of the ten championship banners of the 1960s.
Through this period, the NBA continued to evolve with the shift of the Minneapolis Lakers to Los Angeles, the Philadelphia Warriors to San Francisco, the Syracuse Nationals to Philadelphia to become the Philadelphia 76ers, the St. Louis Hawks moving to Atlanta, as well as the addition of its first expansion franchises; the Chicago Packers (now Wa
The Indiana Pacers are an American professional basketball team based in Indianapolis, Indiana. The Pacers compete in the National Basketball Association as a member club of the league's Eastern Conference Central Division; the Pacers were first established in 1967 as a member of the American Basketball Association and became a member of the NBA in 1976 as a result of the ABA–NBA merger. They play their home games at Bankers Life Fieldhouse; the team is named after Indiana's history with the Indianapolis 500's pace cars and with the harness racing industry. The Pacers have won three championships, all in the ABA; the Pacers were NBA Eastern Conference champions in 2000. The team has won nine division titles. Six Hall of Fame players – Reggie Miller, Chris Mullin, Alex English, Mel Daniels, Roger Brown, George McGinnis – played with the Pacers for multiple seasons. In early 1967, a group of six investors pooled their resources to purchase a franchise in the proposed American Basketball Association.
For their first seven years, they played in the Indiana State Fairgrounds Coliseum. In 1974, they moved to the plush new Market Square Arena in downtown Indianapolis, where they played for 25 years. Early in the Pacers' second season, former Indiana Hoosiers standout Bob "Slick" Leonard became the team's head coach, replacing Larry Staverman. Leonard turned the Pacers into a juggernaut, his teams were buoyed by the great play of superstars such as Mel Daniels, George McGinnis, Bob Netolicky, Rick Mount, Freddie Lewis and Roger Brown. The Pacers were – and ended – as the most successful team in ABA history, winning three ABA Championships in four years. In all, they appeared in the ABA Finals five times in the league's nine-year history, an ABA record; the Pacers were one of four ABA teams that joined the NBA in the ABA–NBA merger in 1976. For the 1976–77 season the Pacers were joined in the merged league by the Denver Nuggets, New York Nets, San Antonio Spurs; the league charged a $3.2 million entry fee for each former ABA team.
Since the NBA would only agree to accept four ABA teams in the ABA–NBA merger, the Pacers and the three other surviving ABA teams had to compensate the two remaining ABA franchises which were not a part of the merger, the Spirits of St. Louis and Kentucky Colonels; as a result of the merger, the four teams dealt with financial troubles. Additionally, the Pacers had some financial troubles which dated back to their waning days in the ABA; the new NBA teams were barred from sharing in national TV revenues for four years. The Pacers finished their inaugural NBA season with a record of 36–46. Billy Knight and Don Buse represented Indiana in the NBA All-Star Game. However, this was one of the few bright spots of the Pacers' first 13 years in the NBA. During this time, they had only two playoff appearances. A lack of continuity became the norm for most of the next decade, as they traded away Knight and Buse before the 1977–78 season started, they acquired Adrian Dantley in exchange for Knight, but Dantley was traded in December, while the Pacers' second-leading scorer, John Williamson, was dealt in January.
The early Pacers came out on the short end of two of the most one-sided trades in NBA history. In 1980, they traded Alex English to the Nuggets in order to reacquire former ABA star George McGinnis. McGinnis was long past his prime, contributed little during his two-year return. English, in contrast, went on to become one of the greatest scorers in NBA history; the next year, they traded a 1984 draft pick to the Portland Trail Blazers for center Tom Owens, who had played for the Pacers during their last ABA season. Owens played one year for the Pacers with little impact, was out of the league altogether a year later. In 1983–84, the Pacers finished with the worst record in the Eastern Conference, which would have given the Pacers the second overall pick in the draft—the pick that the Blazers used to select Sam Bowie while Michael Jordan was still available; as a result of the Owens trade, they were left as bystanders in the midst of one of the deepest drafts in NBA history—including such future stars as Jordan, Hakeem Olajuwon, Sam Perkins, Charles Barkley, John Stockton.
Clark Kellogg was drafted by the Pacers in the 1982 and finished second in the Rookie of the Year voting, but the Pacers finished the 1982–83 season with their all-time worst record of 20–62, won only 26 games the following season. After winning 22 games in 1984–85 and 26 games in 1985–86, Jack Ramsay replaced George Irvine as coach and led the Pacers to a 41–41 record in 1986–87 and their second playoff appearance as an NBA team. Chuck Person, nicknamed "The Rifleman" for his renowned long-range shooting, led the team in scoring as a rookie and won NBA Rookie of the Year honors, their first playoff win in NBA franchise history was earned in Game 3 of their first-round, best-of-five series against the Atlanta Hawks, but it was their only victory in that series, as the Hawks defeated them in four games. Reggie Miller from UCLA was drafted by the Pacers in 1987, beginning his career as a backup to John Long. Many fans at the time disagreed with Miller's selection over Indiana Hoosiers' standout Steve Alford.
The Pacers missed the playoffs in 1987–88, drafted Rik Smits in the 1988 NBA draft, suffered through a disastrous 1988–89 season in which coach Jack Ramsay stepped down following an 0–7 start. Mel Daniels and George Irvine filled in on an interim basis before Dick Versace took over the 6–23 team on the way to a 28