110 metres hurdles
The 110 metres hurdles, or 110-meter hurdles, is a hurdling track and field event for men. It is included in the programme at the Summer Olympic Games. The female counterpart is the 100 metres hurdles, as part of a racing event, ten hurdles of 1.067 metres in height are evenly spaced along a straight course of 110 metres. They are positioned so that they fall over if bumped into by the runner. Fallen hurdles do not carry a time penalty for the runners. Like the 100 metres sprint, the 110 metres hurdles begins in the starting blocks and it is occasionally referred to as the 110 meter high hurdles, to distinguish it from events at other distances that use lower hurdles. For the 110 m hurdles, the first hurdle is placed after a run-up of 13.72 metres from the starting line. The next nine hurdles are set at a distance of 9.14 metres from each other, the Olympic Games have included the 110 metre hurdles in their program since 1896. The equivalent hurdles race for women was run over a course of 80 metres from 1932 to 1968, starting with the 1972 Summer Olympics, the womens race was set at 100 metres.
In the early 20th century, the race was contested as 120 yard hurdles. The fastest 110 metre hurdlers run the distance in around 13 seconds, Aries Merritt of the United States holds the current world record of 12.80 seconds, set at the Memorial Van Damme meet on 7 September 2012 in Belgium. For the first hurdles races in England around 1830, wooden barriers were placed along a stretch of 100 yards. The first standards were attempted in 1864 in Oxford and Cambridge, The length of the course was set to 120 yards and over its course, the height and spacing of the hurdles have been related to Imperial units ever since. After the length of the course was rounded up to 110 metres in France in 1888, the massively constructed hurdles of the early days were first replaced in 1895 with somewhat lighter T-shaped hurdles that runners were able to knock over. However, until 1935 runners were disqualified if they knocked down more than three hurdles, and records were only recognized if the runner had left all hurdles standing.
In 1935 the T-shaped hurdles were replaced by L-shaped ones that easily fall forward if bumped into, however those hurdles are weighted so it is disadvantageous to hit them. The 110 metre hurdles have been an Olympic discipline since 1896, women ran it occasionally in the 1920s but it never became generally accepted. From 1926 on, women have only run the 80 metre hurdles which was increased to 100 metres starting in 1961 on a trial basis and in 1969 in official competition
The 800 metres, or 800 meters, is a common track running event. It is the shortest common middle-distance running event, the 800 metres is run over two laps of the track and has been an Olympic event since the first games in 1896. During indoor track season the event is run on a 200-metre track. The event was derived from the measurement of a half a mile. Imperial racing distances were common in the United States, american high schools were the last to convert to metric distances in 1980, following the NCAAs conversion in 1976. Countries associated to the English system converted to metric distances after the 1966 Commonwealth Games,800 m is 4.67 m less than half a mile. The event combines aerobic endurance with anaerobic conditioning and sprint speed, both the aerobic and anaerobic systems are being taxed to a high extent, thus the 800 metre athlete is required to combine training between both systems. If they are so inclined,400 m runners are encouraged to run the 200 metres while 800 m runners are encouraged to run the 1500 metres.
The 800 m event is known for its tactical racing techniques. Because the 800 m event is the shortest event that has all the runners converge on lane one and it is commonly believed that getting the first or second position early in the race is advantageous as these positions are not usually caught up in the pack. Olympic champions Dave Wottle, Yuriy Borzakovskiy and others have defied that logic by running a more evenly paced race, lagging behind the pack and kicking past the slowing early leaders. Often the winner of 800 m races at high levels are not determined by the strongest runner and this can lead to the most exciting aspect of the 800 m which is its high probability of an upset. Two common tactics for the 800 meters are running a split or a positive split between laps. The positive split is widely considered to be the more effective strategy, a positive split is achieved by running the first lap faster than the second lap, and a negative split is achieved by the opposite, running the second lap faster than the first.
The current world record holder, David Rudisha, runs using a positive split strategy, in his 2012 Olympic race, he ran his first lap in 49.28 seconds and his second lap in 51.63 seconds. Theoretically, a split is the most effective strategy. As of August 2016 As of August 2016, World junior records are held by Nijel Amos and Pamela Jelimo. Both marks coincidentally rank them as the third fastest ever, a Known as the World Indoor Games IAAF list of 800-metres records in XML
The 200 metres is a sprint running event. On an outdoor 400 m track, the race begins on the curve and ends on the home straight, a slightly shorter race, called the stadion and run on a straight track, was the first recorded event at the ancient Olympic Games. The 200 m places more emphasis on speed endurance than shorter sprint distances as athletes rely on different energy systems during the longer sprint, in the United States and elsewhere, athletes previously ran the 220-yard dash instead of the 200 m, though the distance is now obsolete. The standard adjustment used for the conversion from times recorded over 220 yards to 200 m times is to subtract 0.1 seconds, another obsolete version of this race is the 200 metres straight, which was run on tracks that contained such a straight. Initially, when the International Amateur Athletic Association started to ratify world records in 1912, in 1951, the IAAF started to recognise records set on a curved track. In 1976, the record was discarded.
The race attracts runners from other events, primarily the 100 metres, wishing to double up, marion Jones finished first in both races in 2000 but was disqualified and stripped of her medals after admitting to taking performance-enhancing drugs. An Olympic double of 200 m and 400 m was first achieved by Valerie Brisco-Hooks in 1984, Usain Bolt is the only man to repeat as Olympic champion, Bärbel Wöckel and Veronica Campbell-Brown are the two women who have repeated as Olympic champion. The mens world record holder is Usain Bolt of Jamaica, who ran 19. 19s at the 2009 World Championships, the womens world record holder is Florence Griffith-Joyner of the United States, who ran 21. 34s at the 1988 Summer Olympics. The reigning Olympic champions are Usain Bolt and Elaine Thompson, the reigning World Champions are Bolt and Dafne Schippers. Races run with an aiding wind measured over 2.0 metres per second are not acceptable for record purposes, only the fastest time for each athlete is listed. A = Altitude Correct as of January 2017.
Below is a list of all other legal times inside 19.60, yohan Blake ran 19.44,19.54. Below is a list of all other legal times inside 21.80, merlene Ottey ran 21.66,21.77. Marita Koch ran 21.76,21.78. Below is a list of all other legal times inside 22.45, merlene Ottey ran 22.24,22.34,22.37. A Known as the World Indoor Games IAAF list of 200-metres records in XML All time 200m men records
The 100 metres, or 100-metre dash, is a sprint race in track and field competitions. The shortest common outdoor running distance, it is one of the most popular and it has been contested at the Summer Olympics since 1896 for men and since 1928 for women. The reigning 100 m Olympic champion is named the fastest runner in the world. The World Championships 100 metres has been contested since 1983, jamaicans Usain Bolt and Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce are the reigning world champions and Elaine Thompson are the Olympic champions in the mens and womens 100 metres, respectively. On an outdoor 400 metres running track, the 100 m is run on the home straight, runners begin in the starting blocks and the race begins when an official fires the starters pistol. Sprinters typically reach top speed after somewhere between 50–60 m and their speed slows towards the finish line. The 10-second barrier has historically been a barometer of fast mens performances, the current mens world record is 9.58 seconds, set by Jamaicas Usain Bolt in 2009, while the womens world record of 10.49 seconds set by American Florence Griffith-Joyner in 1988 remains unbroken.
The 100 m emerged from the metrication of the 100 yards, the event is largely held outdoors as few indoor facilities have a 100 m straight. US athletes have won the mens Olympic 100 metres title more times than any country,16 out of the 28 times that it has been run. US women have dominated the event winning 9 out of 21 times. At the start, some athletes play psychological games such as trying to be last to the starting blocks, at high level meets, the time between the gun and first kick against the starting block is measured electronically, via sensors built in the gun and the blocks. A reaction time less than 0.1 s is considered a false start, the 0. 2-second interval accounts for the sum of the time it takes for the sound of the starters pistol to reach the runners ears, and the time they take to react to it. For many years a sprinter was disqualified if responsible for two false starts individually, this rule allowed some major races to be restarted so many times that the sprinters started to lose focus.
The next iteration of the rule, introduced in February 2003, meant that one false start was allowed among the field, but anyone responsible for a subsequent false start was disqualified. To avoid such abuse and to improve spectator enjoyment, the IAAF implemented a change in the 2010 season – a false starting athlete now receives immediate disqualification. This proposal was met with objections when first raised in 2005, justin Gatlin commented, Just a flinch or a leg cramp could cost you a years worth of work. The rule had an impact at the 2011 World Championships. Runners normally reach their top speed just past the point of the race
The high jump is a track and field event in which competitors must jump unaided over a horizontal bar placed at measured heights without dislodging it. In its modern most practised format, a bar is placed between two standards with a mat for landing. In the modern era, athletes run towards the bar and use the Fosbury Flop method of jumping, leaping head first with their back to the bar, performed since ancient times, competitors have introduced increasingly more effective techniques to arrive at the current form. The discipline is, alongside the pole vault, one of two vertical clearance events to feature on the Olympic athletics programme and it is contested at the World Championships in Athletics and IAAF World Indoor Championships, and is a common occurrence at track and field meetings. The high jump was among the first events deemed acceptable for women, Javier Sotomayor is the current mens record holder with a jump of 2.45 m set in 1993 – the longest standing record in the history of the mens high jump.
Stefka Kostadinova has held the world record at 2.09 m since 1987. The rules for the jump are set internationally by the International Association of Athletics Federations. Jumpers must take off on one foot, a jump is considered a failure if the bar is dislodged by the action of the jumper whilst jumping or the jumper touches the ground or breaks the plane of the near edge of the bar before clearance. The technique one uses for the jump must be almost flawless in order to have a chance of clearing a high bar, competitors may begin jumping at any height announced by the chief judge, or may pass, at their own discretion. Three consecutive missed jumps, at any height or combination of heights, the victory goes to the jumper who clears the greatest height during the final. If two or more tie for first place, the tie-breakers are, 1) The fewest misses at the height at which the tie occurred. If the event remains tied for first place, the jumpers have a jump-off, the bar is alternately lowered and raised until only one jumper succeeds at a given height.
The first recorded high jump event took place in Scotland in the 19th century, early jumpers used either an elaborate straight-on approach or a scissors technique. In the years, the bar was approached diagonally, around the turn of the 20th century, techniques began to modernise, starting with the Irish-American Michael Sweeneys Eastern cut-off. By taking off like the scissors, but extending his back and flattening out over the bar, Sweeney achieved a more economic clearance, another American, George Horine, developed an even more efficient technique, the Western roll. In this style, the bar again is approached on a diagonal, Horine increased the world standard to 2.01 m in 1912. His technique was predominant through the Berlin Olympics of 1936, in which the event was won by Cornelius Johnson at 2.03 m, American and Soviet jumpers held the playing field for the next four decades, and they pioneered the evolution of the straddle technique. Straddle jumpers took off as in the Western roll, but rotated their torso around the bar, straddle-jumper Charles Dumas was the first to clear 7 feet, in 1956, and American John Thomas pushed the world mark to 2.23 m in 1960
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
The steeplechase is an obstacle race in athletics, which derives its name from the steeplechase in horse racing. The foremost version of the event is the 3000 metres steeplechase, the 2000 metres steeplechase is the next most common distance. Horses and riders raced from one towns steeple to the next, the steeples were used as markers due to their visibility over long distances. Along the way runners inevitably had to jump streams and low stone walls separating estates, the modern athletics event originates from a two-mile cross country steeplechase that formed part of the University of Oxford sports in 1860. It was replaced in 1865 by an event over barriers on a flat field and it has been an Olympic event since the inception of the modern Olympics, though with varying lengths. The steeplechase for women is 3,000 metres long, a distance of 2,000 metres, with a shorter water jump, was experimented with before the current race format was established. It made its first major appearance at the 2005 World Championships in Helsinki.
In 2008, womens 3,000 metres steeplechase appeared for the first time on the Olympic tracks in Beijing, other divisions including masters athletics and youth athletics run 2,000 metres distances. The format for a 2,000 metre steeplechase removes the first two barriers of the first lap, the steeplechase at the 1932 Olympics was run over approximately 3460 metres due to a lap scoring error. A3,000 metres steeplechase is defined in the rulebook as having 28 barriers and 7 water jumps, a 2,000 meters steeplechase has 18 barriers and 5 water jumps. Since the water jump is never on the oval, a steeplechase course is never a perfect 400 metres lap. Instead the water jump is placed inside the turn, shortening the lap, or outside the turn, the start line moves from conventional starting areas in order to compensate for the different length of lap. When the water jump is inside, the 3,000 start line is on the backstretch, when the water jump is outside, the 3,000 start line is on the home stretch. The 2,000 start line reverses that pattern and uses 5/7 the amount of compensation, IAAF list of steeplechase records in XML Womens Steeplechase
The long jump is a track and field event in which athletes combine speed and agility in an attempt to leap as far as possible from a take off point. Along with the jump, the two events that measure jumping for distance as a group are referred to as the horizontal jumps. This event has a history in the Ancient Olympic Games and has been a modern Olympic event for men since the first Olympics in 1896 and for women since 1948. If the competitor starts the leap with any part of the foot past the foul line, a layer of plasticine is placed immediately after the board to detect this occurrence. An official will watch the jump and make the determination, therefore, it is in the best interest of the competitor to get as close to the foul line as possible. Competitors are allowed to place two marks along the side of the runway in order to assist them to jump accurately. At a lesser meet and facilities, the plasticine will likely not exist, at a smaller meet, the number of attempts might be limited to four or three.
Each competitor has a set number of attempts and that would normally be three trials, with three additional jumps being awarded to the best 8 or 9 competitors. All legal marks will be recorded but only the longest legal jump counts towards the results, the competitor with the longest legal jump at the end of competition is declared the winner. In the event of a tie, comparing the next best jumps of the tied competitors will be used to determine place. In a large, multi-day elite competition, a set number of competitors will advance to the final round, a set of 3 trial round jumps will be held in order to select those finalists. For record purposes, the maximum accepted wind assistance is two metres per second, the long jump is the only known jumping event of Ancient Greeces original Olympics pentathlon events. All events that occurred at the Olympic Games were initially supposed to act as a form of training for warfare, the long jump emerged probably because it mirrored the crossing of obstacles such as streams and ravines.
After investigating the surviving depictions of the ancient event it is believed that unlike the modern event, the athletes carried a weight in each hand, which were called halteres. These weights were swung forward as the athlete jumped in order to increase momentum and it is commonly believed that the jumper would throw the weights behind him in midair to increase his forward momentum, halteres were held throughout the duration of the jump. Swinging them down and back at the end of the jump would change the center of gravity and allow the athlete to stretch his legs outward. The jump itself was made from the bater and it was most likely a simple board placed on the stadium track which was removed after the event. The jumpers would land in what was called a skamma, the idea that this was a pit full of sand is wrong
Eugene is a city of the Pacific Northwest located in the U. S. state of Oregon. It is located at the end of the Willamette Valley, near the confluence of the McKenzie and Willamette Rivers. As of the 2010 census, Eugene had a population of 156,185, it is the second most populous city in the state, the citys population for 2014 was estimated to be 160,561 by the US Census. Eugene is home to the University of Oregon and Lane Community College, the city is noted for its natural beauty, recreational opportunities, and focus on the arts. Eugenes official slogan is A Great City for the Arts and Outdoors and it is referred to as the Emerald City and as Track Town, USA. The Nike corporation had its beginnings in Eugene, in 2021, the city will host the 18th Track and Field World Championships. The first people to settle in the Eugene area were known as the Kalapuyans and they made seasonal rounds, moving around the countryside as appropriate to collect and preserve local foods, including acorns, the bulbs of the wapato and camas plants, and berries.
They stored these foods in their permanent winter village, when crop activities waned, they returned to their winter villages and took up hunting and trading. They were known as the Chifin Kalapuyans and called the Eugene area where they lived Chifin, other Kalapuyan tribes occupied villages that are now within Eugene city limits. Pee-you or Mohawk Calapooians, Winefelly or Pleasant Hill Calapooians, and they were close-neighbors to the Chifin and were political allies. Some authorities suggest that the Brownsville Kalapuyans were related to the Pee-you and it is likely that since the Santiam had an alliance with the Brownsville Kalapuyans that the Santiam influence went as far at Eugene. According to archeological evidence, the ancestors of the Kalapuyans may have been in Eugene for as long as 10,000 years, French fur traders had settled seasonally in the Willamette Valley by the beginning of the 19th century. Having already developed relationships with Native communities through intermarriage and trade, by 1828 to 1830 they and their Native wives began year round occupation of the land, raising crops and tending animals.
In this process the mixed race families began to impact Native access to land, food supply, in July,1830, intermittent fever struck the lower Columbia region and a year later, the Willamette Valley. Natives traced the arrival of the disease, new to the Northwest, to the U. S. ship, intermittent fever is thought by researchers now to be malaria. In his book The Coming of the Spirit Pestilence Boyd reports that there was a 92% population loss for the Kalapuyans between 1830 and 1841 and this catastrophic event shattered the social fabric of Kalapuyan society and altered the demographic balance in the Valley. As the demographic pressure from the colonists grew, the remaining Kalapuyans were forcibly removed to reservations, though some Natives escaped being swept into the reservation, most were moved to the Grand Ronde reservation in 1856. Strict racial segregation was enforced and mixed people, known as Métis in French, had to make a choice between the reservation and Anglo society