Civil Police (Brazil)
In Brazil, the Civil Police is the name of the investigative state police forces. The Civil Police are agencies of the public administration of the states and of the Federal District of Brazil, whose function is, in accordance with article 144 of the Federal Constitution of 1988, the exercise of the public security for the preservation of the public order, of the safety of the people and the patrimony; each of the state and the of Federal District has its own "Civil Police Department", which carries out detective work and criminal investigation, acting as a state bureau of investigation, while the "Military Police" carries out preventive police duties. It aims at the exercise of functions of judiciary police and the exercise of activities of administrative and security police, which are indispensable to the preservation of the juridical order, to the harmonic life of the community, to guarantee citizens' rights and liberty; the Civil Police of Brazil had origin in the General Intendancy of Police, created in Rio de Janeiro in 1808.
With the transference of the Portuguese Royal Family to Brazil in 1808, the Police started to be regulated, have structure and important social role. The Police General Intendancy of the Court and the State of Brazil was created by charter of D. João VI on May 10 of that year, centralizing the police attributes of competence belonging to several authorities such as Ouvidor Geral, the alcaydes, the quadrilheiros and the road and assaults captains; the first Police General Superintendent was Councilor Paulo Fernandes Viana who organized the police administration in Rio de Janeiro city as it used to be in Lisbon. The Police General Intendancy went through the phase of the Brazilian politic emancipation movement which culminated on September 7, 1822. Civil Police had been developing for all country during the governments Imperial and Republican. Today, the constitutional existence of the Civil Police and its attributions elapse of article 144, IV and 144 § 4°, of the Federal Constitution. 27 Civil Police Forces in Brazil, one for each State of the federacy exist.
They are directed by a Head of Police, chosen amongst the Commission agents of Police of career. The services of judiciary police are given through the Police stations of Police, agencies that have jurisdiction on small cities or quarters of the great cities. Police Superior CouncilA collegiate organ CabinetDirect assistance of the Police Chief Planning and Police Operations DepartmentOperational planning General Office of PoliceFiscalization Police State AcademyProfessional formation Police DepartmentsOperational organs Administration DepartmentAdministrative support Technical-Scientific DepartmentTechnical-scientific support Special Investigations Department, the information organ of the states police, is responsible for the complex police investigations; the function of Judiciary Police is exercised through the police inquiry, included in the Brazilian prosecution law in order to investigate the penal infractions and their responsibility. When concluded the inquiry is sent to the criminal judge.
Police Authority Delegated/Commissioner of Police Agents of the Authority Notary of Police Agent, Investigator or Inspector Police Specialists CSI - Crime Scene Investigator Note: In several Brazilian states, Police Specialists direct an unattended Police Department called "Scientific Police" or "Technical Police", responsible for criminal expertise at the respective state. Polícia Civil do Distrito Federal - Brasilia Polícia Civil do Estado do Acre Polícia Civil do Estado de Alagoas Polícia Civil do Estado do Amapá Polícia Civil do Estado do Amazonas Polícia Civil do Estado da Bahia Polícia Civil do Estado do Ceará Polícia Civil do Estado do Espírito Santo Polícia Civil do Estado de Goiás Polícia Civil do Estado do Maranhão Polícia Civil do Estado do Mato Grosso Polícia Civil do Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul Polícia Civil do Estado de Minas Gerais Polícia Civil do Estado do Pará Polícia Civil do Estado da Paraíba Polícia Civil do Estado do Paraná Polícia Civil do Estado de Pernambuco Polícia Civil do Estado do Piauí Polícia Civil do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte Polícia Civil do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul Polícia Civil do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Polícia Civil do Estado de Rondônia Polícia Civil do Estado de Roraima Polícia Civil do Estado de Santa Catarina Polícia Civil do Estado de São Paulo Polícia Civil do Estado de Sergipe Polícia Civil do Estado de Tocantins Taurus pistols Glock pistols Colt pistols Smith & Wesson pistols Heckler & Koch MP5 Colt M16A2 Heckler & Koch G3 Grupo de Operações Especiais CORE Civil Police of Rio de Janeiro State Civil Police of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil Official web site, in Portuguese Civil Police of the Minas Gerais State Brazilian Federal Police Official web site, in Portuguese
Geraldo José Rodrigues de Alckmin Filho is a Brazilian politician who served as the Governor of São Paulo from 2001 to 2006, again from 2011 to 2018. He was the Brazilian Social Democracy Party presidential nominee for the 2018 presidential election, he is described by political analysts and supporters as a pro-business centrist associated with the political and financial establishment. Alckmin was reelected in 2014, for the fourth time, he was his party's candidate for president of Brazil in the 2006 elections. He attended the Universidade de Taubaté's medical school, specializing in Anesthesiology, before going on to work in the São Paulo Public Service Hospital, he resigned on 6 April 2018 to run for a second time, in the 2018 elections. His vice governor Márcio França will hold the office until the end of the term. Geraldo José Rodriguez Alckmin Filho was born in the city of Pindamonhangaba, Vale do Paraíba. Alckmin is the son of Geraldo José Rodriguez Miriam Penteado. Geraldo is the nephew of José Geraldo Rodriguez de Alckmin, a minister of the Supreme Federal Court.
According to Época magazine, Geraldo received a Christian formation from the Opus Dei Catholic prelature, told the magazine that his uncle Jose Geraldo was from Opus Dei. Geraldo is the father of three children. Sophia and Thomaz. Thomaz died in a helicopter accident on 2 April 2015. While still in his first year of medical school, Alckmin began his political career in 1972 when he was elected to the Pindamonhangaba city council, its mayor. At age 25, he was the youngest Brazilian mayor, he was elected a federal deputy for two terms, distinguishing himself by authoring consumer protection laws. In 1988, he was one of the founders of the Brazilian Social Democracy Party, he was elected vice governor of São Paulo, Mário Covas's running-mate first in the 1994 election and again in 1998. With the death of Covas, he assumed the governorship of the state of São Paulo in March, 2001, he continued Covas' policies, investing in large, state-run projects and education programs. All of these investments were possible through privatization programs that sold off public and state-owned companies.
He was elected governor on October 27, 2002, through a runoff election, for the 2003-2006 term, with 12 million votes. His current administration is marked by a reduction in the state payroll from 49% to 46% of the state's budget, the unification of purchasing systems and other "smart spending" initiatives, as well as the implementation of Public-Private Partnerships. On March 14, 2006, PSDB nominated Alckmin as its candidate for President in the 2006 elections; because of electoral rules, no candidate running for office may be in an executive office, forcing him to resign the governorship on March 31, 2006. Cláudio Lembo, the lieutenant governor, finished Alckmin's term. Alckmin's party mate, José Serra, the PSDB's presidential standard-bearer who lost to Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in 2002 announced his candidacy to replace Alckmin in the 2006 state elections. Serra won the vote in Brazil's first round elections on October 1, 2006 and was elected as the governor of São Paulo. Contrary to all major polls taken in the run-up to the October 1, 2006 balloting, Alckmin surprised everyone and came in second place in the presidential election.
His 41.64% of the vote, along with votes cast for two less significant candidates, as well as ballots that were left blank or spoiled, was enough to deny the simple majority necessary to re-elect incumbent President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in the first round. Lula and Alckmin faced one another in a run-off election on October 29, 2006. Alckmin received 39% of the vote, losing to Lula, who received 61% of the vote and was reelected. On January 19, 2009, Geraldo was appointed Secretary of Development for the State of São Paulo by then-Governor José Serra. At the PSDB Convenction held on June 13, 2010, Alckmin was named the party's candidate for the São Paulo government. Alckmin was elected governor in the first round with 11.5 million votes defeating Senator Aloizio Mercadante who obtained 8 million votes. Alckmin assumed the government of São Paulo for the third time on January 1, 2011; the inauguration took place during a ceremony held at State Legislative Assembly. His administration in 2013 faces strikes in health.
After the readjustment in the passage of the metropolitan trains and the subway, great manifestations of protests began, that happened in all Brazil. The readjustment was suspended by Alckmin and the mayor of São Paulo, Fernando Haddad. Alckmin's reelection campaign for 2014 was officialized on June 29, 2014. In the first round, on October 5, 2014, he was re-elected with 12.2 million votes, being the second highest percentage of votes since the redemocratization of Brazil. Geraldo Alckmin took office for the fourth time as governor of São Paulo on January 1, 2015. In a convention held on 9 December 2017, Alckmin was elected the PSDB's national president in a 470-3 vote, succeeding Minas Gerais senator Aécio Neves, announced his pre-candidacy for next year's presidential race. On 23 February 2018, after Manaus mayor Arthur Virgílio Neto suspended his campaign, Alckmin became the sole candidate for the party's primary, his candidacy became official on 6 March 2018. Since resigning as governor and losing his legal immunity, Alckmin has been the target of a probe by electoral justice authorities for allegations that construction company
Kettling is a police tactic for controlling large crowds during demonstrations or protests. It involves the formation of large cordons of police officers who move to contain a crowd within a limited area. Protesters are left only one choice of exit controlled by the police – or are prevented from leaving, with the effect of denying the protesters access to food and toilet facilities for a time period determined by the police forces; the tactic has proved controversial, in part because it has resulted in the detention of ordinary bystanders as well as protestors. In March 2012 kettling was ruled lawful by the European Court of Human Rights following a legal challenge; the term "kettle" is a metaphor, likening the containment of protestors to the containment of heat and steam within a domestic kettle. Its modern English usage may come from "kessel" – a cauldron, or kettle in German – that describes an encircled army about to be annihilated by a superior force. A cauldron is expected to be "boiling" with combat activity, the large enemy forces still quite able to offer "hot" resistance in the initial stages of encirclement, so are to be contained, but not engaged directly.
To avoid allusions to military confrontation, kettling is sometimes described as "corralling," likening the tactic to the enclosure of livestock. Although large groups are difficult to control, this can be done by concentrations of police; the tactic prevents the large group breaking into smaller splinters that have to be individually chased down, thus requiring the policing to break into multiple groups. Once the kettle has been formed, the cordon is tightened, which may include the use of baton charges to restrict the territory occupied by the protesters; the cordon is maintained for a number of hours: the ostensible aim is to leave would-be "violent" protesters too tired to do anything but want to go home. Kettling has been criticized for being an indiscriminate tactic which leads to the detention of law-abiding citizens and innocent bystanders. In some cases protesters are reported to have been denied access to food and toilet facilities for long periods. Further criticism has been made that in some instances the tactic has been used to foment disorder with the aim of changing the focus of public debate.
In some countries the tactic has led to legal challenges on the grounds of human rights violations. An early example of kettling was by German police in 1986. During a demonstration by anti-nuclear protestors at Heiligengeistfeld, Hamburg on 8 May, Hamburg Police cordoned 800 people into a "kettle" for several hours. German kettling tactics distinguish a stationary form of detention and a mobile form, in which protestors are enclosed by a mobile police cordon while they march; these types of police cordon were regularly used in the UK before the tactic got refined at the N30 protest, dubbed a kettle. Kettling has been challenged in the German courts on several occasions; the 1986 Hamburger Kessel was ruled unlawful by the administrative court of Hamburg. The district court found German police guilty of wrongful deprivation of personal liberty. Following an anti-nuclear protest in 2002 in Hitzacker, Lower Saxony, a protestor took a case to court because she had been denied access to toilets when she was held within a police kettle.
The district court found that she had been handled inhumanely and that the police had acted unlawfully. On June 27, 2010, 200 persons, including protesters and news reporters, were kettled in Toronto at the intersection of Queen St. and Spadina Ave. during the G20 summit protests. Several hundred people were kettled outside of the Novotel Hotel on the Esplanade and arrested; the following year the Toronto Police Department swore to never use kettling again. In August 2015, police superintendent David'Mark' Fenton was convicted of two charges of unlawful arrest and one charge of discreditable conduct, disciplinary offences under the Police Act, for ordering the kettling in 2010. However, the judge convicting Fenton made it clear that "That said, containing or kettling is not illegal". On March 15, 2011, 250–300 protesters in Montréal were kettled on St-Denis just north of Mont Royal during the Annual March Against Police Brutality. Police used stun grenades, riot gear, horses to kettle the crowd.
On May 23, 2012, police in Montréal moved in on student protesters, kettling them and making 518 arrests—the largest number in one night since the student protests began weeks earlier. On March 15, 2013, at the annual police brutality march, the police kettled a group of protesters on Ste-Catherine street in Montréal after the march was declared illegal for not presenting an itinerary before the protest. After two hours of attempting to break up the groups protesting, the police closed in and arrested anyone caught in the kettle. At the end of the evening police stated that there were around 250 arrests, 2 injured police officers and one protester, unwell. Between 250 and 1000 non-violent protestors at the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen were kettled by police. A police spokesman said. Finnish anarchist demonstration Smash Asem was prevented from taking place when 200 riot police and hundreds of other police and Finnish Border Guard personnel kettled around 300 to 500 demonstrators and bystanders in front of Kiasma in downtown Helsinki for over 3 hours on 9 September 2006.
On the Guillotière bridge In Lyon, on the 20 October 2010, a few hundred protestors were kettled for several hours. The next day in Place Bellecour, about 500 citizens and protestors defending public pension were kettled for six hours without food or water by b
Military Police (Brazil)
Military Police are a type of preventive state police of the states and of the Federal District of Brazil. The Military Police units, which have their own formations and uniforms depending on the state and the Federal District, are responsible for maintaining public order across the country. Deployed to act as a deterrent against the commission of crime, units do not conduct criminal investigations. Detective work and prosecutions are undertaken by a state's Civil Police. In 1999 the National Public Security Force was created to handle any significant security crisis; the unit, composed of the most qualified Military Police personnel from all federal states, can only be deployed through the express command of a state governor. All state Military Police and Military Firefighters Corps are classed as reserve troops and ancillary forces of the Brazilian Army. In time of war the military police forces can be pressed into federal service, but they remain distinct from the provosts belonging to the other services within the Brazilian military: the corps Army Police for the Army, Navy Police for the Navy, Air Force Police for the Air Force.
The first militarized police in Portugal was the Royal Police Guard of Lisbon, established in 1801. When the Portuguese Royal Family was transferred to Brazil, the Royal Police Guard of Lisbon remained in Portugal, another equivalent was created in Rio de Janeiro, under the name of Military Division of the Royal Guard Police of Rio de Janeiro, in 1809. With the abdication of Emperor Pedro I in 1831, the Regency held reformulations on the Brazilian Armed Forces; the Royal Guard Police of Rio de Janeiro was extinct, replaced by the Municipal Guard Corps of Volunteers. The same law allowed each province to establish its own Guard of Volunteers. In 1834 Pedro I died in Portugal and this reduced the fear in Brazil of a reunification of the kingdoms; the Guard of Volunteers were transformed into Province Police Corps, with professional troops. The Police Corps were created with the same structure as the Army, to serve as reserve troops when necessary. With the Proclamation of the Republic, Brazil adopted a constitution based on the United States' one, where the states have a large autonomy.
The Corps of Police began to be administered by the states and became smaller regional armies, with infantry, cavalry and even with air forces. This dangerous situation to the national security remained until the end of World War II, with the deposition of the dictatorial government of Getúlio Vargas. After World War II, the Military Police assumed the roles of a more "traditional" police force, similar to a gendarmerie subject to the states, they sought a rapprochement with the civil society developing the configuration it possesses. The Secretariat for Public Security supervises all state police activities; the SSPs are subordinate to the National Council of Public Security. According to Article 144 of the federal constitution, the function of the Military Police "is to serve as a conspicuous police force and to preserve public order." The Military Police of any state are organized as a military force and have a military-based rank structure. Training is weighted more toward police matters, but counterinsurgency training is included.
Arms and equipment of state forces include machine guns and armored cars, in addition to other items associated with police. Article 144 of the constitution stipulates that: "The Military Police forces and the Military Firefighters Corps, ancillary forces and army reserve, are subordinate, along with the Civil Police forces, to the governors of the states, Federal District, territories." Between 1969 and 1985, the Ministry of Army has controlled the Military Police during periods of declared national emergency. Before 1930 these forces were under individual state control, known as "the governors' armies." They sometimes outnumbered regular troops in many states. In 1932, after Constitutionalist Revolution in São Paulo, the Federal Army took steps to reverse this situation. In 1964 most Military Police members were on the side of the successful conspirators. During military dictatorship, Military Police units were commanded by active-duty army officers, but that has occurred less as professional police officers have achieved higher ranks and positions.
The commandant of a state's Military Police is a Colonel. The command is divided into police regions, which deploy police companies. Firefighting is a Military Police function in some states, but they are organized in separate units called Corpo de Bombeiros Militar. State traffic police are either the State Highway Police, or the Traffic Police in the larger cities. Both are part of the state Military Police; the Military Police is organized into battalions, companies and subdivided into detachments. The battalions are based in major urban centers, their companies and platoons are distributed according to populat
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
São Paulo is a municipality in the Southeast Region of Brazil. The metropolis is an alpha global city and the most populous city in Brazil, the Western Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, besides being the largest Portuguese-speaking city in the world; the municipality is the Earth's 11th largest city proper by population. The city is the capital of the surrounding state of São Paulo, the most populous and wealthiest state in Brazil, it exerts strong international influences in commerce, finance and entertainment. The name of the city honors Saint Paul of Tarsus; the city's metropolitan area, the Greater São Paulo, ranks as the most populous in Brazil and the 12th most populous on Earth. The process of conurbation between the metropolitan areas located around the Greater São Paulo created the São Paulo Macrometropolis, a megalopolis with more than 30 million inhabitants, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. Having the largest economy by GDP in Latin America and the Southern Hemisphere, the city is home to the São Paulo Stock Exchange.
Paulista Avenue is the economic core of São Paulo. The city has the 11th largest GDP in the world, representing alone 10.7% of all Brazilian GDP and 36% of the production of goods and services in the state of São Paulo, being home to 63% of established multinationals in Brazil, has been responsible for 28% of the national scientific production in 2005. With a GDP of US$477 billion, the São Paulo city alone would have ranked 26th globally compared with countries by 2017 estimates; the metropolis is home to several of the tallest skyscrapers in Brazil, including the Mirante do Vale, Edifício Itália, North Tower and many others. The city has cultural and political influence both nationally and internationally, it is home to monuments and museums such as the Latin American Memorial, the Ibirapuera Park, Museum of Ipiranga, São Paulo Museum of Art, the Museum of the Portuguese Language. The city holds events like the São Paulo Jazz Festival, São Paulo Art Biennial, the Brazilian Grand Prix, São Paulo Fashion Week, the ATP Brasil Open, the Brasil Game Show and the Comic Con Experience.
The São Paulo Gay Pride Parade rivals the New York City Pride March as the largest gay pride parade in the world. São Paulo is a cosmopolitan, melting pot city, home to the largest Arab and Japanese diasporas, with examples including ethnic neighborhoods of Mercado and Liberdade respectively. São Paulo is home to the largest Jewish population in Brazil, with about 75,000 Jews. In 2016, inhabitants of the city were native to over 200 different countries. People from the city are known as paulistanos, while paulistas designates anyone from the state, including the paulistanos; the city's Latin motto, which it has shared with the battleship and the aircraft carrier named after it, is Non ducor, which translates as "I am not led, I lead." The city, colloquially known as Sampa or Terra da Garoa, is known for its unreliable weather, the size of its helicopter fleet, its architecture, severe traffic congestion and skyscrapers. São Paulo was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, the city hosted the IV Pan American Games and the São Paulo Indy 300.
The region of modern-day São Paulo known as Piratininga plains around the Tietê River, was inhabited by the Tupi people, such as the Tupiniquim and Guarani. Other tribes lived in areas that today form the metropolitan region; the region was divided in Caciquedoms at the time of encounter with the Europeans. The most notable Cacique was Tibiriça, known for his support for the Portuguese and other European colonists. Among the many indigenous names that survive today are Tietê, Tamanduateí, Anhangabaú, Diadema, Itapevi, Embu-Guaçu etc... The Portuguese village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga was marked by the founding of the Colégio de São Paulo de Piratininga on January 25, 1554; the Jesuit college of twelve priests included Spanish priest José de Anchieta. They built a mission on top of a steep hill between the Tamanduateí rivers, they first had a small structure built of rammed earth, made by American Indian workers in their traditional style. The priests wanted to evangelize – teach the Indians who lived in the Plateau region of Piratininga and convert them to Christianity.
The site was separated from the coast by the Serra do Mar, called by the Indians Serra Paranapiacaba. The college was named for a Christian saint and its founding on the feast day of the celebration of the conversion of the Apostle Paul of Tarsus. Father José de Anchieta wrote this account in a letter to the Society of Jesus: The settlement of the region's Courtyard of the College began in 1560. During the visit of Mem de Sá, Governor-General of Brazil, the Captaincy of São Vicente, he ordered the transfer of the population of the Village of Santo André da Borda do Campo to the vicinity of the college, it was named "College of St. Paul Piratininga"; the new location was on a steep hill adjacent to a large wetland, the lowland do Carmo. It offered better protection from attacks by local Indian groups, it was renamed belonging to the Captaincy of São Vicente. For the next two centuries, São Paulo developed as a poor and isolated village that survived through the cultivation of subsistence crops by the labor of natives.
For a long time, São Paulo was the only village in Brazil's interior, as travel was too difficult for many to reach the area. Mem de Sá forbade colonists to use the "Path Pir
Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil and seat of government of the Federal District. The city is located atop the Brazilian highlands in the country's center-western region, it was founded on April 1960, to serve as the new national capital. Brasília is estimated to be Brazil's 3rd most populous city. Among major Latin American cities, Brasília has the highest GDP per capita. Brasília was planned and developed by Lúcio Costa, Oscar Niemeyer and Joaquim Cardozo in 1956 to move the capital from Rio de Janeiro to a more central location; the landscape architect was Roberto Burle Marx. The city's design divides it into numbered blocks as well as sectors for specified activities, such as the Hotel Sector, the Banking Sector and the Embassy Sector. Brasília was chosen as a UNESCO World Heritage Site due to its modernist architecture and uniquely artistic urban planning, it has been named "City of Design" by UNESCO in October 2017 and has been part of the Creative Cities Network since then. All three branches of Brazil's federal government are centered in the city: executive and judiciary.
Brasília hosts 124 foreign embassies. The city's international airport connects it to all other major Brazilian cities and many international destinations, is the third busiest airport in Brazil. Brasília is the most populous Portuguese-speaking capital city, it was one of the main host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and hosted some of the football matches during the 2016 Summer Olympic Games. The city has a unique status in Brazil, as it is an administrative division rather than a legal municipality like other cities in Brazil. Although Brasília is used as a synonym for the Federal District through synecdoche, the Federal District is composed of 31 administrative regions, only one of, the area of the planned city called Plano Piloto; the rest of the Federal District is considered by IBGE to make up Brasília's metro area. From 1763 until 1960, Rio de Janeiro was Brazil's capital. At this time, resources tended to be centered in Brazil's southeast region near Rio de Janeiro and most of its population was concentrated near to the Atlantic Coast.
Brasília's geographically central location fostered a more regionally neutral federal capital. An article of the country's first republican constitution dating back to 1891 stated the capital should be moved from Rio de Janeiro to a place close to the country's center; the plan was conceived in 1827 by José Bonifácio, an advisor to Emperor Pedro I. He presented a plan to the General Assembly of Brazil for a new city called Brasília, with the idea of moving the capital westward from the populated southeastern corridor; the bill was not enacted because Pedro I dissolved the Assembly. According to legend, Italian saint Don Bosco in 1883 had a dream in which he described a futuristic city that fitted Brasília's location. In Brasília today, many references of Bosco, who founded the Salesian order, are found throughout the city and one church parish in the city bears his name. In 1955 Juscelino Kubitschek was elected president of Brazil. Upon taking office in January, 1956, in response to his campaign pledge, he initiated the planning and construction of the new capital.
In 1957 an international jury selected Lúcio Costa's plan to guide the construction of Brazil’s new capital, Brasília. Costa's plan was not as detailed as some of the plans presented by other architects and city planners, it did not include land use schedules, population charts or mechanical drawings, however, it was chosen by five out of six jurors because it had the features required to align the growth of a capital city Even though the initial plan was transformed over time, his plan oriented much of the construction and most of its features survived. Brasília's accession as the new capital and its designation for the development of an extensive interior region inspired the symbolism of the plan. Costa used a cross-axial design indicating the possession and conquest of this new place with a cross described by some as a dragonfly, an airplane or a bird. Costa's plan included the Monumental Axis and the Residential Axis; the Monumental Axis was assigned political and administrative activities and is considered the body of the city with the style and simplicity of its buildings, oversized scales, broad vistas and heights, producing the idea of Monumentality.
This axis includes the various ministries, national congress, presidential palace, supreme court building and the television and radio tower. The Residential Axis was intended to contain areas with intimate character and is considered the most important achievement of the plan; the urban design of the communal apartment blocks was based on Le Corbusier's Ville Radieuse of 1935 and the superblocks on the North American Radburn layout from 1929. Visually, the blocks were intended to appear absorbed by the landscape because they were isolated by a belt of tall trees and lower vegetation. Costa attempted to introduce a Brazil, more equitable, he designed housing for the working classes, separated from the upper and middle-class housing and was visually different, with the intention of avoiding slums (f