Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. The country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israels economy and technology center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, in 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Mandatory Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency for Palestine, next year, the Jewish Agency declared the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel. Israel has since fought several wars with neighboring Arab states, in the course of which it has occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and it extended its laws to the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israels occupation of the Palestinian territories is the worlds longest military occupation in modern times, efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in peace. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have successfully been signed, the population of Israel, as defined by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, was estimated in 2017 to be 8,671,100 people. It is the worlds only Jewish-majority state, with 74. 8% being designated as Jewish, the countrys second largest group of citizens are Arabs, at 20. 8%. The great majority of Israeli Arabs are Sunni Muslims, including significant numbers of semi-settled Negev Bedouins, other minorities include Arameans, Armenians, Assyrians, Black Hebrew Israelites, Circassians, Maronites and Samaritans. Israel also hosts a significant population of foreign workers and asylum seekers from Africa and Asia, including illegal migrants from Sudan, Eritrea. In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish, Israel is a representative democracy with a parliamentary system, proportional representation and universal suffrage. The prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature, Israel is a developed country and an OECD member, with the 35th-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2016. The country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentage of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. The country has the highest standard of living in the Middle East and the third highest in Asia, in the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term Israeli to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have historically used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel. The name Israel in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, jacobs twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, also known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. The earliest known artifact to mention the word Israel as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity, Islam
Afula is a city in the Northern District of Israel, often known as the Capital of the Valley due to its strategic location in the Jezreel Valley. In 2015 the city had a population of 44,930, Afula is mentioned first around 19th century BC as Ofel in the Execration texts. During the Ottoman era, in the 18th century, there was a small Arab village el-Afuleh or Affule, the modern name may be derived from the name of this village, possibly originating in the Canaanite-Hebrew root ofel, or the Arab word for ruptured. Afula is possibly the place Ophlah, mentioned in the lists of Thothmes III, conder suggested that Afula was identical with Kirjath Ophlathah, a place inhabited by Samaritans in the 7th century. Within the town of Afula, on the ancient mound or tell known as Tel Afula, remains of a fortress from the Crusader, a fortified Crusader tower,19 meters square, stands in the centre of Afulah. The lower four courses are made of boulders, while the top remaining layer is made of reused Roman sarcophagi. The wall is a total of 5,5 meters tall, pottery remains indicate that it was occupied in the twelfth and thirteenth century. For older finds from Tel Afula see the Archaeology paragraph, in 1321, Afula was mentioned under the name of Afel by Marino Sanuto. A map by Pierre Jacotin from Napoleons invasion of 1799 showed this place, in 1816, James Silk Buckingham passed by and described Affouli as being built on rising ground, and containing only a few dwellings. He noted several other settlements in sight, all populated by Muslims. In 1838, Edward Robinson described both Afuleh and the adjacent El Fuleh as deserted, thomson blamed their desertion on the bedouin. In 1875 Victor Guérin described Afula as a village on a hill overlooking a little plain. The houses were built of adobe and various other materials, around the well, which Guérin thought was probably ancient, he noticed several tubs of broken sarcophagi serving as troughs. In 1882, the Palestine Exploration Funds Survey of Western Palestine described El Afuleh as a adobe village in the plain. Gottlieb Schumacher, as part of surveying for the construction of the Jezreel Valley railway, north of the village was a grain stop, belonging to the Sursocks. In 1909 or 1910, Yehoshua Hankin completed his first major purchase in the Jezreel Valley and he bought some 10,000 dunams of land in Al-Fuleh, which became the home of two moshav settlements, Merhavia and Tel Adashim. According to the British Mandates 1922 census of Palestine, Affuleh had 563 inhabitants,471 Muslims,62 Christians,28 Jews and 2 Bahai,61 of the Christians were Orthodox, while one was Melkite. In 1925 the American Zionist Commonwealth completed a purchase of the Afula valley from the Sursuk family of Beirut, a quarter of the one hundred Arab families who had lived in the area accepted compensation for their land and left voluntarily, the remainder were evicted
Penalty shoot-out (association football)
A penalty shoot-out is a method of determining the winner of an association football match that is drawn after the regulation as well as extra playing time. Although the procedure for taking kicks from the penalty mark resembles that of a penalty kick, most notably, neither the kicker nor any player other than the goalkeeper may play the ball again once it has been kicked. The method of breaking a draw in a match requiring a winner is determined beforehand by the organizing body. Although employed in football commonly since the 1970s, penalty shoot-outs remain unpopular with some, during a shoot-out, coaches, players other than the kicker and the goalkeepers must remain in the centre circle. The kicking teams goalkeeper stands at the intersection of the goal line, goals scored during the shoot-out are not included in the final score, nor are they added to the goalscoring records of the players involved. A tie is a result in football. Exceptionally, a shoot-out after a league or round-robin match may be provided for and this provision appears for occasions where opposing teams in a final-day match finish the group with identical records, which can result in an immediate shoot-out. This happened in Group A of the 2003 UEFA Womens Under-19 Championship, several leagues, such as the J-League, have experimented with penalty shoot-outs immediately following a drawn league match, with the winner being awarded an extra point. A team that loses a penalty shoot-out is eliminated from the tournament but it does not count as a defeat, for instance, the Netherlands are considered to have concluded the 2014 FIFA World Cup undefeated, despite being eliminated at the semi-final stage. The following is a summary of the procedure for kicks from the penalty mark, the procedure is specified in Law 10 of the IFABs Laws of the Game document. The referee tosses a coin to decide the goal at which the kicks will be taken, the choice of goal by the coin toss winner may only be changed by the referee for safety reasons or if the goal or playing surface becomes unusable. The referee tosses the coin a second time to determine which team will take the first kick, all players other than the kicker and the goalkeepers must remain in the pitchs centre circle. Each kick will be taken in the manner of a penalty kick. Each kick will be taken from the penalty mark, which is 12 yards from the line and equidistant from each touch line. Each team is responsible for selecting from the players the order in which they will take the kicks. The referee is not informed of the order, each kicker can kick the ball only once per attempt. Once kicked, the kicker may not play the ball again, no other player on either team, other than the designated kicker and goalkeeper, may touch the ball. The ball may touch the goalkeeper, goal posts, or crossbar any number of times before going into the goal as long as the referee believes the motion is the result of the initial kick
Maccabi Kiryat Gat F.C.
Maccabi Kiryat Gat F. C. is an Israeli football team based in the southern city of Kiryat Gat. The clubs best achievement has been promotion to the Premier League as Liga Leumit runners-up in 2001, however, in their first season in the top division, they finished at the bottom of the table, six points from safety, and were relegated back to the second tier. The club was established as Maccabi Kiryat Gat in 1961 by Yehuda Ivanir who also served as chairman, in 1969, he bought the Kfar Gavirol F. C. and Maccabi took its place in the Liga Bet. In the 1978–79 season, the club reached Liga Alef, for the first time in its history, after seven seasons in the second division, Maccabi finished second in the 2000–01 season of Liga Leumit, and for the first time in history, promoted to the Premier League. The club finished last in season and returned to the Liga Leumit. Maccabi remained in the Second Division, Liga Leumit, until 2004, in 2006, the club merged with Beitar Kiryat Gat to one municipal club, thus after lengthy negotiations. For years Maccabi was the only Football Club in Kiryat Gat, at the beginning of season 2012–13 the Maccabi changed its name to Ironi Kiryat Gat and after a while returned to the former name, Maccabi Kiryat Gat. Since 2013, the sponsor is a Hamei Yoav baths. In the 2013–14 season, Maccabi won Liga Alef South division, in the 2015–16 season, the club finished bottom in Liga Leumit and relegated to Liga Alef. As to 3 November 2016 Billy Sade Gili Landau The Womens section of the won the National Israeli club in 2016. Official website under construction Maccabi Kiryat Gat on Facebook Ironi Kiryat Gat The Israel Football Association
Hapoel Katamon Jerusalem F.C.
Hapoel Katamon Jerusalem F. C. is an Israeli fan-owned association football club in Jerusalem, Israel. It was conceived and founded in 2007 by Hapoel Jerusalem fans unhappy with the teams management, the club currently plays in Liga Leumit and is based at Teddy Stadium. At its founding, Hapoel Katamon Jerusalem became the first fan-owned football club in Israel, football club Hapoel Jerusalem was founded in 1926. The team belonged to the Histadrut, Israels organization of workers unions, in 1957, the team advanced for the first time to the top Israeli league. The most important achievement in the history of the club was winning the Israel State Cup in 1973, since the 1980s, Hapoel has lost its lead to Beitar Jerusalem. The team spent the 1980s and 1990s swinging between the 1st and 2nd leagues, eventually, it was purchased by businessman Yosi Sassi in 1993, who appointed his friend, Victor Yona, as chairman. Since the late 1990s, the two got into disputes and legal proceedings, and the team changed hands back and forth between the two. When it became evident that such a deal was impossible. The group, led by journalist Uri Sheradski and supported by future mayor Nir Barkat, bought Hapoel Mevasseret Zion/Abu Ghosh. The new name was taken from Katamon, a neighborhood of Jerusalem where Hapoel Jerusalem played from 1954 until moving to the YMCA Stadium, the first game was played October 19,2007, to a crowd of 3,000, Hapoel Katamon won Hapoel Nahalat Yehuda 2–1. Not all of Hapoel Jerusalem fans supported this move, some believed that creating Katamon was betraying the team, a popular slogan among the critics was love cant be bought for a 1,000 Shekels, a reference to the membership price. However, the number of spectators at Katamon matches has steadily outnumbered that of Hapoel Jerusalem, the club survived for 2 years in this form. In the 2008–09 season the team finished 7th place, during this second season, efforts to merge between Hapoel Katamon and Hapoel Jerusalem resumed, but to no success. Eventually, it was decided by a vote of member-fans to end the cooperation with Hapoel Mevasseret, the main disadvantage was that a newly created team must start out at Liga Gimel, the 5th division. The new club, named Hapoel Katamon Jerusalem, started playing in late September 2009 at the Hebrew University Stadium at Givat Ram, the new management form consists of 3 representatives elected by the fans. Amir Gola, an icon, returned from retirement as a former captain of Hapoel Jerusalem to be captain of the new team. Throughout the 2008/2009 season Hapoel Katamon had a lead, and it finished first in the league. The final home-match was played to a crowd of 4,000
The Toto Cup is an association football tournament that exists separately in the two highest divisions in Israel, the Premier League and Liga Leumit. From 1999 to 2009, the Toto Cup tournament was held for the third division which was later canceled due to the cancellation of Liga Artzit. However, the Israeli Sports Betting Council pays 1.25 million NIS for the winner, League cups, in different formats, were played in Israel irregularly since the 1950s. In 1975–76 a League Cup competition was played, won by Hapoel Hadera and Maccabi Ramat Amidar, in 1982 the IFA introduced a league cup, called Lilian Cup, after former IFA treasurer Yehuda Lilian, who died in February 1982. The competition, played at the beginning of the season, involved the top four teams from previous season and its format was changed during its years of play, at times being played in league format and at times being played as a knock-out competition. The competition was last played in 1989–90 and this cup is sometimes being referred as a predecessor of the Toto Cup, but these competitions are unconnected. In 1984–85 the IFA introduced a League Cup competition for the two top tiers of the Israeli football league system. The first round of the competition was played on 30 October 1984, while the first finals, played on 7 May 1985, was won by Maccabi Yavne and Hapoel Ashkelon. The IFA and the Israeli Sports Betting Council reached an agreement in October 2013, the group stages are usually played before the opening of the football leagues and take place from August to October, and the finals take place in January. The 14 teams in league are divided into three groups, Five teams in two groups, and four teams in one group, each team plays against each team once. The two teams placed last in group are eliminated with the rest of teams advance to the quarterfinals. The group stages are played before the opening of the football leagues and take place from August to September. The 16 teams in league are divided into four groups, four teams in each group, each team plays against each team once, making a total of three games for each team. The best two teams in each group advances to the quarterfinals, until 2009, the eight teams that played in the quarterfinals played in a regular knock-out, two meetings for each team in the quarterfinals. Each team played one meeting at their home in the order determined in a raffle, since the 2012–13 season, Al teams play each other twice in the quarterfinals while Leumit play each other once. The four winning teams who progressed to the play against their opponent once. The two winners reaches the final and the winner is the cup winner. The final and the Toto Cup semifinals are all played in the same stadium, from the quarterfinals and above if a match is drawn, the game is settled with extra time and penalty shootouts
Hapoel Ashkelon F.C.
Hapoel Ashkelon F. C. is an Israeli football club based in Ashkelon. The club is currently in the Israeli Premier League and plays at the 10, after being founded in 1955, Hapoel Ashkelon spent their first few decades in the lower leagues of Israeli football. 1995–96 they won Liga Alef South division and promoted to Liga Artzit and in 1996–97, they achieved second successive promotion, however, the club finished bottom of the division, with a points deduction. In 1999–2000, they were relegated to the tier, before returning to the second tier, after winning Liga Artzit in the 2004–05 season. The club reached the State Cup final for the first time in 2007, at the end of the season, the club finished 11th and relegated to Liga Artzit. In 2008–09, the finished as runners-up in Liga Artzit. In 2009–10, the finished as runners-up in Liga Leumit. Just a season later, the club finished 15th, and relegated back to Liga Leumit, in 2013–14, the club finished 15th in Liga Leumit, and relegated to Liga Alef. The club made a return to Liga Leumit, after winning Liga Alef South division in the following season. In 2015–16, the won the Leumit Toto Cup following a victory of 1–0 against F. C. Ashdod. At the end of the season, they finished as runners-up and made a return to the Israeli Premier League, over the years, Hapoel Ashkelon has developed a tradition of signing Argentine footballers, both Jewish and non-Jewish. Many times, there were two Argentine players who played together and developed a partnership together. Among those who have represented Argentina within the squad have been Bryan Man, Carlos Chacana, Naón Isidro, Jonny Tennenbaum, Fernando Fligman, as to 1 February 2017 Fansite Hapoel Ashkelon The Israel Football Association
Liga Leumit is the second tier in the Israeli football league system below the Premier League. There are 16 clubs in the league, at the end of each season, the two lowest-placed teams are relegated to Liga Alef while the two highest-placed teams from Liga Alef are promoted in their place. The two highest-placed Liga Leumit teams are promoted to the Israeli Premier League while the two teams from Israeli Premier League are relegated in their place. The participating clubs were first play a conventional round-robin schedule for a total of 30 matches, following this, the top eight teams will first play in a promotion playoff. And the eight clubs play a single round-robin schedule, the Israeli State Cup winners qualify for the third qualifying round of the 2013–14 UEFA Europa League. In addition, the eight teams play out to avoid two relegation spots. Since the 2010–11 season, One match is broadcast live on Sport +5 LIVE channel on Friday or Saturday afternoons, the rest of the matches has no TV cover. Liga Leumit came into existence at the start of the 1955–56 season, however, it was usurped as the top flight in the 1999–2000 season, when it was replaced by the Premier League. Since then it has operated as the tier in the Israeli football league system
Maccabi Ahi Nazareth F.C.
Maccabi Ahi Nazareth Football Club is an Israeli football club based in Nazareth. The club is currently in the Liga Leumit and plays at the Ilut Stadium in Ilut on the outskirts of the city, the club was formed in 1968, and played in Liga Gimel until 1975. In 1998 they were promoted to Liga Artzit, finishing eighth in the league, in 1999–2000 and 2000–01 they finished one place above the relegation zone. The 2002–03 season saw the claim the Liga Leumit title. They were promoted to the Israeli Premier League for the first time in their history, fellow Israeli Arab club Bnei Sakhnin were also promoted, marking the first time two Arab clubs had been in the top division. However, in their first season in the top division, the finished bottom and were relegated back to Liga Leumit. The following season they were relegated again, and dropped back into the third division, in 2005–06 they finished as Liga Artzit runners-up, to make an immediate return to Liga Leumit, where they have remained since. In 2008–09, the club was promoted to the Israeli Premier League, in the 2014–15 Israel State Cup, the club reached the Semi-finals for the first time in their history, after eliminating Maccabi Netanya, F. C. Ashdod and Hapoel Kfar Saba. However, in the Semi-finals, they were beaten 0–3 by the cup winners, Maccabi Tel Aviv in Teddy Stadium
Hapoel Nir Ramat HaSharon F.C.
Hapoel Nir Ramat HaSharon Football Club is an Israeli football based in Ramat HaSharon. They are currently members of Liga Leumit and play their matches at the Grundman Stadium. The club was founded in 1957 as Hapoel Ramat HaSharon, the club was promoted to Liga Artzit in 1984, the following season they were relegated to Liga Alef, and two seasons later to Liga Bet. During the 1990s the club was renamed after former player Nir Itzhaki, in 1996 the club returned to Liga Alef. In 1999–2000 they finished second in their division, due to Beitar Tel Aviv and Shimshon Tel Aviv merging, the club was promoted to Liga Artzit to fill the vacancy. In 2002–03 they narrowly avoided relegation, finishing one place above the relegation zone, the following season they won the league to earn promotion back to the second division. In the same season also won the Liga Artzit Toto Cup. The club escaped relegation in 2004–05 after Maccabi Ahi Nazareth had two points deducted, the following season they finished third from bottom again, but avoided the drop. In the 2009–10 season the club one of its biggest achievements in the clubs history when the team reached the semi final of the Israel State Cup. In the 2010–11 season the club won the Toto Cup Leumit, in June 2013, the club changed its name from Ironi Nir Ramat HaSharon to Hapoel Nir Ramat HaSharon and resulted in a new logo. In the 2012–13 season, the club achieved its best placing to date, however, in the following season, the club finished second bottom and relegated to Liga Leumit. As of 19 March 2017 Tzvika Tzemah Eran Kulik Guy Levy Meni Koretski Yehoshua Feigenbaum Nissan Yehezkel Benny Tabak Rephael Cohen Haim Shabo Lior Zada Meni Koretski Haim Shabo Official website