Helle Thorning-Schmidt is a former Danish politician who was Prime Minister of Denmark from 2011 to 2015, and the Leader of the Social Democrats from 2005 to 2015. She is the first woman to hold either post, following defeat in 2015, she announced that she would step down as both Danish Prime Minister and Social Democratic party leader. Ending her political career in April 2016, she is the executive of the NGO Save the Children. Thorning-Schmidt served as a Member of the European Parliament for Denmark from 1999 to 2004 before being elected to the Danish Parliament in 2005, Thorning-Schmidt holds degrees in political science from the University of Copenhagen and a graduate degree from the College of Europe. Helle Thorning-Schmidt was born in Rødovre to Holger Thorning-Schmidt, a lecturer in mathematics and national economics at the University of Copenhagen and her father was politically conservative and she grew up in the Copenhagen suburb of Ishøj. She attended Ishøj Gymnasium from which she graduated in 1985 and her parents divorced when she was 10 years old.
Thorning-Schmidt studied political science at University of Copenhagen, earning a cand. scient. pol and she holds a masters degree in European studies specialising in policy and public administration from the College of Europe in Bruges, where she studied from 1992 to 1993. At the time, Denmark had a quota administered by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of one student at this prestigious institution, in addition to her native Danish, she speaks fluent English and French. She became a social democrat during her studies in Belgium and joined the Social Democratic Party in 1993, from 1994 to 1997, Thorning-Schmidt led the secretariat of the Danish delegation of Social Democrats in the European Parliament. After her time in Brussels she worked as a consultant with the Danish Confederation of Trade Unions until being elected MEP in 1999. Thorning-Schmidt was elected to the European Parliament as a member of the Party of European Socialists, during the five-year term, she was a member of the Employment and Social Committee and served as a substitute on the Constitutional Committee.
She co-founded the Campaign for Parliament Reform, in the 2005 Danish parliamentary election Thorning-Schmidt was elected to the Folketing. In his speech of resignation on election night,8 February 2005, Thorning-Schmidt campaigned for the party leadership as a moderate candidate and was elected by the party members on 12 April 2005, ahead of the other candidate, Frank Jensen. She led the Social Democrats in the 2007 election, in which her party suffered modest losses and was forced into a term in opposition. The party was unable to regain its position as the largest party in the Folketing. She was against holding a referendum on the European Reform Treaty, during her 2007 campaign she promised to relax restrictions on asylum seekers and immigrants. She opposed tax cuts announced by Anders Fogh Rasmussen, instead stating she would like to see more funding for welfare. The party campaigned on a platform of combating increased inequalities in society, although her party again lost two seats in the 2007 election reducing the total to 45 seats, her leadership was not questioned by her party
Geography of the Faroe Islands
The Faroe Islands are an island group consisting of eighteen islands between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about half-way between Iceland and Norway. It is 1,393 square kilometres in area, and includes lakes and rivers. There are 1,117 kilometres of coastline, and no boundaries with any other country. The Faroe Islands generally have cool summers and mild winters, with a usually overcast sky and frequent fog, although at a high latitude, due to the Gulf Stream their climate is ameliorated. The islands are rugged and rocky with some low peaks, the coasts are bordered by cliffs. The Faroe Islands are notable for having the highest sea cliffs in Europe, the lowest point is at sea level, and the highest is at Slættaratindur, which is 882 metres above sea level. The landscape made roadbuilding difficult, and only recently has this been remedied by building tunnels, many of the Faroese islands tend to be elongated in shape. Natural resources include fish and hydropower. Geographic coordinates 62°00′N 06°47′W North, Enniberg, 62°29′,2 N South, Sumbiarsteinur, 61°21′,6 N West, Gáadrangur, 7°40′,1 W East, terrain Rugged, some low peaks, cliffs along most of coast.
The coasts are deeply indented with fjords, and the passages between islands are agitated by strong tidal currents
The Alternative (Denmark)
The Alternative is a green political party in Denmark. The party was launched on 27 November 2013 by former Minister of Culture Uffe Elbæk and Josephine Fock. On 17 September 2013, Uffe Elbæk announced that he had left the Social Liberal Party, during this time, Elbæk prepared for founding a new party. Two months later, The Alternative was publicly launched by Uffe Elbæk and Josephine Fock at a conference at Christiansborg Palace. The party’s name was approved by the Danish Electoral Commission under the Ministry of Economy, in the beginning of 2015 the party worked on gathering the 20,260 signatures required to run for Parliament, which it succeeded in doing on 23 February 2015. The party aims to crowdsource policies through what it calls political laboratories, the party obtained ballot access for the 2015 general election with the letter Å on the electoral lists on 13 March 2015. The party supported the re-election of Social Democrat leader Helle Thorning-Schmidt as Prime Minister, in the 2015 general election on 18 June 2015, The Alternative received 4. 8% of the vote, electing 9 deputies.
The sixth-largest party in Denmark by political representation, the party is part of the opposition to the government of Lars Løkke Rasmussen. The members of Parliament from 2015 and their assignments, Uffe Elbæk, The political leader of the Alternative Josephine Fock. Spokesman for finance and economy, employment policy and legal policy Rasmus Nordqvist, official site in Danish and English
Prime Minister of Denmark
The Prime Minister of Denmark is the head of government in the Kingdom of Denmark. Before the creation of the office, Denmark did not initially have a head of government separate from its head of state, namely the Monarch. The Constitution of 1849 established a monarchy by limiting the powers of the Monarch. The inaugural holder of the office was Adam Wilhelm Moltke, the Prime Minister presides over a cabinet that is formally appointed by the Monarch. In practice, the appointment of the Prime Minister is determined by their support in the Folketing. Since the beginning of the 20th century no single party has held a majority in the Folketing, so the Prime Minister must head a coalition of political parties, as well as their own party. Additionally, only four coalition governments since World War II have enjoyed a majority in the Folketing, the current Prime Minister of Denmark is Lars Løkke Rasmussen. He leads a government consisting of Venstre with parliamentary support from the Danish Peoples Party, Liberal Alliance, from approximately 1699 to 1730, the highest ranking non-monarchial government official was titled the Grand Chancellor and from 1730 until 1848, this office was titled Minister of State.
These titles foreshadowed the modern office of Prime Minister, unlike the current office, the King held executive authority as absolute ruler from 1661 until the enactment of a liberal Constitution in the early nineteenth century. The office of Prime Minister was introduced as a part of the constitutional monarchy outlined in 1848, the new Constitution established a parliamentary system by creating a new bicameral parliament and a Council Presidum, headed by a Council President. The Council Presidium is regarded as the predecessor of the modern Prime Ministers Office, the first Council President was Adam Wilhelm Moltke, who came to power on 22 March 1848. Molte and his two successors held the title of premierminister, which translates as prime minister. From 1855 onwards the Prime Minister was known simply as the Council President, Carl Christian Hall became the first Prime Minister/Council President to lead a political party. The title of the Prime Minister changed again in 1918 under the Premiership of Carl Theodor Zahle, becoming titled the Minister of State, by the mid-nineteenth century a strong party-system had developed, with most Prime Ministers being the leader of either Venstre or Højre.
However, by 1924 the Social Democrats had become the largest party, during the first years of Occupation of Denmark, the governments of Prime Ministers Vilhelm Buhl and Erik Scavenius cooperated with the Nazi occupiers. On 29 August 1943, the Danish government resigned, refusing to grant further concessions to Nazi Germany, all government operations were assumed by the permanent secretaries of the individual departments, and this arrangement lasted until the Liberation of Denmark on 5 May 1945. Since King Christian X never accepted the resignation of the government, the twentieth century was dominated by Social Democratic Prime Ministers leading left-wing coalitions, Social Democratic Prime Ministers were in power nearly continuously from 1924 until 1982. The first Prime Minister from the Conservative Peoples Party, Poul Schlüter, the centre-right coalition ruled in 1993, last for eleven years, made it became the longest centre-right government in Denmark history since 1920s
Proportional representation characterizes electoral systems by which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body. If n% of the support an particular political party, roughly n% of seats will be won by that party. The essence of such systems is that all votes contribute to the result, not just a plurality, or a bare majority, Proportional representation requires the use of multiple-member voting districts, it is not possible using single-member districts alone. In fact, the most proportional representation is achieved when just one super-district is used, the two most widely used families of PR voting systems are party list PR and single transferable vote. Mixed member proportional representation, known as the Additional Member System, is a hybrid Mixed Electoral System that uses party list PR as its proportional component, with party list PR, political parties define candidate lists and voters vote for a list. The relative vote for each list determines how many candidates from each list are actually elected, lists can be closed or open, open lists allow voters to indicate individual candidate preferences and vote for independent candidates.
Voting districts can be small or as large as a province or an entire nation, the single transferable vote uses small districts, with voters ranking individual candidates in order of preference. During the count, as candidates are elected or eliminated, surplus or discarded votes that would otherwise be wasted are transferred to other candidates according to the preferences, STV enables voters to vote across party lines and to elect independent candidates. Voters have two votes, one for their district and one for the party list, the party list vote determining the balance of the parties in the elected body. Biproportional apportionment, first used in Zurich in 2006, is a method for adjusting an elections result to achieve overall proportionality. Some form of representation is used for national lower house elections in 94 countries, party list PR. As with all systems, there are overlapping and contentious claims in terms of its advantages and disadvantages. But does it follow that the minority should have no representatives at all, is it necessary that the minority should not even be heard.
Nothing but habit and old association can reconcile any reasonable being to the needless injustice, in a really equal democracy, every or any section would be represented, not disproportionately, but proportionately. A majority of the electors would always have a majority of the representatives, man for man, they would be as fully represented as the majority. Unless they are, there is not equal government, many academic political theorists agree with Mill, that in a representative democracy the representatives should represent all segments of society. The established parties in UK elections can win formal control of the parliament with as little as 35% of votes, in Canada, majority governments are regularly formed by parties with the support of under 40% of votes cast. Coupled with turnout levels in the electorate of less than 60%, in the 2005 general election, for example, the Labour Party under Tony Blair won a comfortable parliamentary majority with the votes of only 21. 6% of the total electorate
Geography of Greenland
Greenland is located between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Canada and northwest of Iceland. The territory comprises the island of Greenland–the largest island in the more than a hundred other smaller islands. As an island, Greenland has no boundaries and 44,087 km of coastline. A sparse population is confined to small settlements along certain sectors of the coast, Greenland possesses the worlds second largest ice sheet. Greenland sits atop the Greenland plate, a subplate of the North American plate, the Greenland craton is made up of some of the oldest rocks on the face of the earth. The Isua greenstone belt in southwestern Greenland contains the oldest known rocks on Earth, the vegetation is generally sparse, with the only patch of forested land being found in Nanortalik Municipality in the extreme south near Cape Farewell. The climate is arctic to subarctic, with summers and cold winters. The terrain is mostly a flat but gradually sloping icecap that covers all land except for a narrow, barren, the lowest elevation is sea level and the highest elevation is the summit of Gunnbjørn Fjeld, the highest point in the Arctic at 3,694 meters.
The northernmost point of the Island of Greenland is Cape Morris Jesup, natural resources include zinc, iron ore, molybdenum, platinum, uranium and fish. Continuous ice sheet covers 84% of the country, the rest is permafrost, protection of the Arctic environment, climate change, pollution of the food chain, excessive hunting of endangered species. The Greenland ice sheet is 3 kilometers thick and broad enough to blanket an area the size of Mexico, if the ice melted, the interior bedrock below sea level would be covered by water. It is not clear whether this water would be at sea level or a lake above sea level, if it would be at sea level it could connect to the sea at Ilulissat Icefjord, in Baffin Bay and near Nordostrundingen, creating three large islands. But it is most likely that it would be a lake with one drain and it is thought that before the Ice Age Greenland had mountainous edges, and a lowland center which drained to the sea by one big river flowing out westwards past where Disko Island is now.
There is concern about sea level caused by ice loss on Greenland. Between 1997 and 2003 ice loss was 68–92 km3/a, compared to about 60 km3/a for 1993/4-1998/9, half of the increase was from higher summer melting, with the rest caused by velocities of some glaciers exceeding those needed to balance upstream snow accumulation. A complete loss of ice on Greenland would cause a sea rise of as much as 6.40 meters. Researchers at NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the University of Kansas reported in February 2006 that the glaciers are melting twice as fast as they were five years ago, the increased ice loss may be partially offset by increased snow accumulation due to increased precipitation. These are the Jakobshavn Isbræ at Ilulissat on the edge of Greenland
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
The Faroe Islands, spelled the Faeroes, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland,320 kilometres north-northwest of Scotland. Its area is about 1,400 square kilometres with a population of 49,188 in 2016, the Faeroe Islands is an autonomous country within the Danish Realm. The land of the Faeroes is rugged, and these islands have an oceanic climate, wet, cloudy. Despite this island groups northerly latitude, temperatures average above freezing throughout the year because of the Gulf Stream, between 1035 and 1814, the Faeroes were part of the Hereditary Kingdom of Norway. In 1814, the Treaty of Kiel granted Denmark control over the islands, the Faroe Islands have been a self-governing country within the Kingdom of Denmark since 1948. The Faroese have control of most domestic matters, areas that remain the responsibility of Denmark include military defence, the police department, the justice department and foreign affairs. However, as they are not part of the customs area as Denmark, the Faroe Islands have an independent trade policy.
The islands have representation in the Nordic Council as members of the Danish delegation, the people of the Faroe Islands compete as national team in certain sports. In Danish, the name Færøerne may reflect an Old Norse word fær, the morpheme øerne represents a plural of ø in Danish. The Danish name thus translates as the islands of sheep, in Faroese, the name appears as Føroyar. Oyar represents the plural of oy, older Faroese for island, the modern Faeroese word for island is oyggj. In the English language, their name is sometimes spelled Faeroe, archaeological evidence shows settlers living on the Faroe Islands in two successive periods prior to the arrival of the Norse, the first between 400 and 600 and the second between 600 and 800. Scientists from the University of Aberdeen have found early cereal pollen from domesticated plants, archaeologist Mike Church noted that Dicuil mentioned what may have been the Faroes. He suggested that the living there might have been from Ireland, Scotland or Scandinavia.
A Latin account of a made by Brendan, an Irish monastic saint who lived around 484–578. This association, however, is far from conclusive in its description, Dicuil, an Irish monk of the early 9th century, wrote a more definite account. 800, bringing Old West Norse, which evolved into the modern Faroese language, according to Icelandic sagas such as Færeyjar Saga, one of the best known men in the island was Tróndur í Gøtu, a descendant of Scandinavian chiefs who had settled in Dublin, Ireland. Tróndur led the battle against Sigmund Brestursson, the Norwegian monarchy, a traditional name for the islands in Irish, Na Scigirí, possibly refers to the Skeggjar Beards, a nickname given to island dwellers
Liberal Alliance (Denmark)
The Liberal Alliance is a liberal and libertarian political party in Denmark. Following the 2015 general election, the party has 13 seats in the Folketing, the party is a component of the centre-right bloc in Danish politics along with the Liberal Party, Conservative Peoples Party and Danish Peoples Party. The party was founded on 7 May 2007 as the New Alliance by Naser Khader MP, Anders Samuelsen MEP from the Social Liberal Party and Gitte Seeberg, the party supported the government of the Liberal Party and Conservative Peoples Party. Each completed form had to be certified with the civil offices of municipalities before being collectively handed in to the Ministry of the Interior. The Liberal Alliance did not take any stand on this offer, however, on one occasion, on 12 May in Horsens, the three leading figures of the party managed to collect over 2,000 signatures in one day. On 21 May the party reported they were half-way, having gathered in 10,000 signatures, immediately after its creation, Liberal Alliance had a surge of members. 24 hours after the announcement of the party, more than 12,000 had registered on the party website, three days 16,000 had registered and 8,000 of these had paid the membership fee.
On 30 August 2007, the party presented a policy programme, in the 2007 general election held on 13 November 2007, the party won 2. 8% of the vote, winning 5 of 179 seats in the Danish Parliament. A week later, on 5 February 2008, another of the members of parliament, Malou Aamund, left the party. On 24 June 2008 Jørgen Poulsen was excluded from the Liberal Alliances parliamentary group, on 1 September 2008, the party regained a third mandate in the parliament, as Gitte Seeberg was appointed secretary general of the Danish branch of the World Wide Fund for Nature. Her mandate was given to deputy mayor of Slagelse, Villum Christensen. On 5 January 2009, founding member and party leader Naser Khader left the party, at the time, Anders Samuelsen was scheduled to take over leadership of the party that month. The same day, Villum Christensen expressed doubt on his future in the party, in the 2009 European election, the party won 0. 59% of the vote, leaving the party without representation in the European parliament.
At the 2011 general election on 15 September 2011, the party won 5. 0% of the vote, and 9 seats. When Malou Aamund resigned from the Folketing in June 2011, she was replaced by Professor Niels Høiby, in the 2014 European election, the Liberal Alliance received 2. 9% of the vote, again failing to return any MEPs. In the 2015 general election held on 18 June 2015, the party won 7. 5% of the vote, the party does not participate in the second cabinet of LL Rasmussen. The original New Alliance considered itself a centrist party, taking the best values of social liberalism, by using these two terms, New Alliance positioned itself equidistant between the former parties of the three founding members. In the earliest days of the existence, the party was accused of populism or personalism, still lacking stances on many topics
Danish People's Party
The Danish Peoples Party is a political party in Denmark which is generally described as right-wing populist by academics and far-right by international media. It has described in academia and the media as a nativist. The party was founded in 1995 by Pia Kjærsgaard, who led the party until 2012, the DPP lent its support to the Liberal-Conservative government from the general election of 2001 until the 2011 election defeat. In comparison to its predecessor, the Progress Party, the DPP focus more on immigration, while overall considered part of the radical right, its policies on most economic issues would rather place the party in the centre to centre-left. The partys current leader, Kristian Thulesen Dahl, once declared DPP an anti-Muslim party, in 2014 the party won the European Parliament election in Denmark by a wide margin, securing 27% of the vote. After the election, it joined the European Conservatives and Reformists group alongside parties such as the United Kingdoms Conservative Party and Polands Law and Justice.
The Danish Peoples Party was founded on 6 October 1995, after Pia Kjærsgaard, Kristian Thulesen Dahl, Poul Nødgaard and its first national convention was held in Vissenbjerg on 1 June 1996, where Pia Kjærsgaard was unanimously elected as the partys chairman. The party was established in protest over the conditions of the Progress Party. It was initially seen by many as a clone of the Progress Party, the party saw a highly centralized party leadership as necessary, as it would not tolerate internal conflicts and disagreements with the official strategy. In 1997, the party won about 7% in the municipal elections, by 1998, the party had 2,500 registered members. The party made its debut in the 1998 Danish parliamentary election. The party was, left no influence in the formation of a government. In the 2001 election, the party won 12% of the vote and 22 seats in parliament and it became the third largest party in the parliament, giving them a key position, as they would have a parliamentary majority together with the Conservative Peoples Party and Venstre.
DPP was favoured by these parties, as it had supported the Venstre candidate for Prime Minister, Anders Fogh Rasmussen, during the election campaign. The party had a key role in writing the rules and conditions for immigration in the law that was established by the government in May 2002. In the 2005 election the party increased their vote. By young first-time voters the party showed even more popular, receiving one fifth of their votes, the party continued to support the government, and developed a broader policy base, as it made welfare policies its core issue, together with immigration policies. In 2006, the popularity rose dramatically in opinion polls following the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy