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2015 FIFA Women's World Cup

The 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup was the seventh FIFA Women's World Cup, the quadrennial international women's football world championship tournament. The tournament was hosted by Canada for the first time and by a North American country for the third time. Matches were played in six cities across Canada in five time zones; the tournament began on 6 June 2015, finished with the final on 5 July 2015 with a United States victory over Japan. The 2015 tournament saw the World Cup expanded to 24 teams from 16 in 2011. Canada's team received direct entry as host and a qualification tournament of 134 teams was held for the remaining 23 places. With the expanded tournament, eight teams made their Women's World Cup debut. All previous Women's World Cup finalists qualified for the tournament, with defending champions Japan and returning champions Germany and the United States among the seeded teams; the 2015 tournament used goal-line technology for the first time with the Hawk-Eye system. It was the first World Cup for either men or women to be played on artificial turf, with all matches played on such surfaces though there were some initial concerns over a possible increased risk of injuries.

The bidding for each FIFA Women's World Cup includes hosting rights for the previous year's FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup. Bids for the tournament were required to be submitted by December 2010. Only two bids were submitted: Zimbabwe withdrew its bid on 1 March 2011; the country was seen as a long shot as its women's team was ranked 103rd in the world at the time of the bid and has never qualified for a Women's World Cup. There was ongoing political and economic instability in the country; the selected host, had hosted FIFA tournaments including the 1987 FIFA U-16 World Championship, 2002 FIFA U-19 Women's World Championship, the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup, which set an attendance record for that tournament, most the 2014 FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup. For 2015, the number of qualifying teams grew from 16 to 24 and scheduled matches increased from 32 to 52. On 11 June 2012, FIFA announced a change to the allocation of the qualifying berths for its continental confederations; the FIFA Executive Committee approved the following slot allocation and the distribution of eight new slots: After North Korea had several players test positive for performance-enhancing drugs during the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup, FIFA banned the North Korean team from participating in the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup in Canada.

This was the first time a women's team had been banned from a Women's World Cup, it was the first time since 1995 that North Korea did not participate in a Women's World Cup. The latest published; the cities of Vancouver, Winnipeg, Ottawa and Moncton were selected to host tournament matches. Halifax was considered, but removed itself from contention in March 2012. Toronto decided not to bid, due to potential conflicts with the 2015 Pan American Games. Due to FIFA's policy against commercial sponsorship of stadium names, Investors Group Field in Winnipeg and TD Place Stadium in Ottawa were known as Winnipeg Stadium and Lansdowne Stadium during the tournament. Seating capacities shown in table below are as configured for these FIFA games; the tournament introduced goal-line technology with the Hawk-Eye system by which it is possible to show on the stadium screen if the ball was in or not. It was the first World Cup for either men or women to be played on artificial turf, with all matches played on such surfaces.

There were some initial concerns over a possible increased risk of injuries from playing on artificial turf, but a legal challenge suggesting matches should be played on grass as in similar men's tournaments was dropped in January 2015. Each team's squad for the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup consisted of 23 players, two more than the 2011 tournament, the same number as men's World Cup squads; each participating national association was required to confirm its final 23-player squad no than 10 working days before the start of the tournament. Replacement of injured players was permitted until 24 hours before the team in question's first World Cup game; the squads were announced by FIFA on 28 May 2015. Formiga of Brazil and Homare Sawa of Japan were included in World Cup squads for the sixth time, a record for any men or women players. A total of 22 referees, 7 support referees, 44 assistant referees were selected for the tournament; the draw was held on 6 December 2014 at 12:00 Eastern Standard Time at the Canadian Museum of Nature in Ottawa, Canada.

The seeding pots were announced the day before. Because UEFA qualified eight teams into the final tournament, which had only six groups, two groups by necessity had to contain two European teams. Otherwise, no group could have more than one team from any confederation; the 24 teams of the tournament were arranged into 6 groups labelled A to F. The provisional match schedule for the tournament was released on 21 March 2013, with the hosts, placed in position A1; the final schedule with match times was released on the same day right. The first round, or group stage, saw the twenty four teams divided into six groups of four teams; each group was played in a round-robin-format of six games, where each team played one match against each of the other teams in the same group. Teams were awarded three points for one point for a draw and none for a defeat; the winners and runners-up from each group, as well as the best four third-placed teams

States parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court

The states parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court are those sovereign states that have ratified, or have otherwise become party to, the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. The Rome Statute is the treaty that established the International Criminal Court, an international court that has jurisdiction over certain international crimes, including genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes that are committed by nationals of states parties or within the territory of states parties. States parties are obligated to co-operate with the Court when it requires, such as in arresting and transferring indicted persons or providing access to evidence and witnesses. States parties are entitled to participate and vote in proceedings of the Assembly of States Parties, the Court's governing body; such proceedings include the election of such officials as judges and the Prosecutor, the approval of the Court's budget, the adoption of amendments to the Rome Statute. As of November 2019, 123 states have acceded to the Rome Statute.

Article 127 of the Rome Statute allows for states to withdraw from the ICC. Withdrawal takes effect one year after notification of the depositary, has no effect on prosecution that has started; as of March 2018 four states have given formal notice of their intention to withdraw from the statute, although two rescinded before it came into effect. Several states have argued that the ICC is a tool of Western imperialism, only punishing leaders from small, weak states while ignoring crimes committed by richer and more powerful states; this sentiment has been expressed by African states, 34 of which are members of the ICC, due to a perceived disproportionate focus of the Court on Africa. Nine out of the ten situations which the ICC has investigated were in African countries. In June 2009, several African states, including Comoros and Senegal, called on African states parties to withdraw en masse from the statute in protest against the indictment of Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir. In September 2013, Kenya's National Assembly passed a motion to withdraw from the ICC in protest against the ICC prosecution of Kenyan Deputy President William Ruto and President Uhuru Kenyatta.

A mass withdrawal from the ICC by African member states in response to the trial of Kenyan authorities was discussed at a special summit of the African Union in October. The summit concluded that serving heads of state should not be put on trial, that the Kenyan cases should be deferred. However, the summit did not endorse the proposal for a mass withdrawal due to lack of support for the idea. In November the ICC's Assembly of State Parties responded by agreeing to consider proposed amendments to the Rome Statute to address the AU's concerns. In October–November 2016, South Africa, The Gambia all notified the UNSG of their intention to withdraw from the ICC. Burundi was the subject of an ongoing preliminary investigation by the ICC at the time. South Africa's exit followed its refusal to execute an ICC warrant for Sudan's al-Bashir when he was in the country. Following The Gambia's presidential election that year, which ended the long rule of Yahya Jammeh, The Gambia rescinded its withdrawal notification.

The constitutionality of South Africa's notice was challenged by the Democratic Alliance opposition party, which argued that the approval of parliament was required and not sought. The High Court of South Africa ruled in February 2017 that the government's notification was not legal, it was required to revoke the notice effective 7 March 2017. A parliamentary bill on ICC withdrawal was subsequently withdrawn by the government. However, the governing African National Congress party still supports withdrawing, in 2019 a new bill was put before Parliament to withdraw from the Statute. On March 14, 2018, Rodrigo Duterte, the Philippine President, under preliminary examination by the ICC, announced that the country would withdraw from the Rome Statute, he argued that while the Statute was ratified by the Senate of the Philippines in 2011, it was never published in the Official Gazette of the Philippines, a requirement for penal laws to take effect. Hence, he claimed. Additionally, he stated that the ICC was being utilized as a political tool against weak targets such as the Philippines.

The United Nations received the official notification of withdrawal on March 17, 2018. The legal validity of the withdrawal has been challenged at the Supreme Court of the Philippines, but despite the case being deemed as submitted for resolution, the Court did not pass any definitive ruling prior to the withdrawal being effective; the Rome Statute obliges states parties to cooperate with the Court in the investigation and prosecution of crimes, including the arrest and surrender of suspects. Part 9 of the Statute requires all states parties to “ensure that there are procedures available under their national law for all of the forms of cooperation which are specified under this Part”. Under the Rome Statute's complementarity principle, the Court only has jurisdiction over cases where the relevant state is unwilling or unable to investigate and, if appropriate, prosecute the case itself. Therefore, many states parties have implemented national legislation to provide for the investigation and prosecution of crimes that fall under the jurisdiction of the Court.

As of April 2006, the following states had enacted or drafted implementing legislation: The number of states parties from the several United Nations regional groups has an influence on the minimum number of j

Lewistown station

Lewistown is an Amtrak railway station located about 60 miles northwest of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania at PA 103 and Helen Street in Lewistown, Mifflin County, Pennsylvania. The station is located across the Juniata River from Lewistown proper, a little less than one mile south of the center of the borough, it is only served by Amtrak's Pennsylvanian, which operates once per day in each direction, though until 2005, Lewistown was served by a second daily train, the Three Rivers, an extended version of the Pennsylvanian that terminated in Chicago. Upon its cancellation, the sole Pennsylvanian marked the first time in Lewistown's railway history that the town was served by just a single, daily passenger train. A station building exists at the stop, open before and during train departure times. However, there is no ticket office at this station, as Amtrak closed the ticket office in 1977; the distance between Lewistown and the next station eastward, the Harrisburg Transportation Center, is the longest distance between stations anywhere along the route between Pittsburgh and New York.

The station house, according to volunteers that staff it, is the oldest structure built by the Pennsylvania Railroad, still standing. The current passenger depot was constructed in 1849 as the freight station, while the Pennsylvania used a nearby three story hotel building as the passenger depot until 1868. Operations were moved into the freight station, while the old brick building became a hotel, a Railway Express Agency; that building was demolished in the 1950s, sits as a small lot. "J" Tower, added in the 1870s as a two story-brick tower within the depot, was removed in the 1950s, During restoration of the depot, a replica of "J" Tower was installed into the building. In December 2019, the Mifflin County Planning Commission announced a two-phase transportation study on the improvements needed to the station and infrastructure, the transportation and traffic flow; this would be a first step toward reopening Amtrak service to Lewistown on the Keystone Corridor. Yanosey, Robert. Pennsylvania Railroad Facilities in Color: Volume 8 Allegheny Division: Banks to Antis.

Scotch Plains, NJ: Morning Sun Books. ISBN 978-1582482897. Media related to Lewistown at Wikimedia CommonsLewistown, PA – Amtrak Lewistown Amtrak Station Pennsylvania Railroad Technical & Historical Society Lewistown, PA

Antonie Langendorf

Antonie Langendorf was a German political activist and politician. Anette Glanzmann was born in Leipzig, she attended middle schools locally before obtaining clerical work. In 1910 she relocated to Mülhausen, at that time in the extreme southwest of Germany, where her father worked as a senior trades union official. 1910 was the year in which she joined the Social Democratic Party, permitted to participate in national elections since 1890, but was still regarded by most members of the mainstream political establishment as an extreme left-wing organisation. She moved again in 1914, crossing the river to nearby Lörrach where she took a job with the AOK, it was while in Lörrach that she met Rudolf Langendorf with whom she would share her life till his execution in 1942. The two of them married, though it is not clear whether they did this before or after they moved away from Lörrach. During the revolutionary turmoil that followed military defeat, Rudolf Langendorf participated in the Soldiers' and Workers' councils.

The two of them were among the co-founders of the Lörrach Communist Party branch in 1919/1920. By 1921 they had two sons, the family relocated to Friedrichsfeld, a suburb of Mannheim. During the next few years Rudolf Langendorf was sentenced, in 1925, to three years imprisonment in connection with his role in the political unrest in the region. While he was away Antonie kept the family afloat, working as a contributing editor with the "Mannheimer Arbeiterzeitung"; the political backdrop changed in January 1933 when the Nazis took power and converted Germany into a one-party dictatorship. Political activity became illegal. In 1933/34 Antonie Langendorf was taken into "protective custody". On her release she fled to Switzerland, but she returned to Germany and continued her now illegal party activities and communist resistance work. In 1942 the Langendorfs were both arrested in connection with the betrayal of the Lechleiter Group, in which her husband was a leading figure. Antonie Langendorf was released, but her husband was executed on 15 September 1942.

Three days after that Antonie Langendorf was re-arrested and by December 1944 she had been interned in the Ravensbrück concentration camp. Their son Kurt Langendorf, by now aged 22, was allocated to a Punishment squadron. During the war, which lasted from 1914 till 1918, the SPD split over the issue of whether or not to continue supporting Reichstag votes to finance the war. Antonie joined the breakaway Independent Social Democratic Party. Joining the Communist Party in 1919/20 was part of another party split, this time within the USPD. During the early 1920s she was politically active in Friedrichsfeld. With rapid growth during the 1920s Friedrichsfeld was administratively subsumed into Mannheim, during the 1920s sources show Antonie Langendorf as a Communist Party activist in Mannheim. By 1929 she was the leader of the women's section of the Mannheim regional communist party, as a result of which she was on the party's candidate list for regional elections: between 1929 and 1933 she sat as a member of the regional legislature for Baden.

From 1930 she was a member of the Communist Party regional leadership team for Baden. War ended in May 1945 and she was released from the concentration camp. Germany was now divided into military occupation zones. Mannheim was in the US occupation zone, part of the territory that would be relaunched in May 1949, as the German Federal Republic. During the 1940s the military occupation forces sponsored preparations for a return to democracy. Antonie Langendorf rejoined the Communist party in 1945, becoming the women's section leader in Baden. With the subsequent redrawing of regional boundaries she took on the same post in respect of the Mannheim region. From 1946 she was a member of the regional "pre-parliament", a member of the Constitutional Regional Committee, responsible for drafting a new regional constitution. On 1 October 1947 she took over the seat of Jakob Ritter in the new regional parliament who had resigned his seat because of an internal party conflict, she was a member of the Communist Party regional executive.

During the 1950s, following the brutal suppression of an uprising in East Germany, cold war tensions intensified, in 1956 the Communist Party was banned in what was now West Germany. Unusually, it was accepted that Antonie Langendorf should continue as a member regional Landtag for several more years, now without any party affiliation. After retiring from the Landtag she remained politically engaged, joining a small resurrected German Communist Party in 1968. Antonie Langendorf died in Mannheim on 23 June 1969

W. Turner Logan

William Turner Logan was a U. S. Representative from South Carolina. Born in Summerville, South Carolina, Logan attended the public schools, was graduated from the College of Charleston, South Carolina, in 1895, he studied law at the University of Virginia in Virginia. He commenced practice in Charleston, South Carolina, he served as member of the State house of representatives 1901-1904. He was corporation counsel of Charleston 1914-1918, he served as chairman of the Democratic executive committee of Charleston County 1916-1918. He served as chairman of the city Democratic executive committee 1918-1922 and reelected in 1922. Logan was elected as a Democrat to the Sixty-eighth Congresses, he was an unsuccessful candidate for renomination in 1924. He continued the practice of his profession in Charleston, South Carolina, until his death there on September 15, 1941, he was interred in Magnolia Cemetery. "W. T. Logan Dies". Florence Morning News. Florence, SC. Associated Press. September 16, 1941 – via Newspapers.com.

CS1 maint: extra punctuation United States Congress. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-2005. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. ISBN 978-0-16-073176-1. United States Congress. "W. Turner Logan". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. W. Turner Logan at Find a Grave Description, Logan Family Papers, 1865-1961 at South Carolina Historical Society William Turner Logan at The Political Graveyard

Ancient Roman cuisine

Ancient Roman cuisine changed over the duration of the civilization's existence. Dietary habits were affected by the political changes from kingdom to republic to empire, the empire's enormous expansion, which exposed Romans to many new provincial culinary habits and cooking methods. In the beginning, dietary differences between Roman social classes were not great, but disparities developed with the empire's growth. Traditionally, a breakfast called. At mid-day to early afternoon, Romans ate cena, the main meal of the day, at nightfall a light supper called vesperna. With the increased importation of foreign foods, the cena grew larger in size and included a wider range of foods. Thus, it shifted to the evening, while the vesperna was abandoned over the course of the years; the mid-day meal prandium became a light meal to hold one over until cena. Among the lower classes of the Roman society, these changes were less pronounced as the traditional routines corresponded to the daily rhythms of manual labour.

However, among the upper classes, who did not engage in manual labour, it became customary to schedule all business obligations in the morning. After the prandium, the last responsibilities would be discharged, a visit would be made to the baths. Around 2 p.m. the cena would begin. This meal could last until late in the night if guests were invited, would be followed by comissatio, a round of alcoholic beverages In the period of the kings and the early Republic, but in periods, the cena consisted of a kind of porridge, the puls; the simplest kind would be made from emmer, water and fat. A more sophisticated variation was made with olive oil, consumed with an accompaniment of assorted vegetables when available; the wealthy ate their puls with eggs and honey and it was occasionally served with meat or fish. Over the course of the Republican period, the Cena developed into two courses: the main course and a dessert with fruit and seafood. By the end of the Republic, it was usual for the meal to be served in three parts: an appetiser, main course, dessert.

The Roman legions' staple ration of food was wheat. In the 4th century, most legionnaires ate as well as anyone in Rome, they were supplied with rations of bread and vegetables along with meats such as beef, mutton, or pork. Rations depended on where the legions were stationed or were campaigning. Mutton was popular in Northern Gaul and Britannica, but pork was the main meat ration of the legions. From 123 BC, a ration of unmilled wheat, known as the frumentatio, was distributed to as many as 200,000 people every month by the Roman state. There was a charge for this but from 58 BC this charge was abolished by the plebeian tribune Publius Clodius Pulcher. Individuals domiciled in Rome to receive the frumentatio. Flat, round loaves made of emmer with a bit of salt were eaten. In the Imperial period, around the beginning of the Christian era, bread made of wheat was introduced. There were many kinds of bread of differing quality. White bread was baked for the elite, with darker bread baked for the middle class, the darkest bread for the poor peasants.

The bread was sometimes dipped in wine and eaten with olives and grapes. At the time of the destruction of Pompeii in AD 79, there were at least 33 bakeries in that city; the Roman chefs made sweet buns flavored with blackcurrants and cheese cakes made with flour, eggs, ricotta-like cheese and poppy seed. Sweet wine cakes were made with reduced red wine and cinnamon. Fruit tarts were popular with the upper class, but the lower classes couldn't afford to make them or purchase them from markets and vendors; the ancient Roman diet included many items. Pliny the Elder discussed more than 30 varieties of olive, 40 kinds of pear, a wide variety of vegetables; some of these vegetables are no longer present in the modern world, while others have undergone significant changes. Carrots of different colours were consumed, but not in orange. Many kinds of vegetables were consumed; these included celery, taro, some flower bulbs and other brassicas, endive, leek, radishes, parsnips, beets, green peas, French beans, cardoons and cucumber.

Some vegetables were illustrated in reliefs. The potato and chili pepper from the New World were not available in ancient Roman times nor was maize. However, some foods considered. In particular and aubergine were introduced from the Arab world, tomatoes and capsicum peppers only appeared in Europe following the discovery of the New World and the Columbian Exchange; the Romans knew of rice, but it was rarely available to them. There were a few citrus fruits. Lemons were known in Italy from the second century AD but were not cultivated. Butcher's meat was an uncommon luxury; the most popular meat was pork sausages. Beef was uncommon in ancient Rome, being more common in ancient Greece – it is not mentioned by Juvenal or Horace. Seafood and poultry, including ducks and geese