George H. W. Bush
George Herbert Walker Bush was an American politician who served as the 41st president of the United States from 1989 to 1993 and the 43rd vice president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. A member of the Republican Party, he held posts that included those of congressman, CIA director; until his son George W. Bush became the 43rd president in 2001, he was known as George Bush. Bush postponed his university studies after the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, enlisted in the Navy on his 18th birthday, became one of its youngest aviators, he served until September 1945, attended Yale University, graduating in 1948. He moved his family to West Texas where he entered the oil business and became a millionaire by the age of 40 in 1964. After founding his own oil company, Bush was defeated in his first run for the United States Senate in 1964, but won election to the House of Representatives from Texas's 7th congressional district in 1966, he was reelected in 1968 but was defeated for election to the Senate in 1970.
In 1971, President Richard Nixon appointed Bush as Ambassador to the United Nations, he became Chairman of the Republican National Committee in 1973. The following year, President Gerald Ford appointed him Chief of the Liaison Office in China and made him the director of Central Intelligence. Bush ran for president in 1980, was defeated in the Republican primary by Ronald Reagan, as Reagan's running mate Bush became vice-president after the ticket's election. During his eight-year tenure as vice president, Bush headed task forces on deregulation and the war on drugs. Bush in 1988 defeated Democratic opponent Michael Dukakis, becoming the first incumbent vice president to be elected president in 152 years. Foreign policy drove the Bush presidency. Bush signed the North American Free Trade Agreement, which created a trade bloc consisting of the United States and Mexico. Domestically, Bush signed a bill to increase taxes, he lost the 1992 presidential election to Democrat Bill Clinton following an economic recession and the decreased importance of foreign policy in a post–Cold War political climate.
After leaving office in 1993, Bush was active in humanitarian activities alongside Clinton, his former opponent. With George W. Bush's victory in the 2000 presidential election and his son became the second father–son pair to serve as President, following John Adams and John Quincy Adams. At the time of his death, he was the longest-lived president in U. S. history, a record surpassed by Jimmy Carter on March 22, 2019. George Herbert Walker Bush was born at 173 Adams Street in Milton, Massachusetts on June 12, 1924 to Prescott Sheldon Bush and Dorothy Bush; the Bush family moved from Milton to Connecticut shortly after his birth. Bush was named after his maternal grandfather George Herbert Walker, known as "Pop", young Bush was called "Poppy" as a tribute to his namesake. Bush began his formal education at the Greenwich Country Day School attended Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts beginning in 1938, where he held a number of leadership positions which included president of the senior class, secretary of the student council, president of the community fund-raising group, a member of the editorial board of the school newspaper, captain of the varsity baseball and soccer teams.
Six months after the United States entered World War II following Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, Bush enlisted in the U. S. Navy after he graduated from Phillips Academy on his 18th birthday, he became a naval aviator. After completing the 10-month course, he was commissioned as an ensign in the Naval Reserve at Naval Air Station Corpus Christi on June 9, 1943, just three days before his 19th birthday, which made him one of the youngest aviators in the Navy. In September 1943, he was assigned to Torpedo Squadron 51 as the photographic officer; the following year, his squadron was based in USS San Jacinto as a member of Air Group 51, where his lanky physique earned him the nickname "Skin". During this time, the task force was victorious at the Battle of the Philippine Sea, one of the largest air battles of World War II. Bush was promoted to lieutenant on August 1, 1944, San Jacinto commenced operations against the Japanese in the Bonin Islands, he piloted one of the four Grumman TBM Avengers of VT-51 that attacked the Japanese installations on Chichijima on September 2, 1944.
His crew included Lt. William White, his aircraft was hit by flak during the attack, but Bush released bombs and scored several hits. With his engine ablaze, he flew several miles from the island, where he and one other crew member bailed out. Bush spent four hours in his inflated liferaft, protected by fighter aircraft circling above, until the submarine USS Finback came to his rescue, he participated in the rescue of other aviators. Several of those shot down during the attack were executed, their livers were eaten by their captors; this experience shaped Bush profoundly, leading him to ask, "Why had I been spared and what did God have for me?"In November 1944, Bush returned to San Jacinto and participated in operations in the Philippines until his squadron was replaced and sent home to the United States. By 1944 he had flown 58 combat missions for which he received the Distinguished Flying Cross, three Air Medals, the Presiden
Marshall Jewell was a manufacturer, pioneer telegrapher, telephone entrepreneur, world traveler, political figure who served as 44th and 46th Governor of Connecticut, the U. S. Minister to Russia, the 25th United States Postmaster General, Republican Party National Chairman. Jewell, distinguished for his fine "china" skin, grey eyes, white eyebrows, was popularly known as the "Porcelain Man"; as Postmaster General, Jewell made reforms and was intent on cleaning up the Postal Service from internal corruption and profiteering. Postmaster Jewell helped Secretary of the Treasury Benjamin H. Bristow shut down and prosecute the Whiskey Ring. President Grant, became suspicious of Jewell's loyalty after Jewell fired a Boston postmaster over non payment of a surety bond and asked for his resignation. A native of New Hampshire, Jewell was the son of a prominent currier. Having apprenticed in his father's tannery business, Jewell moved to Boston where he learned the art of being a currier. In 1847, Jewell moved to Hartford.
Jewell stopped working as a currier and became a skilled telegrapher, where he worked in New York and Tennessee. Jewell was a Whig. Having supported Taylor, Jewell moved to Mississippi where he was elected General Superintendent of Telegraphers. Jewell moved back to New York in 1849, in 1850 he returned to his father's tannery business having entered into partnership with his father. Between 1859 and 1860, Jewell traveled to and visited Europe on business connected with the tannery firm, having returned to the United States during the onset of the American Civil War. In 1865 Jewell traveled to Egypt and the Holy Land. Having returned to the United States, Jewell, a Republican, ran for Connecticut state senator in 1867, however, he failed to win the election. In 1868, Jewell ran for the office of Connecticut Governor, however, he lost the election. Jewell ran again the following year and was elected Governor of Connecticut, serving from 1869 until 1870. Jewell was reelected to the governorship in 1871 and served until 1873.
In 1873, Jewell was appointed Consul to Russia by President Ulysses S. Grant and served until 1874 when he was appointed by President Grant as Postmaster General of the United States, a position he held until 1876. Jewell was a presidential candidate at the 1876 Republican National Convention and served as the chairman of the Republican National Committee from 1880 until 1883. Having returned to Connecticut, Jewell became a wealthy merchant, having invested in the Hartford Evening Post and the Southern New England Telephone Company, he died in 1883 in New Haven and was interred at Cedar Hill Cemetery in Hartford, Connecticut. Marshall Jewell was born in Winchester, New Hampshire on October 25, 1825, his father, Pliny Jewell, native of Hartford, was currier. His mother was Emily Alexander, his elder brother was named Harvey Jewell. The young Marshall received a limited education at common schools. At an early age Jewell apprenticed for his father in the tannery business working as a day laborer until the age of 18.
Jewell moved to Woburn. Jewell returned to his father's tannery business in Hartford where he worked in the currier shop for two years. In 1847, Jewell grew tired of the tannery business and having good business sense learned the telegraphy trade working in Boston and Akron; as a skilled telegrapher, Jewell was put in charge of the Louisville and New Orleans telegraph line working in Columbia, Tennessee. In 1848, while working as a telegrapher, Jewell became interested in national politics becoming a Whig. Jewell supported Zachary Taylor for President of the United States. Jewell's political opinions would draw him into the Republican Party formed in the mid-1850s In 1849, Jewell returned north and was elected Superintendent of the telegraph line between Boston and New York living in New York City. While Jewell was working as a telegrapher, Jewell's father Pliny's tanning business had increased substantially. Having left the telegraph business, moving back to Hartford, Jewell entered into partnership with his father's tanning and belting business on January 1, 1850.
Jewell, who had good business sense, for the next eight years increased his father's business and gained a positive reputation in the Hartford community. Between 1852 and 1857 Jewell traveled throughout the United States to promote his manufactured leather product business. From 1859 to 1860, Marshall went on a trip to Europe. During the onset of the American Civil War Jewel purchased leather putting his business in a good position to gain government contracts. During the Civil War, Jewell's tanning business flourished having supported the Northern war effort. After the Civil War ended Jewell returned to Europe and extended his travels to Egypt and the Holy Land from 1865 to 1867. Having returned from his extensive world travels abroad, in 1867, Jewell unsuccessfully ran for Connecticut state senator, having joined the Republican Party. In 1868, Jewell unsuccessfully ran for Governor of Connecticut. In 1869, Jewell was elected Governor of Connecticut having served until 1870. Jewell was reelected in 1871, 1872 having served three terms in office until 1873.
During Jewell's second term in office, Russian Grand Duke Alexis visited Washington D. C. and Hartford, Connecticut. While in Hartford the Grand Duke stayed at Gov. Jewell's house; the Grand Duke was impressed by Jewell's ability to improve his status in the United States, having stated, "What! Is this the way Americans rise? fro
Republican National Committee
The Republican National Committee is a U. S. political committee that provides national leadership for the Republican Party of the United States. It is responsible for developing and promoting the Republican political platform, as well as coordinating fundraising and election strategy, it is responsible for organizing and running the Republican National Convention. Similar committees exist in every U. S. state and most U. S. counties, although in some states party organization is structured by congressional district, allied campaign organizations being governed by a national committee. Ronna Romney McDaniel is the current committee chairwoman; the RNC's main counterpart is the Democratic National Committee. The 1856 Republican National Convention appointed the first RNC, it consisted of one member from each territory to serve for four years. Each national convention since has followed the precedent of equal representation for each state or territory, regardless of population. From 1924 to 1952, there was a national committeeman and national committeewoman from each state and U.
S. possession, from Washington, D. C.. In 1952, committee membership was expanded to include the state party chairs of states that voted Republican in the preceding presidential election, have a Republican majority in their congressional delegation, or have Republican governors. By 1968, membership reached 145; as of 2011, the RNC has 168 members. The only person to have chaired the RNC and become U. S. president is George H. W. Bush. A number of the chairs of the RNC have been state governors. In 2013, the RNC began an outreach campaign toward American youth and minority voters, after studies showed these groups perceived that the Republican Party did not care about their concerns. Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrew Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrewMerrill and Norcross both dropped out after the fifth round, giving the chairmanship to Nicholson by acclamation.
On November 24, 2008, Steele launched his campaign for the RNC chairmanship with the launching of his website. On January 30, 2009, Steele won the chairmanship of the RNC in the sixth round, with 91 votes to Dawson's 77. Source: CQPolitics, Poll Pundit. Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrewOn announcing his candidacy to succeed RNC Chairman Duncan, former Maryland Lt. Gov. Michael Steele described the party as being at a crossroads and not knowing what to do. "I think I may have some keys to open the door, some juice to turn on the lights," he said. Six people ran for the 2009 RNC Chairmanship: Steele, Ken Blackwell, Mike Duncan, Saul Anuzis, Katon Dawson and Chip Saltsman. After Saltsman's withdrawal, there were only five candidates during the hotly contested balloting January 30, 2009. After the third round of balloting that day, Steele held a small lead over incumbent Mike Duncan of Kentucky, with 51 votes to Duncan's 44.
Shortly after the announcement of the standings, Duncan dropped out of contention without endorsing a candidate. Ken Blackwell, the only other African-American candidate, dropped out after the fourth ballot and endorsed Steele, though Blackwell had been the most conservative of the candidates and Steele had been accused of not being "sufficiently conservative." Steele picked up Blackwell's votes. After the fifth round, Steele held a ten-vote lead over Katon Dawson, with 79 votes, Saul Anuzis dropped out. After the sixth vote, he won the chairmanship of the RNC over Dawson by a vote of 91 to 77. Mississippi Governor and former RNC chair Haley Barbour has suggested the party will focus its efforts on congressional and gubernatorial elections in the coming years rather than the next presidential election. "When I was chairman of the Republican National Committee the last time we lost the White House in 1992 we focused on 1993 and 1994. And at the end of that time, we had both houses of Congress with Republican majorities, we'd gone from 17 Republican governors to 31.
So anyone talking about 2012 today doesn't have their eye on the ball. What we ought to worry about is rebuilding our party over the next year and in 2010," Barbour said at the November 2008 Republican Governors conference. Michael Steele ran for re-election at the 2011 RNC winter meeting. Other candidates were Reince Priebus, Republican Party of Wisconsin Chairman, Ann Wagner, former Ambassador to Luxembourg, Saul Anuzis, former Republican Party Chairman of Michigan, Maria Cino, former acting Secretary of Transportation under George W. Bush. Steele's critics called on him to step down as RNC Chair when his term ended in 2011. A debate for Chairman hosted by Americans for Tax Reform took place on January 3 at the National Press Club; the election for Chairman took place January 14 at the RNC's winter meeting with Reince Priebus winning on the seventh ballot after Steele and Wagner withdrew. Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrew Priebus won re-election with near unanimity in the party's 2013 meeting in Charlotte, North Carolina.
He was re-elected to a third term in 2015, setting him up to become the longest serving head of the party ever. After winning in November 2016, President-Elect Donald Trump designated Priebus as his White House Chief of Staff, to begin upon his taking office in January 2017. Trump recommended Ronna Romney McDaniel as RNC Chairwoman and she was elected to that role by the RNC
Benjamin Franklin Jones (industrialist)
Benjamin Franklin Jones, Sr. was a pioneer of the iron and steel industry in Pittsburgh. Involved in the river barge industry, he purchased a share in American Iron Works in 1851, along with Bernard Lauth, he joined with James H. Laughlin to form Jones and Laughlin Steel Company, a steel mill dependent on river transportation; the B. F. Jones Memorial Library in Aliquippa Pennsylvania, the site of J&L Steel's Aliquippa Works, was built in his honor with funds donated by his daughter, he was born on August 1824 in Claysville, Pennsylvania. He had a son, Benjamin Franklin Jones, Jr.. From 1884 to 1888 he was chairman of the Republican National Committee, he died on May 1903 in Allegheny City, Pennsylvania. He was executor of Laughlin's estate; as chairman of the Republican National Committee 1884 to 1888, he was responsible for the James G. Blaine presidential campaign. Benjamin Franklin Jones Cottage B. F. Jones House
Zachariah T. Chandler was an American businessman, one of the founders of the Republican Party, whose radical wing he dominated as a lifelong abolitionist, he was mayor of Detroit, a four-term senator from the state of Michigan, Secretary of the Interior under President Ulysses S. Grant; as a successful young businessman in Detroit, Chandler supported the Underground Railroad. During the Civil War, he advocated for the Union war effort, the abolition of slavery, civil rights for freed African Americans; as Secretary of the Interior, Chandler eradicated serious corruption in the Bureau of Indian Affairs endorsing President Grant's Peace Policy initiative to civilize American Indian tribes. In 1879, he was re-elected U. S. Senator and was a potential Presidential candidate, but he died the following morning after giving a speech in Chicago. Zachariah Chandler was born in Bedford, New Hampshire on December 10, 1813, his father was Samuel Chandler and his mother was Margaret Orr. Through an paternal line Samuel Chandler was a descendant of William Chandler who had migrated to Roxbury, Massachusetts from England in 1637.
Through this line he was the seventh generation of his family born in North America. Margaret Orr was the oldest daughter of military officer Col. John Orr. Chandler was educated in the common schools. Upon graduation, deciding not to attend college, Chandler moved west in 1833 to Detroit, at that time the capital of Michigan Territory. In Detroit, Chandler opened a general store and through trade and land speculation became one of the wealthiest men in the state of Michigan. On December 10, 1844 Chandler married Letitia Grace Douglas, a native of Baltimore, who moved to New York. A social entertainer, Letitia lived in Washington during the Winter throughout Chandler's career. Chandler and Letitia had one daughter, Mary Douglas Chandler, who married Senator Eugene Hale of Maine. Chandler's and Letitia's grandchildren include, Frederick Hale, elected U. S. Senator from Maine, Chandler Hale, who served as a U. S. Diplomat in Rome. Letitia died on February 19, 1899 known to have a "gentle and kindly disposition" and to be "much beloved."
From his youth, Chandler had been opposed to slavery, hoped that the Northern Whig party would be able to stop Southern slave power from spreading slavery into the Western Territories. Chandler financially supported the Detroit Underground Railroad, which helped fugitive or runaway slaves find safe haven. In 1848 Chandler began his political career by making campaign speeches for Whig party presidential candidate Zachary Taylor. In 1851, Chandler was served one year in office. In 1852, Chandler ran as a Whig candidate for the Governor of Michigan. Having supported Kansas as a free state without slavery, Chandler signed a petition that formed the Republican Party on July 6, 1854. In 1856, Chandler was a delegate at the first Republican Party National convention in Pittsburgh and was a member of the Republican National Committee; the Republican Convention that year nominated John C. Frémont for president, known as The Pathfinder, who supported to rid Kansas of African American slavery, opposed the repeal of the Missouri Compromise.
Chandler was known as one of the Radical Republicans who pushed for harsher punishment for the former rebels, greater liberties for African-Americans. After the war he angrily stated that "Every man who murdered and stole and poisoned was a Democrat". In January 1857, Chandler ran as a Republican and was elected as a U. S Senator for Michigan, succeeding Lewis Cass. Chandler was reelected in 1863 and again in 1869, serving from March 4, 1857, to March 3, 1875 in the 35th through the 43rd U. S. Congresses. In the Senate Chandler allied himself with the anti-slavery Radicals, although he opposed Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner. Chandler was the most outspoken Senator against secession. From March 1861 to 1875 Chandler was chairman of the Committee on Commerce that controlled powerful "pork barrel" appropriations for rivers and harbors. At the outbreak of the Civil War Chandler used his Senatorial influence to raise and equip the Michigan volunteers. Chandler was a member of the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War.
On July 6, 1862 Chandler castigated General George McClellan's prosecution of the war in a speech at Jackson, Michigan. Chandler regarded his speech against McClellan as one of his most important public services. Chandler's attack on McClellan came five days after McClellan failed to capture Richmond and the withdrawal of Union troops by McClellan to the James River during the Seven Days Battle that resulted in Confederate victory. On March 3, 1863 Chandler authored legislation for the collection and administration of abandoned property in the South. On July 2, 1864 Chandler authored legislation for the regulation of intercourse with the insurrectionist Confederate states. Chandler supported the creation of a national bank, voted for greenbacks as an emergency war measure, but condemned any inflation of the currency. Chandler supported Reconstruction Acts that gave civil rights to African Americans, but criticized reconstruction for being too lax. On January 5, 1866 Chandler authored a resolution for non-intercourse with Great Britain for refusing to negotiate the Alabama Claims, but this was rejected by the Senate.
During the Civil War Great Britain secretly allowed Confederate warships to be armed in British ports. These ships, including the CSS Alabama, did much to destroy Union commerce causing great monetary damage to the Union war effort. On November 29, 1867 in retaliation to Britain, Chandler submitted a resolution that Abyssinia be recognized as a belligerent nation at war against Great Britain, demanding that
Thomas H. Carter
Thomas Henry Carter was a territorial delegate, a United States Representative, a U. S. Senator from Montana; the child of Irish immigrants, Carter rose from a childhood spent on small farms in the Midwest to become one of the most successful and popular politicians in the early history of the State of Montana. He made a name for himself within the national Republican Party, becoming in 1892 the first Catholic to serve as chairman of the Republican National Committee. Carter was born to Irish immigrant parents on October 30, 1854, in a small village known as Junior Furnace, near Portsmouth, Scioto County, Ohio, his parents and Margaret Carter, came to the United States in 1849 or 1850 following the Irish Potato Famine. They were married in Wheeling, West Virginia, shortly after their arrival in the U. S. Edward converting to Catholicism from the Anglican Church due to Margaret's influence; the Carters settled in Junior Furnace, Ohio by 1852 when their first son, was born. Shortly after Thomas' birth in 1854 the family moved to a farm a few miles from Junior Furnace.
Following the end of the Civil War in 1865, the Carters used their savings and moved to Pana, where young Tommy Carter attended the common schools and worked on his parent's farm. Edward Carter instilled in his children with it a love of learning. Early in his adult life, following his family's loss of their farm due to a lightning-caused fire burning their barn and killing their farm animals, Thomas Carter engaged in railroad work and school teaching. For several years, Carter worked as a travelling salesman for a book publisher based in Burlington, Iowa. After the premature death of his mother to pneumonia in March 1879, Carter moved his two younger sisters and Margaret, a younger brother, Edward Jr. to be with him in Burlington, where he now worked as head of the sales department of the publishing company, while their father worked in Kentucky. Thomas and his sisters formed a particular bond in these years in Burlington as he supported them and cared for them as a father. After many long years of studying the law, Carter passed the bar examination in Nebraska while there on a business trip.
In May 1882, at the advice of friends, he moved from Burlington to Helena, ostensibly to begin his law career there. After a brief stint selling books again, he formed a law partnership with Helena lawyer, John B. Clayton. Within a year of arriving in Helena, Carter sent for his sisters and brother in Burlington to join him. From his childhood Carter nurtured a close relationship with the Catholic Church, upon his arrival in Helena this relationship continued and strengthened. On January 27, 1886, Carter married Ellen Lillian Galen at the cathedral in Minnesota, she was the daughter of Hugh F. Galen and Matilda Gillogly Galen. Carter's first foray into public office in Montana was in the role of public administrator for Lewis and Clark County. In 1888, he was nominated as the Republican candidate for the position of Territorial Delegate to Congress. In the general election in November he faced Butte copper king and Democrat William Clark, making his first of numerous attempts at federal office.
Carter upset Clark by winning the three Democratic counties of Silver Bow, Deer Lodge, Missoula with the assistance of Marcus Daly, another influential Montana Democratic copper king and enemy of Clark. Montana's Irish voters, who disliked Clark likely helped Carter to victory; this particular election is said to have initiated the famous "War of the Copper Kings." Nonetheless, Carter was elected as a Delegate to Congress and served a short term from March 4, 1889, to November 7, 1889, when the Territory of Montana was admitted as a state into the Union. The people of Montana again elected Carter as their first Representative to Congress on October 1, 1889, when he defeated long-time territorial delegate and leading Montana Democrat Martin Maginnis, he served from November 8, 1889, to March 3, 1891. Carter served as chairman of the Committee on Mines and Mining, a remarkable achievement for a freshman legislator in the House of Representatives, and, as one historian suggested, due to his friendship with legendary Speaker of the House Thomas B. Reid of Maine.
Carter was an unsuccessful candidate in 1890 for reelection, losing a close election to Butte lawyer and Democrat William W. Dixon by 283 votes, or less than 1% of the total votes cast. President Benjamin Harrison appointed Carter as the Commissioner of the General Land Office from 1891 to 1892, when he was elected chairman of the Republican National Committee, he was the first Catholic to be the chairman of the Republican Party. Carter was elected as a Republican to the United States Senate and served from March 4, 1895, until March 3, 1901; as a Senator he was chairman of the Committee on Relations with Canada, the Committee on the Census. President William McKinley appointed him a member of the board of commissioners of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and he served as its president. Carter was elected again as a Republican to the United States Senate and served from March 4, 1905, to March 3, 1911, he was not a candidate for reelection. He died from a lung infarction while at home in Washington, D.
C. on September 17, 1911. His funeral was held at St. Paul's Roman Catholic Church, he was interred at Mount Olivet Cemetery in the city. In Glacier National Park, two natural features are named for Thomas H. Carter: a peak. Two towns in Montana named for Carter are Carter in Chouteau County, Cartersville in Rosebud