Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars, artists and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France, Spain and Austria. Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military, cultural and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, Italia, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
Juventus Football Club S. p. A. colloquially known as Juve, is a professional Italian association football club based in Turin, Piedmont. The clubs fan base is larger than any other Italian football club and is one of the largest worldwide, support for Juventus is widespread throughout the country and abroad, mainly in countries with a significant presence of Italian immigrants. Juventus is the most successful club in Italian football and one of the most awarded globally, Juventus were founded as Sport-Club Juventus in late 1897 by pupils from the Massimo DAzeglio Lyceum school in Turin, but were renamed as Foot-Ball Club Juventus two years later. The club joined the Italian Football Championship during 1900, during this period the team wore a pink and black kit. Juventus first won the championship in 1905 while playing at their Velodrome Umberto I ground. By this time the colours had changed to black and white stripes. There was a split at the club in 1906, after some of the staff considered moving Juve out of Turin, President Alfred Dick was unhappy with this and left with some prominent players to found FBC Torino which in turn spawned the Derby della Mole. Juventus spent much of this period steadily rebuilding after the split, fiat owner Edoardo Agnelli gained control of the club in 1923, and built a new stadium. This helped the club to its second scudetto in the 1925–26 season beating Alba Roma with a score of 12–1. With star players such as Raimundo Orsi, Luigi Bertolini, Giovanni Ferrari, Juventus moved to the Stadio Comunale, but for the rest of the 1930s and the majority of the 1940s they were unable to recapture championship dominance. After the Second World War, Gianni Agnelli was appointed honorary president, the club added two more league championships to its name in the 1949–50 and 1951–52 seasons, the latter of which was under the management of Englishman Jesse Carver. Two new strikers were signed during 1957–58, Welshman John Charles and Italo-Argentine Omar Sívori and that season saw Juventus awarded with the Golden Star for Sport Excellence to wear on their shirts after becoming the first Italian side to win ten league titles. In the same season, Sívori became the first ever player at the club to win the European Footballer of the Year, the following season they beat Fiorentina to complete their first league and cup double, winning Serie A and Coppa Italia. Boniperti retired in 1961 as the top scorer at the club, with 182 goals in all competitions. During the rest of the decade, the won the league just once more in 1966–67, The 1970s, however. Under former player Čestmír Vycpálek, they won the scudetto in 1971–72 and 1972–73, with such as Roberto Bettega, Franco Causio. During the rest of the decade, they won the league twice more, the Trapattoni era was highly successful in the 1980s, the club started the decade off well, winning the league title three more times by 1984. This meant Juventus had won 20 Italian league titles and were allowed to add a golden star to their shirt
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural, political, and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is also a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Paris Saint-Germain F.C.
Paris Saint-Germain Football Club is a French professional football club based in Paris, whose first team play in the highest tier of French football, the Ligue 1. The club was formed in 1970 by the merger of Paris FC, Paris Saint-Germain remain the only club to have never been relegated from Ligue 1. The Parisians are also one of only two French clubs to win a European title – the other being arch-rivals Olympique de Marseille, PSG are the most successful French club in terms of trophies won, with 32. Domestically, Paris SG have won six Ligue 1 titles, a record ten French Cups, in international club football, Paris have won one UEFA Cup Winners Cup and one UEFA Intertoto Cup. PSG have always represented both Paris and nearby Saint-Germain-en-Laye, the capital side play their games in Paris at the Parc des Princes, while the Camp des Loges is located in Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Paris SG spent their formative years using the Stade Municipal Georges Lefèvre, located in front of the Camp des Loges, Paris SG shares an intense rivalry with Marseille and contest the most notorious football match in France, known as Le Classique. PSG is the second-highest supported football club in France after OM, red, blue and white are the clubs traditional colours. And Paris est magique. are PSGs most popular mottos, the Red-and-Blues have hosted the Tournoi de Paris at the Parc des Princes since 1975. During the tournaments 2010 edition, PSG unveiled Allez Paris Saint-Germain, to the tune of Go West by Village People, Qatar Sports Investments has been the clubs owner since 2011. The takeover made Paris Saint-Germain the richest club in France and amongst the richest in the world. Currently, PSG have the sixth-highest revenue in the world with an annual revenue of €520.9 million. Towards the end of the 1960s, an group of businessmen decided to create a major club in the French capital. After a petition was signed by 20,000 people, Paris Saint-Germain Football Club were founded on 12 August 1970 with the merger of Paris FC, PSG are today the citys largest club by far, as well as Frances most successful club in terms of trophies won. Paris SG won the Ligue 2 title in their inaugural season, PSG have never formally been relegated from Ligue 1. However, the split into two in 1972. The professional arm of the continued life in the top-flight under the name of Paris FC. Paris returned to Ligue 1 in 1974, ironically the year that Paris FC were relegated. Since then, PSG have always played in Ligue 1, the clubs trophy cabinet welcomed its first major silverware in the shape of the French Cup in 1981–82
Marcelo (footballer, born 1988)
Marcelo Vieira da Silva Júnior, known as Marcelo, is a Brazilian professional footballer who plays for Spanish club Real Madrid and the Brazil national team. He plays mainly at left back but can operate as a left winger. He is frequently compared to Roberto Carlos, who himself said Marcelo was his heir, the worlds best left back, after his breakthrough season, Marcelo was praised by football legends such as Paolo Maldini and Diego Maradona, who also called him the best in his position. Marcelo started playing futsal at the age of nine and by the age of 13 and he comes from a very poor background and even considered quitting football, but his club considered him as one of their crown jewels and ensured that he continued playing. Marcelo joined Real Madrid during the January transfer window in 2007, on his arrival, club President Ramón Calderón said, He is an important signing for us. He is a player who will inject some freshness into the side and is part of our plan to bring younger players into the squad. Were very happy because hes a pearl that half of Europe wanted, many spectators hailed him as Roberto Carlos potential successor in the left-back role. Marcelo made his debut as a substitute in the 2–0 defeat against Deportivo La Coruña on 7 January 2007, on 14 April 2007, then coach Fabio Capello gave Marcelo his first start for Real Madrid against Racing de Santander. Real Madrid controversially lost the game 2–1, in the 2007–08 season, Marcelo started nearly all of Madrids league games under the new manager Bernd Schuster. His ability, speed running across the field, attack, Ramos deployed Marcelo as a winger on more than one occasion, and the Brazilian adapted well to his new role. He scored his first goal after receiving a heel flick from striker Gonzalo Higuaín, after the game, coach Ramos declared that Marcelos future would be positioned as a winger, but will push back to defense when required. Marcelo scored his goal for Real Madrid in a victory over Almería. On 18 April 2009, he scored his goal of his Real Madrid career. He scored his goal against Sevilla at the Estadio Ramón Sánchez Pizjuán in April 2009. Under the next head coach Manuel Pellegrini, Marcelo consistently featured in the starting XI for his versatility and he continued to be employed as a left-winger under Pellegrini, and reached the top of the assist charts of La Liga in the 2009–10 season. He admitted in a conference at the end of 2009. His successful performance in Real Madrids 2009–10 campaign earned him an extension on 5 February 2010 with the club until June 2015. This season proved to be his breakthrough season at the club, in the 2010–11 season under new coach José Mourinho, Marcelo was back in his natural position of left back
2015 International Champions Cup
The 2015 International Champions Cup was a series of friendly association football tournaments. It was the first tournament played separately in Australia, China, the Australian edition of the tournament featured three teams played across three matches at the Melbourne Cricket Ground on July 18,21 and 24. Real Madrid were the first club to announce their involvement, Manchester City and Roma were later confirmed to take part in the Australian tournament. The Chinese edition of the tournament featured Real Madrid, Milan, Real Madrid won both the Australian and the Chinese competitions. The North American edition of the tournament featured 10 teams but some games were played in Mexico, Canada, Italy, each team involved in the US edition played four games, except the three United States-based teams that only played two games. Select Major League Soccer matches between the ICC competing teams counted towards the point total to allow MLS teams to have four games count on the table,2014 International Champions Cup winners Manchester United were the first team to confirm their involvement in the US edition
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Tottenham Hotspur F.C.
Tottenham Hotspur Football Club /ˈtɒtnəm, -tənəm/, commonly referred to as Spurs, is an English football club located in Tottenham, Haringey, London, that competes in the Premier League. The clubs home stadium is White Hart Lane and their newly developed training ground is in Bulls Cross on the northern borders of the London Borough of Enfield. Founded in 1882, Tottenham won the FA Cup for the first time in 1901, Tottenham were the first club in the 20th century to achieve the League and FA Cup Double, winning both competitions in the 1960–61 season. After successfully defending the FA Cup in 1962, in 1963 they became the first British club to win a UEFA club competition – the European Cup Winners Cup, in 1967, Spurs won the FA Cup for a third time in the 1960s. In the 1970s Tottenham won the League Cup on two occasions and were the winner of the UEFA Cup in 1972, becoming the first British club to win two different major European trophies. In the 1980s Spurs won several trophies, the FA Cup twice, FA Community Shield, in the 1990s the club won the FA Cup and the League Cup. When they won the League Cup once more in 2008, it meant that they had won a trophy in each of the last six decades – an achievement only matched by Manchester United. The clubs Latin motto is Audere est Facere, and its emblem is a cockerel standing upon a football, the club has a long-standing rivalry with nearby neighbours Arsenal, with head-to-head fixtures known as the North London derby. The club was formed in 1882, as Hotspur F. C. and played in the Southern League from 1896 until 1908, when they were elected into the Football League Second Division. Before this promotion Tottenham had won the FA Cup in 1901, since then, Tottenham have won the FA Cup a further seven times, the Football League twice, the Football League Cup four times, the UEFA Cup twice and also the UEFA Cup Winners Cup. The Cup Winners Cup victory in 1963 made Tottenham the first English team to win a UEFA competition, in 1960–61 they became the first team to complete The Double in the 20th century. Tottenham played their first matches at Tottenham Marshes on the public pitches. It was at this ground that Spurs first played archrivals Arsenal, there were occasions on which fights would break out on the marshes in dispute of the teams that were allowed to use the best pitches. Crowd sizes were regularly increasing and a new site was becoming needed to accommodate these supporters, in 1898 the club moved from the marshes to Northumberland Park and charged an admission fee of 3d. They only remained at this ground for a year as in April 1899,14,000 fans turned up to watch Spurs play Woolwich Arsenal. The ground was no able to cope with the larger crowds and Spurs were forced to move to a new larger site 100 yards down the road. The White Hart Lane ground was originally a disused nursery owned by the brewery Charringtons, the landlord spotted the increased income he could enjoy if Tottenham played their matches behind his pub and in 1899 the club moved in. They brought with them the stand they used at Northumberland Park which gave shelter to 2,500 fans, notts County were the first visitors to the Lane in a friendly watched by 5,000 people and provided in £115 in receipts, Spurs won 4–1
Melbourne Victory FC
Melbourne Victory Football Club is an Australian professional soccer club based in Melbourne, Victoria. It competes in the premier competition, the A-League, under licence from Football Federation Australia. Victory entered the competition in the season as the only Victorian-based club in the newly revamped domestic Australian league. The club has won three A-League Championships, three A-League Premierships, one Pre-Season Challenge Cup and one FFA Cup, the club to have won all four Australian soccer trophies. They have also competed in the AFC Champions League on five occasions, the club plays matches at both multi-use venues, Melbourne Rectangular Stadium and Docklands Stadium, with seated capacities of 30,050 and 56,347 respectively. A youth team competes in the National Youth League, a womens team competes in the W-League. The youth and women matches are played at locations across Melbourne, including Lakeside Stadium. In the Victorys inaugural A-League season, only the badge displayed a chevron, known colloquially as the Big V. From the 2006–07 season the away strip was changed to a jersey with a white chevron on the front. This was a hit with the clubs supporters, and from the 2007–08 season onwards Melbournes home jersey also sported the white chevron on the front. For the 2009–10 season, Melbourne changed their jersey to be a reverse of their home jersey. In 2010, Melbourne wore the TAC seatbelt shirt against Perth Glory in a charity event to raise awareness for the use of seat belts in cars. On 16 June 2011, the current kits were announced via the clubs YouTube channel, Adidas were announced as the clubs official kit manufacturer for five years. For their 2013–14 kits, Melbourne Victory received backlash from supporters following the releasing of the kits, stand by Me by Ben E. King is played prior to kick-off, when the Victory walk onto the field. Melbourne were originally based at the 50-year-old Olympic Park Stadium, where played all home matches during the 2005–06 A-League season. This stadium had seated areas only on the wings, with standing-room sandy terraces on the north and south ends, the average crowd during the first year was 14,158. On 2 September 2006, Melbourne Victory played Sydney FC at the 56,000 capacity Docklands Stadium, the match was a runaway success in terms of crowds, with 39,730 in attendance. As a result, the club moved all but one of their games to the ground
Manchester City F.C.
Manchester City Football Club is a football club in Manchester, England. Founded in 1880 as St. Marks, they became Ardwick Association Football Club in 1887, the club moved to the City of Manchester Stadium in 2003, having played at Maine Road since 1923. After losing the 1981 FA Cup Final, the club went through a period of decline, having regained their Premier League status in the early 2000s, the club was purchased in 2008 by Abu Dhabi United Group and has become one of the wealthiest in the world. Since 2011 the club have won five major honours, including the Premier League in 2012 and 2014, by 2014–15, Manchester City had the sixth-highest revenue in the footballing world with an annual revenue of €463.5 million. In 2016, Forbes magazine estimated they were the sixth most valuable football club. City gained their first honours by winning the Second Division in 1899, with it promotion to the highest level in English football. A fire at Hyde Road destroyed the main stand in 1920, in the 1930s, Manchester City reached two consecutive FA Cup finals, losing to Everton in 1933, before claiming the Cup by beating Portsmouth in 1934. The club won the First Division title for the first time in 1937, after relegation to the Second Division in 1963, the future looked bleak with a record low home attendance of 8,015 against Swindon Town in January 1965. In the summer of 1965, the management team of Joe Mercer, in the first season under Mercer, City won the Second Division title and made important signings in Mike Summerbee and Colin Bell. Further trophies followed, City won the FA Cup in 1969, before achieving European success by winning the European Cup Winners Cup in 1970, beating Górnik Zabrze 2–1 in Vienna. City also won the League Cup that season, becoming the second English team to win a European trophy, the club continued to challenge for honours throughout the 1970s, finishing one point behind the league champions on two occasions and reaching the final of the 1974 League Cup. Former United player Denis Law scored with a backheel to give City a 1–0 win at Old Trafford, the final trophy of the clubs most successful period was won in 1976, when Newcastle United were beaten 2–1 in the League Cup final. A long period of decline followed the success of the 1960s and 1970s, Malcolm Allison rejoined the club to become manager for the second time in 1979, but squandered large sums of money on unsuccessful signings, such as Steve Daley. A succession of managers then followed – seven in the 1980s alone, under John Bond, City reached the 1981 FA Cup final but lost in a replay to Tottenham Hotspur. The club were relegated from the top flight in the 1980s. However, this was only a respite, and following Reids departure Manchester Citys fortunes continued to fade. City were co-founders of the Premier League upon its creation in 1992, after two seasons in Division One, City fell to the lowest point in their history, becoming the second ever European trophy winners to be relegated to their countrys third league tier, after 1. After relegation, the club underwent off-the-field upheaval, with new chairman David Bernstein introducing greater fiscal discipline, under manager Joe Royle, City were promoted at the first attempt, achieved in dramatic fashion in a play-off against Gillingham