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2016 US Open (tennis)

The 2016 US Open was the 136th edition of tennis' US Open, the fourth and final Grand Slam event of the year. It took place on outdoor hard courts at the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center in New York City. In the men's singles competition, Stan Wawrinka defeated defending champion Novak Djokovic in the final. Angelique Kerber defeated Karolína Plíšková in the women's singles to become the first German player to win the tournament since Steffi Graf in 1996. 2015 women's singles champion Flavia Pennetta did not defend her title as she had retired at the end of the 2015 season. This tournament turned out to be the last one in the career of former No.1 player in the world and 2008 French Open women's singles champion Ana Ivanovic, who announced her retirement from professional tennis at the end of the year. The 2016 US Open was the 136th edition of the tournament and it was held at the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park of Queens in New York City, New York, United States.

The tournament was an event run by the International Tennis Federation and was part of the 2016 ATP World Tour and the 2016 WTA Tour calendars under the Grand Slam category. The tournament consists of both men's and women's singles and doubles draws as well as a mixed doubles event. There are singles and doubles events for both boys and girls, part of the Grade A category of tournaments. In addition, the annual men's and women's Champions Invitational doubles events were held, with eight male and eight female former Grand Slam champions taking part. For the third year running, the American Collegiate Invitational competitions were organized, where top sixteen American collegiate players compete in men's and women's singles events. Exhibition matches took place. Due to the 2016 Summer Paralympics, no usual singles and quad events for men's and women's wheelchair tennis players as part of the UNIQLO tour under the Grand Slam category were played; the tournament was played on hard courts and took place over a series of 16 courts with DecoTurf surface, including the three main showcourts – Arthur Ashe Stadium, Louis Armstrong Stadium and the new Grandstand.

It was the first US Open played on courts with operational roofs, on centre court and on the newly built Grandstand stadium. The Ashe roof was expected to be used only for rain, unlike the Australian Open, which closes its roof in cases of extreme heat, it was the last tournament before the demolition of the Louis Armstrong Stadium and old Grandstand. Although, Arthur Ashe Stadium and the new Grandstand would be the existing main stadiums for the 2017 edition. For the second year running, the US Open was scheduled across 14 days, rather than the 15-day schedule of 2013 and 2014, which impacted all senior events. Women's singles semifinals have been scheduled for September 8 evening session, while men's singles semifinal matches was played on Friday September 9; the men's doubles final was played before the women's singles final on Saturday September 10, the men's singles final followed the women's doubles final on Sunday September 11. In the United States, the 2016 US Open was the second under a new, 11-year, $825 million contract with ESPN, in which the broadcaster holds exclusive rights to the entire tournament and the US Open Series.

This means. This makes ESPN the exclusive U. S. broadcaster for three of the four tennis majors. Live action from a total of twelve courts was available this year, an increase from eleven in 2015. Below is a series of tables for each of the competitions showing the ranking points on offer for each event; the total prize-money compensation for the 2016 US Open is $46.3 million, a 10% increase on the same total last year. Of that total, a record $3.5 million goes to women's singles champions. This made the US Open the most lucrative and highest paying tennis grand slam in the world, leapfrogging Wimbledon in total prize money fund. Prize money for the US Open qualifying tournament is up 10 percent, to $1.9 million. On top of listed above, $600,000 will contribute Champions Invitational events prize money, while $1,478,000 is estimated as players' per diem. A total of men's and women's singles prize money will account for more than 78% of total player compensation, while doubles and mixed doubles – for 12% and 1%, respectively.

The top three men's and top three women's finishers in the 2016 US Open Series earn bonus prize money at the US Open, with the champions of the Series Bonus Challenge having the opportunity to win $1 million in addition to their tournament prize money. 2016 US Open – Men's Singles2016 US Open – Women's Singles 5-time champion Roger Federer withdrew from the tournament due to a knee injury. 2009 champion Juan Martín del Potro returned to the tournament for the first time in three years after an intensive injury, received him a Wild Card entry. 2012 semifinalist Tomáš Berdych withdrew from the tournament due to an appendicitis sustained at the Western & Southern Open. Çağla Büyükakçay became the first Turkish woman to reach the second round in the US Open after defeating Irina Falconi in straight sets. 61st-ranked Zheng Saisai defeated reigning Olympic gold medalist Monica Puig in straight sets. This was the first time that a defending female Olympic gold medalist has lost in the opening round of the US Open.

48th-ranked Anastasija Sevastova defeated the 2016 French Open champion and No. 3 seed Garbiñe Muguruza in two sets on the second round. This was the first time since 2011 that the reigning French Open champion

Parliament of Victoria

The Parliament of Victoria is the bicameral legislature of the Australian state of Victoria that follows a Westminster-derived parliamentary system. It consists of the Queen, represented by the Governor of Victoria, the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council, it has a fused executive drawn from members of both chambers. The Parliament meets at Parliament House in the state capital Melbourne; the current Parliament was elected on 24 November 2018, sworn in on 19 December 2018 and is the 59th parliament in Victoria. The two Houses of Parliament have 128 members in total, 88 in the Legislative Assembly and 40 in the Legislative Council. Victoria has compulsory voting and uses preferential voting in single-member seats for the Legislative Assembly, single transferable vote in multi-member seats for the proportionally represented Legislative Council; the Council is described as a house of review. Majorities in the Legislative Council are rare, so the government of the day must negotiate with other parties to pass much of its legislative agenda.

All members serve four-year terms. The parliament's functions and processes have evolved over time, undergoing significant changes as Victoria changed from an independent colony to a state within the federated Australia; the Parliament may make laws for any matter within Victoria, subject to the Victorian Constitution. Its power is further limited by the ability for the federal government to override it in some circumstances, subject to the Australian Constitution; the Supreme Court of Victoria provides judicial oversight of Parliament and is vested with equal power. The Parliament is vested with other powers, such as the means to investigate matters, conduct research and summon witnesses. Government is formed by parties who command confidence and supply within the Assembly; the leader of the governing party or parties is the Premier, the most senior elected member of Victoria's executive government. Victorians do not directly elect the Premier, the leader of the majority party is appointed Premier by the Governor.

The Labor Party formed government. It was re-elected at the 2018 election. Daniel Andrews has been the Premier since 2014. Parliament has sat at Parliament House, Melbourne since 1856, with the exception of the period 1901–1927, when Parliament House was used by the Federal Parliament and the Parliament of Victoria sat at the Royal Exhibition Building; the building has undergone significant renovations since its initial construction as it has been expanded and restored over time. The first major works were conducted in the 1930s, using a 50,000 pound sterling contribution from the Australian Federal government paid in gratitude for the use of the building. Further construction was undertaken throughout the 1970s to make "temporary" offices for members of Parliament, although these were not modernised until further works began in 2015. Sections of the structure's outer walls have been replaced over time. Prior to 1851 the area of Australia now known as Victoria was part of the colony of New South Wales and was administered by the Government of New South Wales in Sydney.

On 5 August 1850, the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed the Australian Colonies Government Act which made provision for the separation of Victoria from New South Wales. Enabling legislation was passed by the Parliament of New South Wales, Victoria was formally created a separate colony of the United Kingdom on 1 July 1851; the Australian Colonies Government Act provided for the colony to be administered by a Lieutenant-Governor and a Legislative Council of 51 members, 21 of which were to be elected and the remainder appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor. The Lieutenant-Governor was subordinate in some matters to the Governor of New South Wales, given the title Governor-General; the Legislative Council met for the first time in November 1851 at Melbourne. The first Legislative Council existed for five years and was responsible for at least three significant and enduring contributions to the parliamentary system of Victoria: drafting the first Constitution of Victoria, ensuring a secret ballot within elections, ordering the construction of Victorian Parliament House in Melbourne.

The Victorian Constitution was approved by the Legislative Council in March 1854, was sent to Britain where it was passed by the United Kingdom Parliament as the Victoria Constitution Act 1855, was granted Royal Assent on 16 July 1855 and was proclaimed in Victoria on 23 November 1855. The constitution established the Westminster-style system of responsible government that continues in Victoria today, it further stipulated several preconditions on voting that have since been rescinded such as restricting voting to only men of at least 21 years of age who met minimum wealth standards. Rural districts were very over-represented in order to favour large landowners; the election for the first Victorian Parliament was held during the spring of 1856, the first Victorian Members of Parliament met on 21 November 1856 in the completed Parliament House and were sworn in, on 25 November 1856 the first Victorian Parliament was opened by Acting Governor Major-General Edward Macarthur. The Legislative Council consisted of thirty members representing six Provinces, each province returning five Members.

The Legislative Assembly consisted of sixty members representing thirty-seven multi and single-member electorates. Although the White Australia policy denied the vote to Indigenous Australians in some states, Victoria did not directly legislate voting based on race. Therefore, Indigenous Victorian men were entitled to vote from 1857, provided they met t

St James the Less Church, Lancing

St James the Less Church is the Anglican parish church of North Lancing, an ancient village, absorbed into the modern town of Lancing in the district of Adur, one of seven local government districts in the English county of West Sussex. It was founded in the 12th century in the most northerly of the three settlements in Lancing parish, which has Saxon origins; the present building is 13th-century in appearance, structural work has been carried out several times since—particularly in the 18th and 19th centuries, when the church was restored from a ruinous condition. English Heritage has listed the church at Grade I for its historical importance; the name Lancing suggests Saxon influence, remains dating from the 6th century have been found nearby. At the time of the Domesday survey in 1086, the Lord of the Manor of nearby Broadwater, Robert le Savage, held the manor of Lancing; the land in the parish, which extended from the South Downs to the English Channel coast, was chiefly agricultural. Around this time, the large manor was divided into several smaller ones, of which North Lancing and South Lancing were the most important.

Three settlements developed: North Lancing, closest to the Downs. No church existed in the area at that time, but one was established in North Lancing in the 12th century: a date of around 1120 has been suggested from analysis of surviving masonry at the ends of the chancel. In about 1180, an arched doorway, now forming part of the porch on the south side, was added; the whole structure was rebuilt between about 1300, giving the church its present layout. It presents a consistent and harmonious architectural impression, despite the long period of time needed to complete the work. A stair turret leading up to the tower was built in the 15th century. In the 17th century—especially after the Restoration of 1660—Anglican religious worship declined and many churches in England fell into disrepair; this attitude was common among the people of Sussex, where church attendances declined in many villages, including North Lancing. The first sign of structural decay at St James the Less Church came in 1618, when the upper part of the tower collapsed.

By 1621 it had been repaired by cutting it down in size and topping it with a "Sussex cap"-style roof. The rest of the building fell into ruins, however: birds were found to be nesting inside, pigeons bred there and the font was empty. By 1662, the church could no longer be used; the situation improved in the late 18th century. More substantial rebuilding in 1827 added altered several windows; the most recent addition was a vestry in 1934. The church is built of flint cobblestones. Areas of pebbledashing remain. Ashlar has been used as well. Architecturally, the timing and completeness of the late 13th-century rebuilding has resulted in the church presenting an unusually complete example of the transition from the Early English Gothic style to the Decorated Gothic style; the church has, from west to east, a three-bay nave with aisles on the north and south sides, a short tower and a chancel with a lower roofline than the nave. There is a porch with an entrance doorway on the south side, another door at the west end and a vestry at the northeast corner as well.

Until its collapse in 1618, the tower was much taller and ended in a parapet. The reconstruction shortened it and added a Sussex cap—a shallow pyramid-shaped slate roof common in Sussex; the date was commemorated by an inscription on the north wall. The church's original entrance doorway has been retained in the south porch: it has a round arch carried on chamfered shafts with Norman-style capitals; the detail on the stonework, although characteristic of the Norman period, is more intricate than usual. The arch has a hood mould. Inside the doorway is an ancient stoup for holy water, now in poor condition; the other doorway, in the west face, is similar to its south-face counterpart, but is more to be 15th-century than 12th-century. Buttresses seem to have been added around the tower at some point during the 17th century, a large buttress remains on the south side of the chancel; this was thought to be hollow until it was analysed properly in 1948 when pebbledashing was removed from the exterior.

Most of the windows are either one- or two-light Decorated Gothic, although some examples are in the Perpendicular Gothic style. Some of the chancel windows are larger, with three lights. Stained glass, by an unknown designer, was installed in three windows in 1866. Inside the church, remnants of the original Norman building can be seen at opposite ends: in the west wall of the nave and the east end of the chancel; the chancel and aisles were rebuilt when English Gothic architecture was at its height, the chamfered arches, octagonal pillars, chancel arch, blind arches and mouldings are considered good examples of their kind. The king post roof of the nave has been praised. Interior fittings include a 14th-century Easter sepulchre with an ogee-arched roof, part of a sedilia, some Norman friezework, a 12th-century square font in good condition. St James the Less Church was listed at Grade I by English Heritage on 12 October 1954; such buildings are defined as being of "exceptional interest" and greater than national importanc