Hillary Clinton 2016 presidential campaign
The 2016 presidential campaign of Hillary Rodham Clinton was announced in a YouTube video, on April 12, 2015. Hillary Clinton was the 67th United States Secretary of State and served during the first term of the Obama administration, 2009 to 2013, she was a United States Senator from New York, 2001 to 2009, is the wife of former President Bill Clinton, serving as First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Clinton's main competitor in the 2016 Democratic primary election was Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders, she received the most support from middle aged and older voters, from black and older female voters. She focused her platform on several issues, including expanding racial, LGBT, women's rights, raising wages and ensuring equal pay for women, improving healthcare; the Associated Press declared Clinton the presumptive nominee of the Democratic Party after she reached the required number of delegates, including both pledged delegates and superdelegates on June 6, 2016. Sanders endorsed Clinton's campaign for president on July 12.
For her running mate, Clinton chose Virginia Senator Tim Kaine. Clinton and Kaine were nominated at the 2016 Democratic National Convention on July 26. Clinton conceded the 2016 presidential election to Republican Donald Trump on November 9 after media outlets declared Trump had exceeded the 270 electoral college vote threshold needed to win the election and ending the campaign; as soon as Clinton ended her 2008 Democratic presidential primary election campaign and conceded to Barack Obama, there was talk of her running again in 2012 or 2016. After she ended her tenure as Secretary of State in 2013, speculation picked up particularly when she listed her occupation on social media as "TBD". In the meantime, Clinton earned over $11 million giving 51 paid speeches to various organizations, including Goldman Sachs and other Wall Street banks; the speeches, Clinton's not releasing their transcripts, would be raised as an issue by her opponents during the upcoming primary and general election campaigns.
In October 2016, leaked excerpts from a Goldman Sachs Q&A session cast doubts about her support for the 2010 Dodd–Frank financial oversight legislation. Anticipating a future run, a "campaign-in-waiting" began to take shape in 2014, including a large donor network, experienced operatives, the Ready for Hillary and Priorities USA Action campaign political action committees, other campaign infrastructure. By September 2013, amid continual political and media speculation, Clinton said she was considering a run but was in no hurry to decide. In late 2013, Clinton told ABC's Barbara Walters that she would "look at what I think I can do and make that decision sometime next year". While many political analysts came to assume during this time that Clinton would run, she took a long time to make the decision. While Clinton said she spent much of the two years following her tenure, as Secretary of State, thinking about the possibility of running for president again, she was noncommittal about the prospect, appeared to some as reluctant to experience again the unpleasant aspects of a major political campaign.
Those around her were split in their opinions with Bill Clinton said to be the most in favor of her running again, Chelsea Clinton leaning towards it, but several of her closest aides against it. She studied Obama's 2008 campaign to see what had gone right for Obama as compared to her own campaign. Not until December 2014, around the time of the Clintons' annual winter vacation in the Dominican Republic, did she say she decided for sure that she would indeed run again. According to nationwide opinion polls in early 2015, Clinton was considered the front-runner for the 2016 Democratic presidential nomination, she had gained a broader sweep of early endorsements from the Democratic Party establishment in the 2016 race than she did in 2008, although she did face several primary election challengers, and, in August 2015 Vice President Joe Biden was reported to be considering a possible challenge to Clinton. Clinton had a high name recognition of an estimated 99% and according to Democratic pollster Celinda Lake, she has had strong support from African-Americans, among college-educated women and single women.
In Time magazine's 2015 list of "The 100 Most Influential People", Clinton praised Massachusetts Senator Elizabeth Warren, who herself was considered as a potential challenger to Clinton, for being a "progressive champion". Warren decided not to run despite pressure from some progressives; the Clinton campaign had planned for a delayed announcement as late as July 2015. On April 3, 2015, it was reported that Clinton had taken a lease on a small office at 1 Pierrepont Plaza in Brooklyn, New York City, it was speculated that the space would serve as her campaign headquarters. On April 12, 2015, Clinton released a YouTube video formally announcing her candidacy via email, she stated. And I want to be that champion." The week following her announcement, she traveled to early primary states, such as Iowa and New Hampshire. Clinton was the third candidate with support in national polls to announce her candidacy, following Republican Senators Ted Cruz of Texas and Rand Paul of Kentucky, while Florida Senator Marco Rubio announced his candidacy on April 13, the day after Clinton.
Some Democrats saw the proximity of Clinton's campaign announcement to Rubio's as advantageous, as Clinton's announcement might overshadow Rubio's. Clinton's campaign logo was unveiled on April 12, 2015
2016 United States presidential election in Georgia
The 2016 United States presidential election in Georgia was held on November 8, 2016, as part of the 2016 general election in which all 50 states plus Washington, D. C. participated. Georgia voters chose electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting the Republican Party's nominee, businessman Donald Trump, running mate Indiana Governor Mike Pence against Democratic Party nominee, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and her running mate, Virginia Senator Tim Kaine. On March 1, 2016, in the presidential primaries, voters expressed their preferences for the Democratic and Republican presidential nominees. Trump won the Republican primary by a wide margin, Clinton captured an easy victory in the Democratic primary; the Green Party presidential primary happened on June 4. Donald Trump won the election in Georgia by 5.16%, a lower margin compared to Mitt Romney's 7.82% in 2012, but from John McCain's 5.20% in 2008. Hillary Clinton received 45.3% of the vote, which made this a state where she performed worse than Barack Obama's 45.83 percent in 2012.
The Atlanta metropolitan area shifted Democratic compared to the previous presidential election, with Hillary Clinton being the first Democrat to win Henry County since 1980, the first Democrat to win Gwinnett County and Cobb County since 1976, when Georgia native Jimmy Carter won all of the state's counties. The state of Georgia has been won by the Republican nominee in every election since 1996; the incumbent President of the United States, Barack Obama, a Democrat and former U. S. Senator from Illinois, was first elected president in the 2008 election, running with former Senator Joe Biden of Delaware. Defeating the Republican nominee, Senator John McCain of Arizona, with 52.9% of the popular vote and 68% of the electoral vote, Obama succeeded two-term Republican President George W. Bush, the former Governor of Texas. Obama and Biden were reelected in the 2012 presidential election, defeating former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney with 51.1% of the popular vote and 61.7% of electoral votes.
Although Barack Obama's approval rating in the RealClearPolitics poll tracking average remained between 40 and 50 percent for most of his second term, it has experienced a surge in early 2016 and reached its highest point since 2012 during June of that year. Analyst Nate Cohn has noted that a strong approval rating for Barack Obama would equate to a strong performance for the Democratic candidate, vice versa. Following his second term, President Barack Obama was not eligible for another reelection. In October 2015, Obama's running-mate and two-term Vice President Joe Biden decided not to enter the race for the Democratic presidential nomination either. With their terms expiring on January 20, 2017, the electorate was asked to elect a new president, the 45th president and 48th vice president of the United States, respectively. Four candidates appeared on the ballot: Bernie Sanders Hillary Clinton Martin O'Malley Michael Steinberg The 76 Republican delegates from Georgia were allocated in this way.
There were 42 delegates allocated by congressional district. If not, the candidate who won the plurality of the vote in a congressional district would receive 2 delegates and the second-place finisher in the district would receive 1 delegate. There were 34 at-large delegates. If not, the delegates would be allocated proportionally among the candidates receiving at least the mandatory threshold. On June 4, the Georgia Green Party held its state convention and presidential preference vote. ABC News: Tossup CNN: Leans Trump Cook Political Report: Leans Trump Electoral-vote.com: Leans Trump Los Angeles Times: Leans Trump NBC: Tossup RealClearPolitics: Tossup Sabato's Crystal Ball: Likely Trump Trump won 10 of 14 congressional districts. Baker Dooly Early Peach Quitman Twiggs Cobb Gwinnett Henry 2016 Democratic Party presidential debates and forums 2016 Democratic Party presidential primaries 2016 Republican Party presidential debates and forums 2016 Republican Party presidential primaries RNC 2016 Republican Nominating Process Green papers for 2016 primaries and conventions Decision Desk Headquarter Results for Georgia
2016 United States presidential election in Indiana
The 2016 United States presidential election in Indiana was held on November 8, 2016, as part of the 2016 General Election in which all 50 states plus The District of Columbia participated. Indiana voters chose electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting the Republican Party's nominee, businessman Donald Trump, running mate Indiana Governor Mike Pence against Democratic Party nominee, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and her running mate, Virginia Senator Tim Kaine. On May 3, 2016, in the presidential primaries, voters expressed their preferences for the Democratic and Republican parties' respective nominees for president. Donald Trump won the election in Indiana with 56.47% of the vote. Hillary Clinton received 37.46% of the vote. Indiana is the home state of Trump's running mate, Mike Pence, believed to have provided important assistance to the Trump campaign in what would have been a Republican-leaning state. CNN: Solid Trump Cook Political Report: Likely Trump Electoral-vote.com: Solid Trump NBC: Leans Trump RealClearPolitics: Likely Trump Sabato's Crystal Ball: Safe Trump Trump won 7 of 9 congressional districts.
Two candidates appeared on the Democratic presidential primary ballot: Hillary Clinton Bernie Sanders Twelve candidates appeared on the Republican presidential primary ballot: Jeb Bush Ben Carson Chris Christie Ted Cruz Carly Fiorina Jim Gilmore Mike Huckabee John Kasich Rand Paul Marco Rubio Rick Santorum Donald Trump Of the 2,757,965 votes cast, Donald Trump won 1,557,286 votes as Hillary Clinton won 1,033,126 votes. Indiana has been the most conservative state in the Rust Belt, it went Democratic for Barack Obama in 2008–the first time it had done so since 1964, only the fourth time since 1912. However, it has shifted back to being solidly Republican. Republican nominee Donald Trump carried the state by 19 points over Democrat Hillary Clinton, thus gaining all of Indiana's 11 electoral votes. Donald Trump's victory in the Hoosier State can be attributed to several factors. For one, Donald Trump had selected Indiana governor Mike Pence as his running mate eliminating any chance that Clinton could repeat Obama's surprise upset win in the state over John McCain eight years prior.
The state skews whiter and more Evangelical Protestant than the rest of the Midwest and the Rust Belt overall, a better demographic make-up for Republicans. Suburban communities in the "doughnut counties" surrounding Indianapolis lean Republican, bolstered the Trump-Pence ticket in the state. Many of these voters are both fiscally and conservative. Another GOP stronghold that benefited Trump was the northeast region around Fort Wayne, a mix of suburban and rural areas, is home to some of the most conservative voters in the nation. In Southern Indiana along the Ohio River around Evansville in Vanderburgh County, the electorate is dominated by "Butternut Democrats:" conservative, working-class white voters who were Democrats for generations but have been trending Republican in reaction to the increased social liberalism of national Democrats; such voters turned out for Trump in full force, inspired by his economic populism and by Pence's social conservatism. Trump won in Vigo County, home to Terre Haute and a noted bellwether.
Clinton, for her part, performed well in Indianapolis in Marion County and in Gary in Lake County, which has a large African American population and is considered part of the Chicago Metropolitan Area. Clinton won African Americans by a margin of 83-12, she won St. Joseph and Monroe counties, home to the University of Notre Dame and Indiana University Bloomington both home to major universities. Areas where Clinton improved on Obama’s performance in 2012 were predominantly located in well-educated suburbs of Indianapolis and areas surrounding large universities, where several moderate Republicans chose not to vote for Trump out of discomfort for his controversial views on race and women. Democratic Party presidential debates, 2016 Democratic Party presidential primaries, 2016 Republican Party presidential debates, 2016 Republican Party presidential primaries, 2016 RNC 2016 Republican Nominating Process Green papers for 2016 primaries and conventions
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
2016 United States presidential election in Alaska
The 2016 United States presidential election in Alaska was held on November 8, 2016, as part of the 2016 United States presidential election in which all 50 states plus The District of Columbia participated. Alaska voters chose electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting the Republican Party's nominee, businessman Donald Trump, running mate Indiana Governor Mike Pence against Democratic Party nominee, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and her running mate, Virginia Senator Tim Kaine. Alaska voters expressed their preferences for the Democratic presidential nomination in caucuses on March 26, they expressed their preferences for the Republican presidential nomination in caucuses on March 1. Donald Trump won the election in Alaska with 51.28% of the vote. Hillary Clinton received 36.55% of the vote. This marked a return to Alaska's streak of giving Democrats under 40% of the vote after Barack Obama won just over 40% in 2012. Alaska has voted Republican in every election since 1968, since its admission to the Union in 1959, it has only voted for the Democratic candidate on one occasion: President Lyndon B. Johnson's win in 1964.
The state is known for supporting third parties, including Libertarian candidate Gary Johnson in the 2012 election, in which Alaska was his third-strongest state. He reran as the Libertarian Party's nominee for the 2016 election and appeared on the ballot in Alaska, garnering 5.88% of the vote, making Alaska again his third strongest state after New Mexico and North Dakota. Johnson's performance was the best for a Libertarian since 1980 and the best third party performance since Ralph Nader in 2000; the incumbent President of the United States, Barack Obama, a Democrat and former U. S. Senator from Illinois, was first elected president in the 2008 election, running with former Senator Joe Biden of Delaware. Defeating the Republican nominee, Senator John McCain of Arizona, with 52.9% of the popular vote and 68% of the electoral vote, Obama succeeded two-term Republican President George W. Bush, the former Governor of Texas. Obama and Biden were reelected in the 2012 presidential election, defeating former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney with 51.1% of the popular vote and 61.7% of electoral votes.
Although Barack Obama's approval rating in the RealClearPolitics poll tracking average remained between 40 and 50 percent for most of his second term, it has experienced a surge in early 2016 and reached its highest point since 2012 during June of that year. Analyst Nate Cohn has noted that a strong approval rating for President Obama would equate to a strong performance for the Democratic candidate, vice versa. Following his second term, President Obama was not eligible for another reelection. In October 2015, Obama's running-mate and two-term Vice President Biden decided not to enter the race for the Democratic presidential nomination either. With their term expiring on January 20, 2017, the electorate is asked to elect a new president, the 45th president and 48th vice president of the United States, respectively; the state of Alaska has given its electoral votes to the Republican ticket in every election year since 1968 and only once to a Democratic ticket since statehood. However, in 2012, it had the largest swing in favor of the Democratic Party with President Obama only losing by 14 points compared to his 2008 loss by 22 points.
Alaska has a history of supporting third-party candidates at the presidential level. Alaska was the second-best state for Ross Perot in the 1992 election, with Ross Perot garnering 28% of the vote. Alaska was Nader's strongest state in the 2000 presidential election, giving him 10% in his presidential bid. Alaska was the third-best state for Libertarian nominee Gary Johnson in the 2012 election, giving him 2.46% of the vote, behind Johnson's home state of New Mexico, Montana. For this reason, Alaska has been considered to be one of Libertarian party nominee Gary Johnson's strongest states in the 2016 election; the two major parties chose delegates on different days. At the Republican National Convention, Alaska's floor votes were all recorded for Donald Trump by the convention secretary though the Alaska delegation read their votes according to the results of the caucuses- 12 for Cruz, 11 for Trump and 5 for Rubio. An Alaska delegate challenged the results as recorded. However, RNC chair Reince Priebus defended the actions of the convention secretary, saying that the delegates were bound to Trump.
The following are final 2016 predictions from various organizations for Alaska as of Election Day. Los Angeles Times: Strongly Trump CNN: Solid Trump Sabato's Crystal Ball: Likely Trump NBC: Lean Trump RealClearPolitics: Likely Trump Fox News: Lean Republican ABC: Leans Trump According to the Alaska Division of Election voter turnout was about 60.8%, 318,608 ballots were cast out of 528,761 voters. Alaska had 3 electors in 2016; the electors were: Sean R. Parnell Jacqueline F. Tupou Carolyn B. Leman 2016 Democratic Party presidential debates and forums 2016 Democratic Party presidential primaries 2016 Republican Party presidential debates and forums 2016 Republican Party presidential primaries RNC 2016 Republican Nominating Process Green papers for 2016 primaries and conventions Decision Desk Headquarter Results for Alaska
Bernie Sanders 2016 presidential campaign
In the 2016 presidential campaign, Bernie Sanders sought the Democratic Party's nomination in a field of six major candidates and was the runner up with 46% of the pledged delegates behind Hillary Clinton, who won the contest with 54%. Sanders, the junior United States Senator and former Representative from Vermont, began with an informal announcement on April 30, 2015, a formal announcement that he planned to seek the Democratic Party's nomination for President of the United States on May 26, 2015, in Burlington, Vermont. Sanders had been considered a potential candidate for president since at least September 2014. Though he had run as an independent, he caucused with the Democratic Party, as many of his views align with Democrats. Running as a Democrat made it easier to participate in debates and get his name on state ballots. Sanders's chief competitor for the nomination was a former secretary of state. Sanders drew large crowds to his speaking events and his populist and social democratic politics won him particular support among Americans under 40.
He performed with white voters, but trailed Clinton by 30 or more percentage points among black voters. Sanders focused on income and wealth inequality, which he argued is eroding the American middle class, on campaign finance reform. Unlike most other major presidential candidates, Sanders eschewed an unlimited super PAC, instead choosing to receive most of his funding from direct individual campaign donations. In September 2015, The New York Times reported that the campaign had received one million individual donations, becoming the first in 2015 to reach that threshold. Sanders raised $20,000,000 in the month of January 2016, $5,000,000 more than Clinton during the same time period, with an average donation of $27. Sanders mentioned this $27 figure on the campaign trail as proof of his grassroots support. Following the final primary election, Clinton became the presumptive Democratic nominee. Sanders did not endorse Clinton, but said he would work with her to defeat the presumptive Republican nominee, Donald Trump.
On June 16, Sanders gave a live online speech to his supporters, saying, "The political revolution continues". On July 12, Sanders endorsed Clinton at a unity rally with her in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. On July 22, 2016, various emails from the Democratic National Committee, the governing body of the Democratic Party, were leaked and published, revealing apparent bias against the Sanders campaign on the part of the Committee and its chair, Debbie Wasserman Schultz. Schultz subsequently resigned as DNC chair and was replaced by Donna Brazile, implicated in the leaks and apologized to Sanders and his supporters. In the Democratic National Convention roll-call vote on July 26, 2016, Sanders received 1,865 votes, which consisted of 1,848 pledged delegates won in primary and caucus contests and 17 superdelegates. After the roll call, Sanders put forward a motion to formally nominate Clinton, which passed by voice vote. Sanders's previous political successes were in Vermont, he has been politically active nearly his entire adult life.
While in college, Sanders protested against police brutality, led a weeks-long sit-in against housing segregation, worked as an organizer for the Congress of Racial Equality. In 1963, he travelled to Washington D. C. to attend the March on Washington for Freedom. As mayor of Burlington, Sanders played a prominent role in building support in Vermont for Jesse Jackson's presidential campaigns in 1984 and 1988. In a November 2013 interview, Sanders laid out several reasons for mounting his own presidential run, including global warming, economic inequality, frustration with the Citizens United Supreme Court decision, the importance of maintaining public programs like Medicare and Medicaid. In a March 6, 2014, interview with The Nation, Sanders stated that he was "prepared to run for President of the United States" in 2016, but did not announce a campaign; when pressed on the issue, Sanders said he was discussing the possibility with people around the country, but felt that it was premature to make an announcement.
After the 2014 congressional elections, Sanders continued to discuss running for president. On April 28, 2015, Vermont Public Radio reported that Sanders would announce his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination on April 30. In an interview with USA Today on April 29, Sanders stated that he was "running in this election to win," and launched a campaign website beginning his run. Sanders said he was motivated to enter the race by what he termed "obscene levels" of income disparity, the campaign finance system. On May 26, 2015, Sanders announced his candidacy at Burlington's Waterfront Park; the 2016 Democratic Party presidential debates occurred among candidates in the campaign for the party's nomination for President of the United States in the 2016 presidential election. The Democratic National Committee announced in May 2015. In February 2016, Clinton's and Sanders's campaigns agreed in principle to holding four more, for a total of ten. Critics alleged that the small number of debates and the schedule, with four of the ten on Saturday or Sunday nights, were part of the DNC's deliberate attempt to protect the front-runner, Hillary Clinton.
Clinton dropped out of the tenth debate, scheduled to take place just prior to the California elections, citing a need to devote her time making direct contact with voters in California. A spokesperson from FOX, the television network, to air the debate, said, "Naturally
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa