2016 in jazz
This is a timeline documenting jazz events in the year 2016. 21 The 35th annual Djangofestival started on Cosmopolite in Norway. The 10th Ice Music Festival started in Norway. 27 – The 5th Bodø Jazz Open started in Bodø, Norway. 30 – Eirik Hegdal was awarded the 2015 Jazz Spellemannprisen for the album Team Hegdal – Vol. 3. 4 -- The 18th Polarjazz Festival started in Svalbard. 5 – Knut Kristiansen and Bergen Big Band's release concert for the album Kuria Suite at Verftet in Bergen. 16 – Andreas Loven's release concert for the album District Six at Victoria – National Jazz Scene in Oslo. 28 – Jazz violinist from Denmark, Svend Asmussen, turned 100 years. 3 Vinterjazzfestivalen started in Norway. Frode Alnæs' release concert for the album Kanestrøm at Victoria – National Jazz Scene in Oslo. 4 -- The 12th Jakarta International Java Jazz Festival started in Indonesia. 18 – The 43rd Vossajazz started in Voss, Norway. 19 Øyvind Skarbø was awarded the 2016 Vossajazzprisen. Nils Økland performed Glødetrådar, the commissioned work for Vossajazz 2016.
22 The 47th New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival started in USA. The 5th Torino Jazz Festival started in Turin. 28 – The 22nd SoddJazz started in Inderøy, Norway. 30 – The International Jazz Day. At the White House President Obama invited to a concert featuring Aretha Franklin, Diana Krall, Esperanza Spalding, Herbie Hancock, among others. 3 The 27th MaiJazz started in Norway. The 38th Trondheim Jazz Festival started in Norway. 4 -- The 12th AnJazz starts in Norway. 5 – Karin Krog / John Surman Group played at Herr Nilsen in Oslo, Norway. 7 – Olga Konkova / Per Mathisen & Friends played at Herr Nilsen in Oslo, Norway. 13 – The 45th Moers Festival started in Moers, Germany 21 – Petter Wettre Next Generation 2.0 played at Herr Nilsen in Oslo, Norway. 26 – The 44th Nattjazz started in Bergen, Norway 28 – Lage Lund Trio played at Herr Nilsen in Oslo, Norway. 9 – Knut Reiersrud Band played at the venue Herr Nilsen in Oslo, Norway. 23 – The 26th JazzBaltica started in Schloss Salzau close to Kiel, Germany.
The 26th Jazz Fest Wien started in Austria. 29 – The 36th Montreal International Jazz Festival started in Montreal, Canada. 1 -- The 50th Montreux Jazz Festival started in Switzerland. 3 -- The 38th Copenhagen Jazz Festival starts in Denmark. 6 The 52nd Kongsberg Jazzfestival started at Norway. Susanna Wallumrød was recipient of the Kongsberg Jazz Award or DNB.prisen 2016 at the Kongsberg Jazzfestival. 7 The 16th Stavernfestivalen started in Norway. The 69th Nice Jazz Festival started in France. 8 The Baltic Jazz festival started in Finland. The 41st North Sea Jazz Festival started in The Hague, Netherlands. 9 The 28th Aarhus Jazz Festival started in Denmark. The 51st Pori Jazz Festival started in Finland. 18 – The 56th Moldejazz started in Molde, Norway. 22 – The 21st Canal Street starts in Arendal, Norway. 29 – The 60th Newport Jazz Festival starts in Newport, Rhode Island. 4 -- The 22nd Hemnesjazz started in Norway. 9 – The 18th Øyafestivalen started in Oslo, Norway. 10 The 5th Kids in Jazz festival started in Norway as part of the Oslo Jazzfestival.
The 30th Sildajazz started in Norway. 12 – The 32nd Brecon Jazz Festival started in Brecon, Wales. 14 – The 31st Oslo Jazzfestival started in Oslo, Norway. 4 -- The 11th Punktfestivalen started in Norway. 16 – The 59th Monterey Jazz Festival started in Monterey, California. 7 – The 33rd Stockholm Jazz Festival started in Stockholm, Sweden. 13 – The 33rd DølaJazz started in Lillehammer, Norway. 11 – The 25th London Jazz Festival started in London, England. 29 – The 11th RIBBEjazz started in Lillestrøm, Norway. # A Quiet Revolution by Ben Allison solo piano. D Return by Jack DeJohnette solo piano. F Strength and Sanity by Don Friedman Piano Trio. K Meantime by Frank Kimbrough. P Some Other Time by Noah Preminger. 3 – Paul Bley, Canadian pianist. 4 – Long John Hunter, American guitarist and singer-songwriter. 6 – Alfredo "Chocolate" Armenteros, Cuban trumpeter. 7 – Alan Haven, English organist. 16 – Hubert Giraud, French composer and lyricist. 31 – Janusz Muniak, Polish saxophonist, flautist and composer. 4 – Maurice White, American singer-songwriter, record producer, bandleader, Wind & Fire.
19 – Harald Devold, Norwegian saxophonist (born 1964. 25 – John Chilton, British trumpeter and writer. 9 – Naná Vasconcelos, Brazilian percussionist. 10 Ernestine Anderson, American jazz and blues singer. Keith Emerson, English pianist and keyboardist, Lake & Palmer. 11 – Joe Ascione, American drummer. 15 – Ryo Fukui, Japanese pianist. 16 – Frank Sinatra Jr. American singer and conductor. 22 – Selçuk Sun, Turkish upright bassist and composer. 24 – Roger Cicero, German singer and songwriter
2016 in art
The year 2016 in art involves various significant events. March - The Met Breuer opens in the former home of the Whitney Museum of American Art. July 28 - The re-discovery of Albrecht Dürer's engraving Mary with Infant Jesus considered lost since World War II is reported; the engraving was noticed in good condition at a flea market in Sarrebourg and returned to Staatsgalerie Stuttgart. September 30 - The recovery of two paintings by Vincent van Gogh, Seascape at Scheveningen and Congregation Leaving the Reformed Church in Nuenen, stolen in 2002, is announced. December 19 - The Russian Ambassador to Turkey. January 20 until April 17 - "In the Lion's Den: Daniel MacDonald and Empire" at Ireland’s Great Hunger Museum at Quinnipiac University. February 5 until April 27 - Peter Fischli David Weiss: How to Work Better" at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York City. February 18 until May 15 - "O'Keefe, Torr, Zorach: Women Modernists in New York" at the Norton Museum of Art in West Palm Beach, Florida.
February 18 until June 13 - "Munch and Expressionism" at the Neue Galerie in New York City. March 18 until September 4 - "Unfinished: Thoughts Left Visible" at the Met Breuer in New York City. March 2 until June 5 - "Van Dyck: The Anatomy of Portraiture" at the Frick collection in New York City. March 23 until July 10 - "Umberto Boccioni: Genio and Memoria" at the Palazzo Reale in Milan, Italy. March 26 until February 1, 2017 - "Alex Da Corte: Free Roses" at Mass MOCA in North Adams, Massachusetts. April 27 until June 19 - "Andra Ursuta: Alps" at the New Museum in New York City. May 7 until November 27 - "A Third Gender: Beautiful Youths in Japanese Prints" at the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto, Canada traveled to the Japan Society in New York City from March 10 until June 11, 2017. May 27 until September 7 - "Moholy-Nagy: Future Present" at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York City. June 10 until September 25 - "Stuart Davis: In Full Swing" at the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York City.
June 18 until April 16, 2017 - "Tony Oursler: Imponderable" at MOMA in New York City. September 1 until October 23 - Bjork Digital at Somerset House in London. September 2 until January 8, 2017 - "Hans Memling: Portraiture, a Reunited Altarpiece at the Morgan Library in New York City. September 16 until January 2, 2017 - "Carmen Herrera: Lines of Sight" at the Whitney Museum of American Art. September 30 until January 29, 2017 - "Los Angeles to New York: Dwan Gallery, 1959-1971" at the National Gallery of Art in Washington D. C.. October 7 until January 16, 2017 - "Valentin de Boulogne: Beyond Caravaggio" at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. October 7 until January 11, "Agnes Martin" at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York City. October 19 until February 20, 2017 - "Max Beckmann in New York" at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. October 25 - January 29, 2017 - "Kerry James Marshall: Mastry" at the Met Breuer in New York City. October 26 - January 15, 2017 - "Pipilotti Rist: Pixel Forest" at the New Museum in New York City.
November 21 until March 16, 2017 - "Francis Picabia: Our Heads Are Round so Our Thoughts Can Change Direction" at MOMA in New York City. Alice Aycock - "Whirpools" at MGM National Harbor, Oxon Hill, Maryland. Kevin Beasley - *Who's Afraid to Listen to Red and Green?" Morningside Park, New York City. Christo and Jeanne-Claude - The Floating Piers on Lake Iseo near Brescia, Italy. Coldwar Steve - McFadden's Cold War Michael Dean - United Kingdom poverty line for two adults and two children: twenty thousand four hundred and thirty six pounds sterling as published on 1st September 2016. Jeremy Deller - We’re Here Because We’re Here. Bob Dylan - "Portal" at MGM National Harbor Oxon Hill, Maryland. Carsten Holler - Slide addition to Anish Kapoor's Arcelormittal Orbit at Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park in London, England. Chul Hyun Ahn - "The Wells" at MGM National Harbor, Oxon Hill, Maryland. Martin Jennings - Mary Seacole. Women of Steel. Carolyn Palmer - Lucille Ball. Pikachu. Martin Puryear - Big Bling; the Archibald Prize - Louise Hearman for "portrait of Barry Humphries" The Hugo Boss Prize - Anicka Yi The Hepworth Prize for Sculpture: Helen Marten The John Moores Painting Prize - Michael Simpson for "Squint" Turner Prize: Helen Marten January 2 - Marcel Barbeau, 90, Canadian painter and sculptor January 6 - Uche Okeke, 83, Nigerian artist January 10 David Bowie, 69, British singer-songwriter, visual artist and art collector Bård Breivik, 67, Norwegian sculptor Cornelis Zitman, 89, Dutch born Venezuelan sculptor.
January 13 - Lois Weisberg, 90, Cultural affairs commissioner of Chicago January 14 - Sergio Vacchi, 90, Italian painter January 16 - Joannis Avramidis, 93, Georgian-born Austrian sculptor January 17 Melvin Day, 92, New Zealand artist Gottfried Honegger, 98, Swiss artist and graphic designer January 25 - Thornton Dial, 87, American artist February 11 - Charles Garabedian, 92, Armenian American painter February 10 - Douglas Haynes, 80, Canadian painter February 12 – Sossen Krohg, 92, Norwegian actor and theatre director February 16 Eugenio Carmi, 95. Italian painter and sculptor Bernard Kirschenbaum, 91, American artist February 18 - Karl S
Popular music is music with wide appeal, distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and styles can be performed by people with little or no musical training, it stands in traditional or "folk" music. Art music was disseminated through the performances of written music, although since the beginning of the recording industry, it is disseminated through recordings. Traditional music forms such as early blues songs or hymns were passed along orally, or to smaller, local audiences; the original application of the term is to music of the 1880s Tin Pan Alley period in the United States. Although popular music sometimes is known as "pop music", the two terms are not interchangeable. Popular music is a generic term for a wide variety of genres of music that appeal to the tastes of a large segment of the population, whereas pop music refers to a specific musical genre within popular music. Popular music songs and pieces have singable melodies; the song structure of popular music involves repetition of sections, with the verse and chorus or refrain repeating throughout the song and the bridge providing a contrasting and transitional section within a piece.
In the 2000s, with songs and pieces available as digital sound files, it has become easier for music to spread from one country or region to another. Some popular music forms have become global, while others have a wide appeal within the culture of their origin. Through the mixture of musical genres, new popular music forms are created to reflect the ideals of a global culture; the examples of Africa and the Middle East show how Western pop music styles can blend with local musical traditions to create new hybrid styles. Scholars have classified music as "popular" based on various factors, including whether a song or piece becomes known to listeners from hearing the music. Sales of'recordings' or sheet music are one measure. Middleton and Manuel note that this definition has problems because multiple listens or plays of the same song or piece are not counted. Evaluating appeal based on size of audience or whether audience is of a certain social class is another way to define popular music, but this, has problems in that social categories of people cannot be applied to musical styles.
Manuel states that one criticism of popular music is that it is produced by large media conglomerates and passively consumed by the public, who buy or reject what music is being produced. He claims that the listeners in the scenario would not have been able to make the choice of their favorite music, which negates the previous conception of popular music. Moreover, "understandings of popular music have changed with time". Middleton argues that if research were to be done on the field of popular music, there would be a level of stability within societies to characterize historical periods, distribution of music, the patterns of influence and continuity within the popular styles of music. Anahid Kassabian separated popular music into four categories. A society's popular music reflects the ideals that are prevalent at the time it is performed or published. David Riesman states that the youth audiences of popular music fit into either a majority group or a subculture; the majority group listens to the commercially produced styles while the subcultures find a minority style to transmit their own values.
This allows youth to choose what music they identify with, which gives them power as consumers to control the market of popular music. Music critic Robert Christgau coined the term "semipopular music" in 1970, to describe records that seemed accessible for popular consumption but proved unsuccessful commercially. "I recognized that something else was going on—the distribution system appeared to be faltering, FM and all", he wrote in Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies, citing that records like The Velvet Underground and The Gilded Palace of Sin possessed populist qualities yet failed to impact the record charts. "Just as semiclassical music is a systematic dilution of highbrow preferences, semipopular music is a cross-bred concentration of fashionable modes." In his mind, a liking "for the nasty and short intensifies a common semipopular tendency in which lyrical and conceptual sophistication are applauded while musical sophistication—jazz chops or classical design or avant-garde innovation—is left to the specialists."
Form in popular music is most sectional, the most common sections being verse, chorus or refrain, bridge. Other common forms include thirty-two-bar form, chorus form *, twelve-bar blues. Popular music songs are composed using different music for each stanza of the lyrics; the verse and chorus are considered the primary elements. Each verse has the same melody, but the lyrics change for most verses; the chorus has a melodic phrase and a key lyrical line, repeated. Pop songs may have an introduction and coda, but these elements are not essential to the identity of most songs
1970s in music
For music from a year in the 1970s, go to 70 | 71 | 72 | 73 | 74 | 75 | 76 | 77 | 78 | 79This article includes an overview of the major events and trends in popular music in the 1970s. In North America and Oceania, the decade saw the rise of disco, which became one of the biggest genres of the decade in the mid-to-late 1970s. In Europe, a variant known as Euro disco rose in popularity towards the end of the 1970s. Aside from disco, smooth jazz, jazz fusion, soul remained popular throughout the decade, it is this influx of popular music that soon transformed into roll during the Early 1970s. Rock music played an important part in the Western musical scene, with punk rock thriving throughout the mid to late 1970s. Other subgenres of rock glam rock, hard rock, art rock and heavy metal achieved various amounts of success. Other genres such as reggae grew a significant following. Hip hop emerged during this decade, but was slow to start and did not become significant until the late 1980s. Classical began losing a little momentum.
A subgenre of classical, film scores, remained popular with movie-goers. Alongside the popularity of experimental music, the decade was notable for its contributions to electronic music, which rose in popularity with the continued development of synthesizers and harmonizers, its rising popularity, mixed with the popular music of the period, led to the creation of synthpop. Pop had a popularity role in the 1970s. In Asia, music continued to follow varying trends. In Japan, the decade saw several musical phases, including the popular folk-influenced fōku, as well as greater experimentation with electronic music, ranging from developments in synthpop and Electronic Dance Music, created through different Japanese artists and bands such as Yellow Magic Orchestra. In Latin America and the Iberian Peninsula, the Nueva canción movement peaked in popularity and was adopted as the music of the hippie, Liberation Theology, New Left movements. Cumbia music began its internationalization. Merengue experienced mainstream exposure across the southern US border states.
In Africa Nigeria, the genre known as Afrobeat gained a following throughout the 1970s. In an essay published in Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies, Robert Christgau wrote: "The decade is of course an arbitrary schema itself—time doesn't just execute a neat turn toward the future every ten years, but like a lot of artificial concepts—money, say—the category does take on a reality of its own once people figure out how to put it to work.'The'60s are over,' a slogan one only began to hear in 1972 or so, mobilized all those eager to believe that idealism had become passe, once they were mobilized, it had. In popular music, embracing the'70s meant both an elitist withdrawal from the messy concert and counterculture scene and a profiteering pursuit of the lowest common denominator in FM radio and album rock." According to Christgau, the decade saw greater fragmentation along stylistic lines because of the rise of semipopular music: "It goes back to whenever arty types began to find'the best' rock worthy of attention in the'60s, but in the'60s tolerance was the rule.
Not until 1968 or 1969, when it became a hippie commonplace to dismiss soul as'commercial' and when bubblegum and'white blues' developed into clear categories, did the breakdown begin. And only in the'70s did genres start asserting themselves: singer-songwriter and interpreter, art-rock and heavy metal and country-rock and boogie and funk and disco and black MOR, punk and new wave, somehow straddling them all the monolith of pop-rock." The 1970s saw the emergence of hard rock as one of the most prominent subgenres of rock music. During the first half of the decade, British acts such as Deep Purple, Led Zeppelin, Nazareth, Black Sabbath were at the height of their international fame in the United States. By the second half of the decade, many other acts had achieved stardom, Alice Cooper, AC/DC, Blue Öyster Cult, Aerosmith, Van Halen and Ted Nugent. Arena rock grew in popularity through rock acts such as Boston, Styx and The Who. Psychedelic rock declined in popularity after the deaths of Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, Jim Morrison of The Doors, the self-imposed seclusion of Syd Barrett from Pink Floyd, the break-up of The Beatles in 1970.
Country rock, formed from the fusion of rock music with country music, gained its greatest commercial success in the 1970s, beginning with non-country artists such as Bob Dylan, Gram Parsons, The Byrds. By the mid-1970s, Linda Ronstadt, along with other newer artists such as Emmylou Harris and The Eagles, were enjoying mainstream success and popularity that continues to this day; the Eagles themselves emerged as one of the most successful rock acts of all time, producing albums that included Hotel California. During the 1970s, a similar style of country rock called southern rock was enjoying popularity with country audiences, thanks to such non-country acts as The Ozark Mountain Daredevils, Lynyrd Skynyrd, The Allman Brothers Band
2000s in music
This article includes a brief summary of a few notable trends in radio-based, popular music between the years 2000 and 2009. In American culture, various styles of the late 20th century remained popular, such as in rock, metal, hip hop, R&B, EDM, country and indie; as the technology of computers and internet sharing developed, a variety of those genres started to fuse in order to see new styles emmerging. Terms like "contemporary", "nu", "revival", "alternative", "post" are added to various genres titles in order to differentiate them from past styles, nu-disco and post-punk revival as notable examples. One genre of this decade, British grime is a genre, said to have influenced other sub-genres such as chillwave in the United States; the continued development of studio recording software and electronic elements was observed, through this decade. One such example is the usage of pitch correction software, such as auto-tune that appeared in the late 1990s. Another great impact to this decade was the ongoing development of the internet and user-friendly media players, such as iTunes, music and video sharing websites such as Napster and YouTube, respectively.
The popularity of teen pop carried over from the 1990s with acts such as *NSYNC, Backstreet Boys, Britney Spears, Christina Aguilera dominating the charts in the earlier years of the decade. Contemporary R&B was one of the most popular genres of the decade, immensely popular throughout the decade with artists like Usher, Beyoncé, Rihanna. In 2004, the Billboard Year-End Hot 100 had 15 of its top 25 singles as Contemporary R&B. In Britain, post punk revival and alternative rock were at the height their popularity with acts such as Coldplay, The Libertines, Lynda Thomas, Dido, The Hives, Björk, Radiohead, which still continued at the top of the major charts in the rest of the world since the 1990s. Hip hop music achieved mainstream status after the 1990s and the deaths of many prominent artists such as 2Pac and The Notorious B. I. G. Artists outside of New York and Los Angeles in cities like Atlanta, New Orleans and the Bay Area all achieved mainstream success. Popular rap movements of the 2000s include Crunk, Snap and Alternative Hip Hop.
Despite the hip hop dominance, such as Southern hip hop which lasted for most of the decade, rock music was still popular, notably alternative rock, genres such as post-grunge, post-Britpop, nu metal, pop punk, post-hardcore, in some cases indie rock. Despite a slight slip in popularity in the early part of the decade, adult contemporary and country music were still able to find success throughout the 2000s. Electronic music was popular throughout the decade. By the end of the decade, late-1980s/early-1990s inspired dance-oriented forms of electronic music such as synthpop and electro house had become popular. By the end of the decade, a fusion between hip hop and electronic dance similar to the Freestyle music of the late 1980s and early 1990s, known as Hip House and Electrohop grew successful. In Asia and Far Eastern musical markets, with the increase of globalization and the spread of capitalism, music became more Westernised, with influences of pop, hip hop and contemporary R&B becoming ever–present in Eastern markets.
American and European popular music became more popular in Asia. Genres such as J-Pop and K-Pop remained popular throughout the decade, proliferating their cultural influence throughout the East and Southeast of Asia. In other parts of Asia, including India, Indian pop music linked to Bollywood films and filmi music, was popular alongside Western pop music. In Latin America, whilst R&B, hip hop and pop rock did have influence and success, Latin-based pop music remained popular. Reggaeton became a definitive genre in 2000s Latin music, as well as merengue. Subgenres fusing Latin music such as merengue and reggaeton with hip hop and rap music became popular from the middle of the decade onwards; the Internet allowed unprecedented access to music and allowed artists to distribute music without label backing. Innumerable online outlets and sheer volume of music offers musicians more musical influences to draw from. Hip hop dominated popular music in the early 2000s. Artists such as Eminem, OutKast, The Black Eyed Peas, T.
I. 50 Cent, Kanye West, Nas, Jay-Z, Snoop Dogg, Missy Elliott, M. I. A. Lil Kim, Young Jeezy, Lil Wayne, The Game and Ludacris were among the dominant mainstream hip hop artists to have represented the hip hop genre for the decade. Distinct regional differences developed outside the hip hop/rap strongholds of the 1990s, New York City and Los Angeles. Though the Los Angeles style of the 1990s waned, Gangsta rap continued to be popular through the 2000s, more commercially oriented party rap dominated the charts; the emergence of hip-hop from the south and the midwest was starting to take place, by the end of the decade, hip-hop was starting to spread internationally. During the 2000s Eminem, best known for being one of the few successful white rappers in the music industry, enjoyed a massive commercial success and maintained commercial relevance by attempting to be controversial and subversive. According to Billboard, two of Eminem's albums are among the top five highest-selling albums of the 2000s.
After the release of his album Relapse, Eminem became the best selling rapper of all time and the top selling artist of the decade across all genres. "Ringtone rap", w
1960s in music
For music from a year in the 1960s, go to 60 | 61 | 62 | 63 | 64 | 65 | 66 | 67 | 68 | 69 This article includes an overview of the events and trends in popular music in the 1960s. In North America and Europe the decade was revolutionary in terms of popular music, as it saw the evolution of rock. At the beginning of the 1960s, pop and rock and roll trends of the 1950s continued. In the early-1960s, rock and roll in its purest form was overtaken by pop rock, psychedelic rock, blues rock, folk rock, which had grown in popularity; the country- and folk-influenced style associated with the latter half of 1960s rock music spawned a generation of popular singersongwriters who wrote and performed their own work. Towards the decade's end, genres such as Baroque pop, sunshine pop, bubblegum pop, progressive rock started to grow popular, with the latter two finding greater success in the following decade. Furthermore, the 1960s saw soul music rising in popularity. Aside from the popularity of rock and R&B music in the 1960s, Latin American as well as Jamaican and Cuban music achieved a degree of popularity throughout the decade, with genres such as Bossa nova, the cha-cha-cha and calypso being popular.
From a classical point of view, the 1960s were an important decade as they saw the development of electronic, experimental and contemporary classical music, notably minimalism and free improvisation. In Asia, various trends marked the popular music of the 1960s. In Japan, the decade saw the rise in popularity of several Western popular music groups such as The Beatles; the success of rock music and bands in the Japan started a new generation, known as Group Sounds, popular in the latter half of the decade. In South America, genres such as bossa nova, Nueva canción and Nueva ola started to rise. Rock music began leaving its mark, achieved success in the 1960s. Additionally, salsa grew popular towards the end of the decade. In the 1960s cumbia left a long-lasting impact on tropical music in that country. In the late 1950s, a flourishing culture of groups began to emerge out of the declining skiffle scene, in major urban centres in the UK like Liverpool, Manchester and London; this was true in Liverpool, where it has been estimated that there were around 350 different bands active playing ballrooms, concert halls and clubs.
Beat bands were influenced by American bands of the era, such as Buddy Holly and the Crickets, as well as earlier British groups such as the Shadows. After the national success of the Beatles in Britain from 1962, a number of Liverpool performers were able to follow them into the charts, including Cilla Black and the Pacemakers and the Searchers. Among the most successful beat acts from Birmingham were the Spencer Davis Group and the Moody Blues. From London, the term Tottenham Sound was based around the Dave Clark Five, but other London bands that benefited from the beat boom of this era included the Rolling Stones, the Yardbirds and the Kinks; the first non-Liverpool, non-Brian Epstein-managed band to break through in the UK were Freddie and the Dreamers, who were based in Manchester, as were Herman's Hermits. The beat movement provided most of the groups responsible for the British Invasion of the American pop charts in the period after 1964, furnished the model for many important developments in pop and rock music.
By the end of 1962, the British rock scene had started with beat groups like the Beatles drawing on a wide range of American influences including soul music and blues and surf music. They reinterpreted standard American tunes, playing for dancers doing the twist, for example; these groups infused their original rock compositions with complex musical ideas and a distinctive sound. In mid-1962 the Rolling Stones started as one of a number of groups showing blues influence, along with bands like the Animals and the Yardbirds. During 1963, the Beatles and other beat groups, such as the Searchers and the Hollies, achieved great popularity and commercial success in Britain itself. British rock broke through to mainstream popularity in the United States in January 1964 with the success of the Beatles. "I Want to Hold Your Hand" was the band's first No. 1 hit on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, starting the British Invasion of the American music charts. The song entered the chart on January 18, 1964, at No. 45 before it became the No. 1 single for 7 weeks and went on to last a total of 15 weeks in the chart.
Their first appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show February 9 is considered a milestone in American pop culture. The broadcast drew an estimated 73 million viewers, at the time a record for an American television program; the Beatles went on to become the biggest selling rock band of all time and they were followed by numerous British bands. During the next two years, Chad & Jeremy and Gordon, the Animals, Manfred Mann, Petula Clark and the Dreamers, Wayne Fontana and the Mindbenders, Herman's Hermits, the Rolling Stones, the Troggs, Donovan would have one or more No. 1 singles. Other acts that were part of the invasion included the Dave Clark Five. British Invasion acts dominated the music charts at home in the United Kingdom; the British Invasion helped internationalize the production of rock and roll, opening the door for subsequent British (
1940s in music
For music from a year in the 1940s, go to 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 This article includes an overview of the major events and trends in popular music in the 1940s. In the First World, Big band, Jazz and Country music dominated and defined the decade's music. After World War II, the big band sounds of the earlier part of the decade has been replaced by crooners and vocal pop. Ragtime can be described as the first American music genre and it remained popular for over 20 years. After its best-known exponent, Scott Joplin, died in 1917, the genre faded; as the 1920s unfolded, jazz took over as the dominant form of popular music in the United States. But with the Stock Market Crash of 1929 and the onset of the Great Depression, the market for music dried up. Dance halls emptied out and musicians could not find work. By the middle of the 1930s however, with signs of economic recovery approaching, a turnaround in the fortunes of the music industry began; the era of big band swing had started.
In addition, a new form of popular music, emerged during the early 1930s. Technology played a large part in the development of this style, as electronic sound recording had emerged near the end of the 1920s and replaced the earlier acoustic recording. While singers such as Al Jolson and Billy Murray had recorded songs by yelling into a Victrola horn, as this was the only way to get audible sound with acoustic recording, the new electronic equipment allowed for a softer, more intimate style of singing. Many of the older singers such as Jolson and Murray fell out of favor during the 1930s with changing tastes. Bing Crosby was the leading figure of the crooner sound as well as defining artist. By the 1940s, he was an entertainment superstar who mastered all of the major media formats of the day, movies and recorded music. Other popular singers of the day included Eddie Cantor. Bandleaders such as the Dorsey Brothers helped launch the careers of vocalists who went on to popularity as solo artists, such as Frank Sinatra, who rose to fame as a singer during this time.
Sinatra's vast appeal to the "bobby soxers" revealed a whole new audience for popular music, which had appealed to adults up to that time, making Sinatra the first teen idol. Sinatra's music attracted young girls to his concerts; this image of a teen idol would be seen with future artists such as Elvis Presley and The Beatles. Sinatra's massive popularity was one of the reasons why the big band music declined in popularity. Frank Sinatra would go on to become one of the most successful artists of the 1940s and one of the best selling music artists of all time. Sinatra remained relevant through the 1950s and 60s with rock music being the dominant form of music in his years. In the decades, Sinatra's music would be aimed at an older adult audience. Sinatra became one of the critically acclaimed music artists of all time. Big band swing could variably accompany a vocalist. In comparison to its loud, rhythmic sound stood the "sweet" bands which played a softer, more melodic style; the most notable of these, in no small part thanks to a long postwar TV career, was the band of Lawrence Welk.
While swing bands could be found in most major cities during the 1930s-1940s, the most popular and famous were the bands of Glenn Miller, Benny Goodman, Artie Shaw, which had national followings and sold huge numbers. World War II brought an end to big band swing as many musicians were conscripted into the armed forces and travel restrictions made it hard for bands to tour. In 1944, Glenn Miller was killed when his plane crashed into the English Channel en route to a USO show in France, his death is considered to mark the close of the swing era. After the war, a combination of factors such as changing demographics and rapid inflation made large bands unprofitable, so that popular music in the US came to be dominated instead by traditional pop and crooners, as well as bebop and jump Reds. In the 1940s, pure jazz began to become more popular, along with the blues, with artists like Ella Fitzgerald and Billie Holiday becoming nationally successful. By the 1940s, Dixieland jazz revival musicians like Jimmy McPartland, Eddie Condon and Bud Freeman had become well-known and established their own unique style.
Most characteristically, players entered solos against riffing by other horns, were followed by a closing with the drummer playing a four-bar tag, answered by the rest of the band. Some of the most notable Jazz artists of the 1940s include Ella Fitzgerald, Billie Holiday, Louis Armstrong and Nat King Cole. Throughout the 1930s and 1940s, cowboy songs, or Western music, became popular through the romanticization of the cowboy and idealized depictions of the west in Hollywood films. Singing cowboys, such as Roy Rogers and Gene Autry, sang cowboy songs in their films and became popular throughout the United States. Film producers began incorporating orchestrated four-part harmonies and sophisticated musical arrangements into their motion pictures. In the post-war period, country music was called "folk" in the trades, "hillbilly" within the industry. In 1944, The Billboard replaced the term "hillbilly" with "folk songs and blues," and switched to "country" or "country and Western" in 1949, but while cowboy and Western music were the most popular styles, a new style – honky tonk – would take root and define the genre of country music for decades to