Rangers Football Club are a football club in Glasgow, Scotland, which plays in the Scottish Premiership, the first tier of the Scottish Professional Football League. Their home ground, Ibrox Stadium, is in the south-west of the city, Rangers were the first British club to reach a UEFA tournament final and won the European Cup Winners Cup in 1972 after being runner-up twice in 1961 and 1967. A third runners-up finish in Europe came in the UEFA Cup in 2008, Rangers have a long-standing rivalry with Celtic, the two Glasgow clubs being collectively known as the Old Firm. The four founders of Rangers – brothers Moses and Peter McNeil, Peter Campbell, Rangers first match, in May that year, was a goalless friendly draw with Callander on Glasgow Green. David Hill was also a founder member, in 1873, the club held its first annual meeting and staff were elected. By 1876 Rangers had its first international player, with Moses McNeil representing Scotland in a match against Wales. In 1877 Rangers reached a Scottish Cup final, after drawing the first game, Rangers refused to turn up for the replay, Rangers won the Glasgow Merchants Charity Cup the following year against Vale of Leven 2–1, their first major cup. The first-ever Old Firm match took place in 1888, the year of Celtics establishment, Rangers lost 5–2 in a friendly to a team composed largely of guest players from Hibernian. The 1890–91 season saw the inception of the Scottish Football League, the clubs first-ever league match, on 16 August 1890, resulted in a 5–2 victory over Heart of Midlothian. After finishing joint-top with Dumbarton, a play-off held at Cathkin Park finished 2–2, Rangers first-ever Scottish Cup win came in 1894 after a 3–1 final victory over rivals Celtic. By the start of the 20th century, Rangers had won two titles and three Scottish Cups. During William Wiltons time as secretary and then team manager. Taking over as manager from William Wilton in 1920, Bill Struth was Rangers most successful manager, on 2 January 1939 a British league attendance record was broken as 118,567 fans turned out to watch Rangers beat Celtic in the traditional New Years Day Old Firm match. During the wartime regional league setup, Rangers achieved their highest score against old firm rivals Celtic with an 8–1 win in the Southern Football League, Rangers also lost by their biggest Old Firm margin of 7–1. Rangers reached the semi-finals of the European Cup in 1960, losing to German club Eintracht Frankfurt by a record aggregate 12–4 for a Scottish team. In 1961 Rangers became the first British team to reach a European final when they contested the Cup Winners Cup final against Italian side Fiorentina, Rangers lost again in the final of the same competition in 1967, by a single goal after extra time to Bayern Munich. The Ibrox disaster occurred on 2 January 1971 when large-scale crushing on an exit at the culmination of the New Years Day Old Firm game claimed 66 lives. An enquiry concluded that the crush was likely to have happened ten minutes after the final whistle and to have been triggered by someone falling on the stairs
Pedro Miguel Faria Caixinha is a Portuguese football manager, who is currently the manager of Scottish Premiership club Rangers. He first became a manager with União Leiria in 2011, then managed Nacional for a year and he has since also worked as a manager in Mexico with Santos Laguna and Qatar with Al-Gharafa. After an unassuming career as a player, Caixinha started managing in his twenties, his first appointment being with his last club. Beja, where he was in charge of his youth sides for four years, in 2003 he moved to the seniors with amateurs Clube de Futebol Vasco da Gama, in neighbouring Vidigueira. He has taken inspiration from fellow Portuguese manager Jose Mourinho, who also did not have a playing career. In the 2010–11 season he returned to coaching duties and made his Primeira Liga debuts. Caixinha resigned after three games into the following campaign, amidst rumours of several months due in wages to both him and the players. He quickly signed for fellow league team C. D, Nacional, helping the Madeirans rank seventh after winning ten of his 21 games in charge. On 11 October 2012 Caixinha resigned as manager of Nacional after only picking up five points from six league games, late into the month, he accepted an offer from Mexicos Santos Laguna. He left the club on 15 August 2015, after winning three major titles, on 11 March 2017, Caixinha joined Scottish Premiership club Rangers on a three-year deal. He serves as Rangers 16th permanent manager, caretaker manager Graeme Murty took control of an Old Firm game played the following day, with Caixinha starting his work on 13 March. His debut match against Hamilton Academical on 18 March was a 4-0 victory
Graeme Stuart Murty is a professional football coach and former player, who is the head coach of the Rangers development squad. He made 437 appearances in the Football League and Premier League, playing for York City, Reading, Charlton Athletic, though born in Saltburn, North Yorkshire, England, Murty qualified for Scotland through his family who were Scottish, and won four full caps. He joined Rangers as a development squad coach in 2016 and he was placed in caretaker charge of the Rangers first team in early 2017, managing six games. Murty was born in Saltburn, North Yorkshire and attended Nunthorpe School and he joined Middlesbroughs Centre of Excellence after being scouted playing for Marton Juniors, but was released aged 15. Following trials with Aston Villa, Leeds United and Stockport County, Murty joined joined York Citys youth system on a training scheme in June 1991. He signed a contract on 2 March 1993 and was placed into the first team in the 1993–94 season. On 20 September 1995, he played in their 3–0 victory against Manchester United in the League Cup at Old Trafford and he scored in Yorks League Cup victory against Everton. Murty joined Reading on a contract on 6 July 1998 for a £700,000 fee, which at the time was the highest fee paid by Reading. His first few seasons were hampered by injury, however, once clear of injury, he quickly became an integral part of the team, and when Phil Parkinson left the club to become manager of Colchester United, Murty was appointed club captain. On 30 April 2006, Murty scored only his second goal, from a penalty, in 280 league and it ensured that Reading reached 106 points, a record for the second tier of English football. His only previous goal for Reading came against Bristol City in March 2001, on 1 December 2006, Murty signed a new contract to keep him at Reading until the summer of 2008, which meant he would complete 10 years at the club. The testimonial match was held on 21 July 2009 at Readings Madejski Stadium, in a vote to compile the Royals best-ever eleven, Murty was voted the best right-back with 56. 4% of the vote. Murty also won the BBC South Sports Personality of the Year award, at a ceremony in Southampton on 3 December 2006 where John Madejski and he joined Charlton Athletic on a one-month loan on 6 January 2009 to allow him to improve his match fitness. He made his debut in a 2–0 home defeat to Nottingham Forest on 10 January 2009 and his loan at Charlton was extended for a second month on 2 February 2009. He returned to Reading on 2 March 2009 after suffering from a calf injury, on 15 May 2009, Murty was released by Reading. On 3 July 2009, Murty joined League One side Southampton on a trial with a view to a permanent deal. He signed a contract with Southampton 5 August 2009 after impressing. On 15 May 2010, after an injury plagued season, he was released by Southampton, in February 2012, he announced his retirement from playing
James Michael Nicholl is a Canadian-born former Northern Ireland international footballer who played for several clubs, including Manchester United and Rangers. He was mainly a right-back but could play in other defensive roles. Nicholl won a total of 73 international caps for Northern Ireland, after retiring as a player, he moved into coaching and management. He enjoyed success as manager of Raith Rovers, winning the 1994–95 Scottish League Cup, in recent years he has worked as an assistant coach for some Scottish Premier League clubs, including Aberdeen, Kilmarnock and Hibernian. His most recent managerial position was for Scottish Championship side Cowdenbeath, in March 2015, he took over as assistant coach for Northern Ireland. Nicholl started his career as a player at Manchester United. His senior career started in 1974 and he helped the club win the 1977 FA Cup Final and collected a runners-up medal in 1979. After leaving Rangers, he signed for Dunfermline Athletic in 1989 before moving to a role at Raith Rovers. Following his time at Rovers, Nicholl played one game for Bath City in February 1996 and he was sent off after 55 minutes and never played for the club again. Nicholl had great success at Raith Rovers, winning the 1994–95 Scottish League Cup, due to their League Cup triumph, Raith Rovers qualified for the 1995–96 UEFA Cup and reached the second round, where they were eliminated by eventual winners Bayern Munich. On 28 February 1996, Nicholl was appointed manager of Millwall and he was unable to arrest the decline and Millwall slipped into Division Two on the last day of the season. He remained at Millwall until the following February, and six months after that returned to Raith Rovers and his second spell at Raith lasted two years, and ended on 14 June 1999 after he had failed to get them back into the top flight. A 28-day spell as manager of Dunfermline Athletic followed later in 1999, in May 2004, Nicholl followed Calderwood when he took over as manager at Aberdeen, again serving as his assistant until the two parted company with the club in May 2009. He resumed his partnership with Calderwood at Kilmarnock in 2010, Nicholl was appointed manager of Cowdenbeath in June 2010, but he left Cowdenbeath at the end of the 2010–11 season after they were relegated from the First Division. Nicholl was then appointed assistant manager of Kilmarnock for a second time, Kilmarnock won the 2011–12 Scottish League Cup under Shiels and Nicholl, but Shiels was sacked by Kilmarnock in June 2013. Nicholl then decided to accept the offer of assistant manager at Hibernian, after manager Pat Fenlon resigned on 1 November, Nicholl was appointed caretaker manager. Nicholl left Hibernian soon after their new management team was recruited, after leaving Hibernian, Nicholl returned to Cowdenbeath for a second stint as their manager. He led the Blue Brazil to avoid relegation via the Scottish Championship play-offs in the 2013–14 season beating local rivals Dunfermline Athletic in the two-legged final and he led the side to the Fife Cup that season
Ibrox Stadium is a football stadium located on the south side of the River Clyde in the Ibrox district of Glasgow. The home of Rangers F. C. Ibrox is one of the largest football stadiums in the UK, and it was opened as Ibrox Park in 1899, but suffered a disaster in 1902 when a wooden terrace collapsed. Vast earthen terraces were built in its place, while a main stand, a British record crowd of 118,567 gathered in January 1939 for a league match with Celtic. After the Ibrox disaster of 1971, the stadium was largely rebuilt, the vast bowl-shaped terracing was removed and replaced by three rectangular, all-seated stands by 1981. After renovations were completed in 1997, the ground was renamed Ibrox Stadium, Ibrox has also hosted the Scotland national football team, particularly when the national stadium Hampden Park was redeveloped in the 1990s. Ibrox also hosted three Scottish domestic cup finals in the same period and it has also been the venue for concerts by major performers, including Frank Sinatra. Rangers played its first match in May 1872, on Glasgow Green, the club then played home matches on public pitches across Glasgow, first moving to a regular home ground at Burnbank in 1875. A year later, Rangers played at the Clydesdale cricket ground in Kinning Park and this ground was improved to give a capacity of 7,000, but it was not owned by Rangers. After hints by the landlords that they wished to develop the site, the club shared Cathkin Park with Third Lanark for the remainder of the 1886–87 season. Rangers first moved to the Ibrox area later in 1887, playing on a site immediately to the east of the current stadium. The first match at this stadium was an 8–1 defeat to English side Preston North End on 20 August 1887 and this inaugural match had to be abandoned after 70 minutes due to a pitch invasion. The first Ibrox Park was a success in the short term, Celtic Park, built in 1892, was more advanced, however. Rangers opted to construct a new stadium, raising funds by forming a limited company, the last match at the old ground was played on 9 December 1899. The new Ibrox Park was formally opened with a 3–1 victory over Hearts on 30 December, Ibrox Park, as it was known between 1899 and 1997, is almost completely different from the Ibrox Stadium of today. It followed the model of most Scottish stadiums of the time, comprising an oval track around the pitch, with a pavilion, the ground had a capacity of 40,000. Celtic Park, Ibrox and Hampden Park all competed with other to host Scottish Cup Finals and Scotland matches. To aid their chances of gaining that revenue, Rangers constructed a large terracing, holding 36,000 people, the terracing, designed by Archibald Leitch, was formed by wooden planks bolted onto a framework made of iron. A similar wooden terracing was constructed at the end, giving a total capacity of 75,000
Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland, and third largest in the United Kingdom. Historically part of Lanarkshire, it is now one of the 32 council areas of Scotland and it is situated on the River Clyde in the countrys West Central Lowlands. Inhabitants of the city are referred to as Glaswegians, Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Britain. From the 18th century the city grew as one of Great Britains main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America. Glasgow was the Second City of the British Empire for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries Glasgow grew in population, reaching a peak of 1,128,473 in 1939. The entire region surrounding the conurbation covers about 2.3 million people, at the 2011 census, Glasgow had a population density of 8, 790/sq mi, the highest of any Scottish city. Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and is well known in the sporting world for the football rivalry of the Old Firm between Celtic and Rangers. Glasgow is also known for Glasgow patter, a dialect that is noted for being difficult to understand by those from outside the city. Glasgow is the form of the ancient Cumbric name Glas Cau. Possibly referring to the area of Molendinar Burn where Glasgow Cathedral now stands, the later Gaelic name Baile Glas Chu, town of the grey dog, is purely a folk-etymology. The present site of Glasgow has been settled since prehistoric times, it is for settlement, being the furthest downstream fording point of the River Clyde, the origins of Glasgow as an established city derive ultimately from its medieval position as Scotlands second largest bishopric. Glasgow increased in importance during the 10th and 11th centuries as the site of this bishopric, reorganised by King David I of Scotland and John, there had been an earlier religious site established by Saint Mungo in the 6th century. The bishopric became one of the largest and wealthiest in the Kingdom of Scotland, bringing wealth, sometime between 1189 and 1195 this status was supplemented by an annual fair, which survives as the Glasgow Fair. Glasgow grew over the following centuries, the first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main North-South route over the river via Glasgow Cross. The founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 increased the towns religious and educational status and landed wealth. Its early trade was in agriculture, brewing and fishing, with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe, Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of Royal Burgh in 1611. The citys Tobacco Lords created a water port at Port Glasgow on the Firth of Clyde. By the late 18th century more than half of the British tobacco trade was concentrated on Glasgows River Clyde, at the time, Glasgow held a commercial importance as the city participated in the trade of sugar, tobacco and later cotton
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union also created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, titles, the legal system within Scotland has also remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law. Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is also a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages. Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was also discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses
Kit (association football)
In association football, kit is the standard equipment and attire worn by players. The sports Laws of the Game specify the minimum kit which a player must use, footballers generally wear identifying numbers on the backs of their shirts. Professional clubs also usually display players surnames or nicknames on their shirts, Football kit has evolved significantly since the early days of the sport when players typically wore thick cotton shirts, knickerbockers and heavy rigid leather boots. The Laws of the Game set out the equipment which must be worn by all players in Law 4. Five separate items are specified, shirt, shorts, socks, footwear, goalkeepers are allowed to wear tracksuit bottoms instead of shorts. While most players wear studded football boots, the Laws do not specify that these are required, shirts must have sleeves, and goalkeepers must wear shirts which are easily distinguishable from all other players and the match officials. Thermal undershorts may be worn, but must be the colour as the shorts themselves. Shin pads must be covered entirely by the stockings, be made of rubber, plastic or a similar material, and provide a reasonable degree of protection. The only other restriction on equipment defined in the Laws of the Game is the requirement that a player must not use equipment or wear anything that is dangerous to himself or another player. In the event of a match between teams who would wear identical or similar colours the away team must change to a different colour. The England national team plays in red shirts even when it is not required. Many professional clubs also have a kit, ostensibly to be used if both their first-choice and away colours are deemed too similar to those of an opponent. Most professional clubs have retained the basic colour scheme for several decades. Teams representing countries in international competition generally wear national colours in common with other sporting teams of the same nation, shirts are normally made of a polyester mesh, which does not trap the sweat and body heat in the same way as a shirt made of a natural fibre. Depending on local rules, there may be restrictions on how large these logos may be or on what logos may be displayed, competitions such as the Premier League may also require players to wear patches on their sleeves depicting the logo of the competition. The captain of team is usually required to wear an elasticated armband around the left sleeve to identify him as the captain to the referee. Most current players wear specialist football boots, which can be either of leather or a synthetic material. Modern boots are cut slightly below the ankles, as opposed to the high-ankled boots used in former times, studs may be either moulded directly to the sole or be detachable, normally by means of a screw thread
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Coleraine Football Club is a Northern Irish semi-professional football club, playing in the NIFL Premiership. The club, founded in 1927, hails from Coleraine, County Londonderry, Club colours are blue and white. The current manager is Oran Kearney of Linfield. The Bannsiders won the Irish League title once, the club was formed out of a merger between two local sides, Coleraine Olympic and Coleraine Alexandra. The original club colours were all white, hence the original nickname – the Lilywhites. The new club secured its first trophy in the 1931–32 season, in 1948, Coleraine reached its first Irish Cup final, going down 3–0 to Linfield. 1953 brought another appearance in the final and another defeat, again to Linfield, the 1950s saw the City Cup won for the first time and a second triumph in the Gold Cup. In 1961, chairman Jack Doherty persuaded Bertie Peacock to sign for Coleraine after he left Celtic and it would prove to be one of the most important transfers in the clubs history. In 1965, Coleraine won the Irish Cup for the first time, defeating Glenavon 2–1 at Windsor Park, with goals from Shaun Dunlop, Coleraine thus gained its first experience of European football, against Soviet outfit Dynamo Kiev. Coleraine also won the first two Blaxnit all-Ireland cups in 1969 and 1970, Coleraine faced Kilmarnock in the 1970 Fairs Cup, and after a 1–1 draw in the first leg, the Bannsiders pulled off an historic 3–2 victory thanks to a Des Dickson hat-trick. In 1972, the Irish Cup was won again, this time by beating Portadown 2–1, with goals from Des Dickson, the Holy Grail of the Gibson Cup was finally captured in 1974. Under the management of Bertie Peacock, the squad consisting of the likes of Des Dickson, Johnny McCurdy, Ivan Murray, Michael Guy, Bertie Peacock resigned in 1974 and Ivan Murray and Johnny McCurdy took over the reins. Murray continued as manager until 1978 and during his spell in charge the Irish Cup was won twice more – both times against Linfield, in 1975, it took three games before a goal from Jim Chang Smith in the second replay proved decisive. The 1977 victory was more emphatic with Liam Beckett, Des Dickson, Frankie Moffatt and it was to be the clubs last major trophy for 26 years. In the 1980s there were two cup finals, in 1982 and 1986, ending in defeats to Linfield and Glentoran respectively. For three seasons in a row in the mid-1980s the club finished second in the league behind Linfield, in 1995 they dropped into the First Division. The next 2 seasons saw Coleraine finish fourth both times – potential title challenges being ruined by inconsistency, in 2002–03, Coleraine ended the season in third place and reached their first Irish Cup Final since 1986. In the final, they faced Glentoran as massive underdogs as the east Belfast side were looking to complete a sweep of trophies. After an early strike from Gareth McAuley was harshly ruled out, Coleraine kept going, despite increasing Glentoran pressure, Coleraine held on and the trophy famine was over
An exhibition game is a sporting event whose prize money and impact on the players or the teams rankings is either zero or otherwise greatly reduced. In team sports, matches of this type are used to help coaches and managers select. If the players play in different teams in other leagues. The games can be held between separate teams or between parts of the same team, international competitions like the Olympic Games may also hold exhibition games as part of a demonstration sport. In the early days of football, known simply as football or soccer. However, since the development of The Football League in England in 1888, league tournaments became established, in addition to lengthy derby, since the introduction of league football, most club sides play a number of friendlies before the start of each season. Friendly football matches are considered to be non-competitive and are used to warm up players for a new season/competitive match. There is generally nothing competitive at stake and some rules may be changed or experimented with, although these events may involve sponsorship deals and the awarding of a trophy and may even be broadcast on television, there is little prestige attached to them. Frequently such games take place between a club and small clubs that play nearby, such as those between Newcastle United and Gateshead. International teams also play friendlies, generally in preparation for the qualifying or final stages of major tournaments and this is essential, since national squads generally have much less time together in which to prepare. The biggest difference between friendlies at the club and international levels is that international friendlies mostly take place during club league seasons and this has on occasion led to disagreement between national associations and clubs as to the availability of players, who could become injured or fatigued in a friendly. Players can be booked in international friendlies, and can be suspended from international matches based on red cards or accumulated yellows in a specified period. Caps and goals scored also count towards a players career records, in the UK and Ireland, exhibition match and friendly match refer to two different types of matches. A bounce game is generally a non-competitive football match played between two sides usually as part of an exercise or to give players match practice. Managers may also use bounce games as an opportunity to observe a player in action before offering a contract, usually these games are played on a training ground rather than in a stadium with no spectators in attendance. Exhibition fights were common in boxing. Jack Dempsey fought many exhibition bouts after retiring, joe Louis fought a charity fight on his rematch with Buddy Baer, but this was not considered an exhibition as it was for Louis world Heavyweight title. Muhammad Ali fought many exhibitions, including one with Lyle Alzado, in more modern times, Mike Tyson, Julio Cesar Chavez Sr. and Jorge Castro have been involved in exhibition fights
Martyn Thomas Waghorn is an English professional footballer who plays as a striker for Scottish Premiership club Rangers. He is a former England under-21 international, Waghorn had been with Sunderland since the age of eight and made his first team debut for the club in December 2007, against Manchester United, at the age of 17. He had loan spells with Charlton Athletic and Leicester City before joining Leicester City on a permanent deal on 31 August 2010. He played sparingly for Leicester City, spending time out on loan at Hull City, Millwall, in July 2015, he left England for the first time, joining Rangers. Waghorn was born in South Shields, from the age of eight Waghorn played for his local team Sunderland and he progressed through the youth system at the Academy of Light to reach the under-18 team. Waghorn scored the first hat-trick of his career on 12 December 2007 in a 6–1 win against Norwich City in the FA Youth Cup third round. He scored twice in a 4–2 win against local rivals Newcastle United a few days later at the Academy of Light, Waghorn made his first team debut against Manchester United at the Stadium of Light on 26 December 2007, the match finished 4–0 to Manchester United. The player, usually a striker, had to play in left midfield, Waghorn signed a new two-and-a-half-year contract with Sunderland in February 2008, which Keane described as good for both Sunderland and the player. His only appearance for the club in the 2008–09 season was against Chelsea at Stamford Bridge on 1 November 2008, Waghorn joined Championship side Charlton Athletic on a months loan on 17 November 2008. On 15 December 2008, Waghorn scored his first goal, in a 2–2 draw at home against Derby County, the loan deal was extended for a second month. He made seven appearances for the club in a season that would end in relegation to League One, on 6 August 2009, Waghorn joined Leicester City on loan until 11 January 2010, having turned down interest from Carlisle United. Waghorn made his debut for Leicester City as a substitute against Swansea City. His first 11 games for Leicester City were all as a substitute and he made his first league start for Leicester City against Reading, scoring the winning goal. Waghorn scored his first professional brace against Queens Park Rangers in a 4–0 win and his overall performance earned him the clubs Young Player of the Year award on 28 April 2010. Waghorn missed the last penalty kick in a 4–3 defeat on penalties to Cardiff City in the Championship play-offs semi-final second leg on 12 May 2010 and he scored 12 goals in 28 starts for the club during his loan period. On 31 August 2010, Waghorn rejoined Leicester City on a permanent deal for a fee rising to £3 million to help fund Sunderlands record signing Asamoah Gyan. He was disappointed with the lack of opportunities at his former club, Waghorn made his debut in a 1–1 draw against Coventry City on 11 September 2010, scoring his first goal in a 4–3 defeat to Norwich City on 28 September 2010. He failed to win a place when Sven-Göran Eriksson became manager on 3 October 2010
The New Saints F.C.
They play in the Welsh Premier League, which they have won a record eleven times – including the past six seasons. Founded in 1959 as Llansantffraid F. C. from 1997 to 2006, in 2003, it merged with Oswestry Town F. C. and three years later it adopted its current name. TNS play at Park Hall in Oswestry after moving there in 2007 from the Recreation Ground in Llansantffraid, Park Hall accommodates 1,000 seated spectators and there are plans to upgrade the ground to 3,000 capacity in the future. The club was formed as Llansantffraid F. C. to represent the border village of Llansantffraid-ym-Mechain in 1959. They first tasted competitive football in the Montgomeryshire Amateur Football League, at the end of the 1989–90 season they were elected to the Central Wales League but their stay was brief, winning promotion to the Cymru Alliance as runners-up on their first attempt. Llansantffraids meteoric rise continued and in 1992–93 they gained promotion to the League of Wales, now the Welsh Premier League, as champions, in 1996, Llansantffraid won the Welsh Cup and qualified for the first time for the European Cup Winners Cup. At this time a computer company, Total Network Solutions of Oswestry. As Total Network Solutions Llansantffraid F. C. they met the Polish cup winners Ruch Chorzów, since then they have qualified for European competition several times. The clubs European home games are played at either Newtowns or Wrexhams stadium as their old Recreation Ground was far below UEFAs standards. In 1997 the clubs name was changed to Total Network Solutions F. C. being the first instance in the United Kingdom of a football club renaming itself after its sponsors name only. Following the financial meltdown of Barry Town in the summer of 2003, in the summer of 2005 however Llanelli AFC also announced plans to go full-time. In the summer of 2003 a merger with their financially weak neighbours, Oswestry Town, was approved by Oswestrys shareholders and it was also approved by the Football Association of Wales and was eventually ratified on 14 August 2003 by UEFA. The 2003–04 season was trophyless for TNS, they were runners-up in the League of Wales to Rhyl and were losing finalists in the Welsh Cup, the next season, 2004–05, proved much more successful, as TNS won a League and Cup double. After UEFA reached a compromise by which Liverpool were placed in the first qualifying round of the competition, TNS, a new club badge was also developed at the same time, featuring a dragon to represent Llansantffraid and a lion representing Oswestry. At the time, the move was complicated by Chester Citys governance issues. Chester City were liquidated a month later by HMRC, in any event, the New Saints were crowned 2009–10 Welsh Premier League Champions. The New Saints entered the Champions League in 2010–11 and they were drawn against League of Ireland Premier Division Champions Bohemians in the Second Qualifying Round. They lost the first leg 1–0 at Dalymount Park in Dublin on 13 July 2010, however they won the second leg at Park Hall 4–0 and won the tie 4–1 on aggregate, the first ever tie won by the club since their European debut in 1996
St Johnstone F.C.
St Johnstone Football Club is a professional football club based in Perth, Scotland. Although it is recorded as being formed in 1884, the club did not play its first game until February 1885. The clubs home since 1989 has been McDiarmid Park, the clubs first Scottish Cup appearance was in 1886–87 and they joined the Scottish Football League in 1911–12. St Johnstone won the Scottish Football League First Division, the tier of league football in Scotland. This gained them promotion to the Scottish Premier League, bringing a return of SPL football to McDiarmid Park for the 2009–10 campaign, the club have historically floated between the top two divisions of Scottish football, obtaining the reputation of being a yo-yo club. Their traditional rivals are the two Dundee clubs, Dundee and Dundee United, with matches between St Johnstone and either Dundee club being called Tayside derbies, the club has had limited success in cup competitions. After losing at the stage on numerous occasions, the club won their first Scottish Cup in 2014 with a 2–0 win against Dundee United. It has reached two Scottish League Cup Finals, losing them to each of the Old Firm clubs. They have also won the Scottish Second Tier seven times, the Scottish Challenge Cup in 2007, the B Division Supplementary Cup in 1949 and they have qualified for European competitions on six occasions. Their highest league position in the top division was third place on three occasions,1971,1999 and 2013, the club was formed by members of the local cricket team seeking to occupy their time once the cricket season had finished. The cricketers were kicking a football around the South Inch, a public park beside the River Tay during the autumn of 1884. Club members leased a piece of land adjacent to the South Inch, known as the Recreation Grounds, in the 1910–11 Scottish Division Two season, Port Glasgow Athletic F. C. finished next to bottom and declined to apply for re-election. They were replaced for the 1911–12 Scottish Division Two season by St Johnstone, St Johnstone were promoted to the old First Division in 1924–25, by winning the Second Division title, and appointed David Taylor as team manager. They remained in the top flight until 1929–30 when they finished bottom of Division One, Two years later, under new manager Tommy Muirhead, the Saints were runners-up in Division Two to gain their second promotion. They performed well in Division One through the 1930s, reaching the semi-finals of the Scottish Cup in 1933–34, in the final season before World War II, St Johnstone played well under manager David Rutherford to finish eighth. The Scottish Football League suspended competition for the duration of the war, St Johnstone were closed for most of the war and lost their top flight status as a result. The Southern Football League continued through the post-war 1945–46 season but with two divisions to incorporate clubs that were restarting, including St Johnstone, the Saints played in the 1945–46 B Division and finished sixth of fourteen clubs. St Johnstone had lost all the ground gained in the 1930s, jimmy Crapnell became the team manager for the 1947–48 season and was succeeded by Johnny Pattillo for 1953–54
Raith Rovers F.C.
Raith Rovers Football Club is a Scottish professional football club based in the town of Kirkcaldy, Fife. The clubs highest ever league position came in 1922, when it finished third behind champions Celtic, the club also came runners-up in 1949 as well as being losing finalists in the 1913 Scottish Cup Final. As a result of winning the League Cup in 1994, Raith Rovers qualified for the UEFA Cup the following season, the club managed to reach the second round, only to be defeated 4–1 on aggregate to eventual champions FC Bayern Munich. Raiths home ground is Starks Park, an 8,867 all-seater stadium in the south of Kirkcaldy, the club has been based at the ground since 1891. The modern Raith Rovers were founded in 1883 in the Scottish town of Kirkcaldy, there had been a much earlier Raith Rovers which merged with what is now Cowdenbeath in 1882. Although it lends its name to many entities in the region, a Raith Rovers victory in the 1960s led to a famous BBC commentators blunder that the fans would be dancing in the streets of Raith tonight. Although commonly attributed to Englishman David Coleman, this was said by Scotsman Sam Leitch. Raith as an area once stretched from south of Loch Gelly as far as Kirkcaldy, a mixture of local success and ambition took the club into the senior leagues where they established themselves and thereby became the pre-eminent team in the town. The team subsequently moved to their current home of Starks Park named after, after two consecutive successful seasons in 2nd Division, the club elected to join the 1st Division in 1909–10. Three years later, the made their first appearance in the Scottish Cup Final losing 2–0 to Falkirk. In 1921 an innovation in training, previously unknown to the Scottish game, was introduced by directors following a visit to England, the use of a ball in training. As noted in the Fife Free Press, Hitherto, ball practice has been an absentee from the curriculum on the grounds that being away from the ball for a week imparted eagerness on the Saturday. This heralded an era of success, the club had its highest ever league finish in the Scottish top division, when they came third to the Old Firm in 1921–22. This was followed by the incident where the players were shipwrecked in 1923. The team had been en route to play matches on the Canary Islands when the boat ran aground. Fortunately, the players were able to disembark and continue on their way a few days later. The forward line of Glen, Gilmour, Norrie Haywood, Whitelaw, around this time, a then record crowd of 25,500 filled Starks Park on a Wednesday afternoon for a Scottish Cup quarter-final replay against East Fife. East Fife won 3–2 and went on to become the only 2nd Division club to win the Scottish Cup until Hibs matched the feat in 2016
Joshua Dean Josh Windass is an English professional footballer who plays as a midfielder for Scottish Premiership club Rangers. Windass played youth football for Huddersfield Town, spending ten years with the club and he was released in April 2012 and trialled with Bradford City that same month. Windass began his career with non-league team Harrogate Railway Athletic in December 2012. He played on a basis, combining his football career with a job as a construction labourer. He signed a contract with Accrington Stanley in July 2013. He made his debut on 9 November 2013, in the FA Cup. In November 2015 he turned down a new contract from the club on the advice of his father, in January 2016 Accrington announced that Scottish club Rangers had approached Windass and teammate Matt Crooks directly, due to them being in the final six months of their contracts. The duo agreed pre-contracts with Rangers later that month, ahead of the 2016–17 season, Windass joined Rangers on 1 July 2016, signing a four-year contract alongside fellow Accrington player Matt Crooks. Both players had already been training with the prior to completing their transfers after Rangers agreed a compensation fee with Accrington. Windass made his debut for Rangers in a friendly against American side Charleston Battery on 7 July 2016. His official debut was against Motherwell in the Scottish League Cup on 16 July, Windass spent periods of the first half of the 2016–17 season on the sidelines due to a recurring hamstring injury in early August and October. Despite this, Windass was linked with a return to England in December 2016, with EFL Championship sides Derby County, Windass was born in Hull, East Riding of Yorkshire and is the son of former professional Dean Windass. As of 5 April 2017 Josh Windass at Soccerbase
Kilmarnock Football Club, commonly known as Killie, is a Scottish football team based in the town of Kilmarnock, East Ayrshire. Lee McCulloch is the manager of the side, after Lee Clark left in February 2017. The club has won many honours since its formation in 1869, the club is also one of only a few Scottish clubs to have played in all three European competitions. Killie is the oldest football club in the Scottish Premiership, and are also the oldest professional club in the country, home matches are played at Rugby Park, an 17,889 capacity all seater stadium situated in the town itself. Kilmarnock took part in the first ever match in the Scottish Cup against the now defunct Renton in 1873. On 5 January 1869 the club was founded during a meeting at Robertsons Temperance Hotel on Portland Street. Originally they played a more similar to rugby and these origins are reflected to this day by the name of the clubs home ground – Rugby Park. The difficulty in organising fixtures under this code and the influence of Queens Park soon persuaded them to adopt the association code instead. At this time, the club played games in a number locations including Holm Quarry, the Grange on Irvine Road, furthermore, Kilmarnock sent a letter stating their willingness to form the Scottish Football Association. Kilmarnock also competed in the inaugural Scottish Cup tournament in 1873–74 and their 2–0 defeat against Renton in the First Round on 18 October 1873 is thought to have been the first match ever played in the competition. Kilmarnock joined the Scottish League in 1895 and after winning consecutive Second Division titles were elected to the top flight for the first time in 1899, in 1920 Kilmarnock won the Scottish Cup for the first time beating Albion Rovers at Hampden. This was followed soon by their success in 1929 where the beat massive favourites Rangers 2–0 at the national stadium in front of a crowd of 114,708 people. The clubs greatest success was in 1965 under the management of Willie Waddell, on the final day of the season, they travelled to face Hearts at Tynecastle requiring a victory by two goals to nil to win the league at their opponents expense. A memorable 2–0 win saw Kilmarnock crowned Scottish League champions for the first and this capped a period of tremendous consistency which had seen them occupy runners-up spot in four of the previous five seasons. The club is one of only a few Scottish clubs to have played in all three European competitions. Kilmarnock reached the 2007 Scottish League Cup Final, but suffered a 5–1 defeat in the final by Hibernian, after selling Steven Naismith to Rangers for a club-record fee in August 2007, Killie struggled in the 2007–08 Scottish Premier League, finishing in 11th place with 40 points. In January 2010, Kilmarnock were second bottom of the 2009–10 Scottish Premier League, on 11 January 2010, Jim Jefferies left the club by mutual consent and Jimmy Calderwood was appointed manager. Kilmarnock then achieved a first win in nine years against Celtic, continued poor form, however, meant a final day showdown at Rugby Park with Falkirk for SPL survival
Kenneth Kenny Miller is a Scottish professional footballer who plays as a striker for Scottish Premiership club Rangers. Miller is one of only five players to have played for both Rangers and Celtic, and is only the second player to cross the divide twice. He is known as a versatile and pacy striker who is skilled with headers, Miller began his career at Hibernian before moving on to Rangers then to the English side Wolverhampton Wanderers, where he won his first career honour, the 2003 First Division play-off final. After five seasons with Wolverhampton, Miller returned to Scotland, signing for the side of the Old Firm – Celtic. He finished his full season at Celtic with SPL and Scottish Cup winners medals. After one season with Derby County, he returned to Scotland to play for Rangers, Miller won back to back SPL titles, the Scottish Cup and the Scottish League Cup in two full seasons with Rangers. He moved to Turkish club Bursaspor in January 2011, but returned to the UK later that year, after one season with Cardiff, Miller played in Major League Soccer for Vancouver Whitecaps FC. He returned to Rangers in June 2014, Miller was a regular Scotland international player from his debut in 2001 until his retirement in 2013. He often played as a lone striker, scoring 18 goals in 69 appearances. Miller grew up in Musselburgh and got his big break when he signed for local side Hibernian, a loan spell at Stenhousemuir saw Miller score five doubles—10 goals—in 13 league and Scottish Cup games, before he returned to Hibernian to establish himself as a regular player. Highlights of his four years at the club included being the top scorer in season 1999–2000. Miller signed for Rangers at a cost of £2 million on 26 June 2000 and he made his debut in a 4–1 win over FBK Kaunas on 26 July during a Champions League qualifier. His first goal came on 5 August 2000 during a match away to Kilmarnock. Three months later, Miller netted five goals during a 7–1 win against St Mirren, more goals followed against AS Monaco and Aberdeen and helped him to a tally of ten goals from just fourteen games, all coming before the turn of the year. Chances became limited thereafter and, as the season came to a close and this proved to be his final strike that season. Miller had made a total of 38 appearances and scored 11 goals for Rangers, in September 2001, Miller went to Wolverhampton Wanderers on a three-month loan, scoring against Gillingham and Walsall. However, after just five appearances, Miller broke his collarbone in a fall, in December 2001, Wolves secured him on a permanent transfer at a cost of £3 million, on a four-and-a-half-year deal. In 2002–03 Miller found himself back in the Wolves starting 11, however, during the final six months of the season he scored 18 goals in his final 24 appearances of that campaign, including in the play-off final that saw the club win promotion
Olympique de Marseille
Olympique de Marseille or simply Marseille, is a French football club in Marseille. Founded in 1899, the play in Ligue 1 and have spent most of their history in the top tier of French football. Marseille have been French champions ten times and have won the Coupe de France a record ten times, in 1993, coach Raymond Goethals led the team to become the first and only French club to win the UEFA Champions League. In 1994, Marseille were relegated because of a scandal, losing their domestic trophy. In 2010, Marseille became French champions again under the stewardship of club captain Didier Deschamps. Marseilles home ground is the 67, 000-person-capacity Stade Vélodrome in the part of the city. The club has a large fan-base, having regularly averaged the highest all-time attendance in French football, Marseilles average home gate for the 2008–09 season was 52,276, the highest in Ligue 1. The stadium underwent renovation in 2011, going from its previous capacity of 60,031 to 42,000, following completion in August 2014, the final capacity is 67,000 ahead of Frances hosting of UEFA Euro 2016. The club is ranked 16th globally in terms of annual revenue, in 1997, Marseille was purchased by Franco-Swiss businessman Robert Louis-Dreyfus. Following his death in 2009, his widow Margarita became the majority shareholder in 2010. On 29 August 2016, U. S. businessman Frank McCourt announced a deal to buy the club from Margarita Louis-Dreyfus, the deal was completed on 17 October 2016. McCourt appointed businessman Jacques-Henri Eyraud as the president, with Rudi García appointed as the manager of the clubs first team. Olympique de Marseille was founded by René Dufaure de Montmirail, a French sports official, at first, rugby union was the most important team sport of the club, the motto Droit au but coming from rugby. Richer and better organised than other teams of Marseille, Olympique de Marseille, then playing at the Stade de lHuveaune. In 1904, Olympique de Marseille won the first Championnat du Littoral, involving opposing teams from Marseille and its suburbs, at that time, the word football applied to rugby, and people used the word Association for football. During the 1920s, Olympique de Marseille became an important team in France, the team won the French championship in 1929, defeating Club français. The Coupe de France in 1924 was the clubs first major title, won against FC Sète, in the 20s, numerous French internationals, such as Jules Dewaquez, Jean Boyer or Joseph Alcazar, played for Marseille. In 1930, Marseille lost against Sète, which would be the winner, in 1931, the team became champion of the South-East, with victories against rivals such as Sète
Watford Football Club is a professional football club based in Watford, Hertfordshire, England, that plays in the Premier League, the highest level in the English football league system. Founded in 1881 as Watford Rovers, the club entered the FA Cup for the first time in 1886, after finishing the 1914–15 season as Southern League champions under the management of Harry Kent, Watford joined the Football League in 1920. The club played at grounds in its early history, before moving to a permanent location at Vicarage Road in 1922. Watford spent most of the half century in the lower divisions of The Football League, changing colours. England manager Graham Taylors tenure at the club saw Watford scale new heights, between Taylors appointment in 1977 and departure in 1987, Watford rose from the Fourth Division to the First Division. The team finished second in the First Division in the 1982–83 season, competed in the UEFA Cup in 1983–84, the club experienced a further one season stint in the top division of English football during the 2006–07 season, under Aidy Boothroyds management. After eight years, Watford are again competing in the Premier League 2015–16 season, Watford is currently owned by the Pozzo family, which also owns Udinese Calcio in Italy and previously Granada CF in Spain. Watford Rovers was formed in 1881 by Henry Groverand, who went on to play for the club as a full-back, Rovers, originally composed entirely of amateur players, held home games at several locations in the town of Watford. The team first competed in the FA Cup in the 1886–87 season, the team became the football section of West Hertfordshire Sports Club in 1890, and consequently moved to a ground on Cassio Road. Renamed as West Hertfordshire in 1893, Rovers joined the Southern Football League in 1896, West Hertfordshire merged with local rivals Watford St. Marys in 1898, the merged team was named Watford Football Club. Following relegation to the Southern League Second Division in 1903, Watford appointed its first manager – former England international and he led Watford to promotion, and kept the team in the division until his departure in 1910. Despite financial constraints, Watford won the Southern League title in the 1914–15 season under his successor, there was a re-election system in place which meant the bottom two teams in each of the two divisions had to apply for re-election to the league. Watford finished outside the top six positions in every season between 1922 and 1934. The Football League was suspended in 1939 due to the Second World War, Football resumed in 1946, with Watford still in the Third Division South. Ron Burgess replaced McBain during that season, and in the following campaign Burgess presided over Watfords first Football League promotion and this team included Fourth Division top scorer Cliff Holton, who scored a club record 42 league goals in the season. Holton was sold to Northampton the following year after another 34 goals, eighteen-year-old Northern Irish goalkeeper Pat Jennings also featured under McGarry, and made his international debut despite being a Third Division player. Furphys rebuilding came to fruition in 1969 with the signing of Barry Endean, Watford secured the Third Division title in April, at home to Plymouth Argyle. A year later Watford reached the FA Cup semi-final for the first time, defeating First Division teams Stoke City, hampered by a lack of funds, however, Furphy eventually joined Blackburn Rovers, to be succeeded by George Kirby
London Colney is a village and civil parish in Hertfordshire, England. It is located to the north of London, close to Junction 22 of the M25 motorway and it is near St Albans and part of the St Albans District. At the time of the 2001 census the population of London Colney ward was 7,742 and it is considered a satellite or dormitory village of St Albans, where some villagers travel to work and shop. The civil parish was formed in 1947 from part of St Peter Rural, London Colney Primary School was initially due to open on September 4,1939. It was then closed on the day, as war was declared. It opened properly a day later, in the early morning of 12 May 1941, a German spy, Karel Richter, descended by parachute near London Colney. Richter buried his equipment and hid for a couple of days, driven out by hunger, Richter was approached by two lorry drivers who asked him the way to London. Suspicious of Richters non-committal reply and foreignness, the drivers then approached Constable Alec Scott. Scott found Richter who asked to be taken to a hospital as he was feeling unwell, Scott called his superiors who quickly sent a car to pick up Richter and take him to jail. The village was on the boundary of the 1860s London Coal Tax area, Colney Fields shopping park is located there. The village has several estate agents, a showroom, a tattooist, several takeaways, hairdressers, supermarkets, one incorporating a post office, a tanning salon. There is also a park, Colney Fields, which contains a Sainsburys, Marks & Spencers, Next, Boots, Monsoon. There are several doctors practices and a library, associated with the village there are walks, nature reserves and ponds. The Mosquito Aircraft Museum, now known as the de Havilland Aircraft Museum, London Colney has a great selection of open-water fishing in the River Colne and associated lakes. The High Street crosses the River Colne at the multi-arched brick-built Telfords Bridge, the original fording point can still be seen on the Western side of the bridge, with the Bull and Green Dragon pubs conveniently situated on opposite sides of the ford. Nearby flooded gravel pits form a reserve for wild birds. The A6 used to pass through the village, the bypass was built in 1959, to join with the A414 at the north end of the village. The A6 became the A1081 in 1986, with the M25 erasing the original South Mimms Bypass, the actor Philip Madoc lived in the village for a number of years
Stefano Chuka Okaka is an Italian footballer who plays as a striker for Premier League club Watford and the Italy national team. Born in Castiglione del Lago, Umbria, Italy to Nigerian parents who later obtained Italian citizenship and he was part of the team that won the U-20 national title in 2005 and scored goals against Juventus in the semi-final and Atalanta in the final. On 29 September 2005, he made his debut with the first team in the UEFA Cup and he thus became the youngest footballer to debut in an international competition for an Italian team. He made his Serie A debut with the later that month, on 18 December 2005, at the age of 16 years and 125 days. He also made his debut in the UEFA Champions League later that month, in a 2–1 away loss to Valencia and he was subsequently loaned to Serie B side Modena for the 2007–08 season in order to gain some first team experience. Okaka had a good season at Modena, scoring seven times in 33 appearances. After returning to Roma, he signed a new contract which lasted until 30 June 2012, as a part of it, he earned a gross annual salary of €0. 6M in the first two seasons, which then increased to €0. 7M and €0. 9M. He also spent a loan period at Brescia in Serie B from January to June 2009. He scored again in the Europa League in Romas 2–0 win over CSKA Sofia and his last goal with Roma was an 88th-minute winner against Siena. On 1 February 2010, he joined Fulham on loan until the end of the season and he made his debut for Fulham in the 1–0 win over Portsmouth on 3 February 2010. He scored his first goal for the club on 14 February 2010 in a 5th round FA Cup tie at home to Notts County and he scored his first league goal for the club against Wigan Athletic on 4 April 2010. He was cup-tied for Fulhams run to the 2010 UEFA Europa League Final, in January 2011 he moved to Bari on loan. There, he scored his first goal against Lecce for 1–0 win, in this game he and Kamil Glik marking their debuts for Bari. He scored one goal for Bari that season. Okaka sustained an injury in round 30 and missed the rest of the season, in August 2011, Okaka was attacked by Roma fans after a training session for allegedly not wishing to sign autographs. After failing to make an appearance for Roma in the first half of the season, on 22 January 2012. He scored his first Parma goal on 7 March 2012, the opener in a 2–2 against Fiorentina and he netted his second goal on 21 April from the spot against Cesena. He scored his third against Palermo four days later, having returned to Roma at the end of the season Okaka signed a permanent deal with Parma on 20 August
Sheffield Wednesday F.C.
Sheffield Wednesday Football Club is a professional association football club based in Sheffield, England. The team competes in the Championship, the tier of the English football league system. Formed as an offshoot of The Wednesday Cricket Club in 1867, in 1868 they won the Cromwell Cup, only the second tournament of its kind, and in 1877 they won the inaugural Sheffield Challenge Cup, the oldest county cup in England. They were founding members and inaugural champions of the Football Alliance in 1889, in 1992 they became founder members of the Premier League. The club has spent most of its history in English footballs top flight. The Owls, as they are nicknamed, have won four league titles, Wednesday have also competed in UEFA cup competitions on four occasions, reaching the quarter-finals of the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup in 1963. Since 1899 the club has played its matches at Hillsborough stadium. Although no contemporary evidence has found to support the claim. Nevertheless, an 1842 article in Bells Life magazine states the club was founded as far back as 1816, the club was so named because it was on Wednesdays that the founding members had their day off work. They were initially based at the New Ground in Darnall, and often went by the name of Darnall Wednesday, in 1855 they were one of six clubs that helped build Bramall Lane, and held a wicket there for many years. The proposal proved very popular, with over 60 members signing up for the new team on the first night and they played their first match against The Mechanics on 19 October the same year, winning by three goals and four rouges to nil. On 1 February 1868, Wednesday played their first competitive match as they entered the Cromwell Cup. A week after their semi-final, they went on to win the cup, beating the Garrick club in the final after extra time, a key figure during the formative years of the football club was Charles Clegg, who joined the Wednesday in 1867. His relationship with the club lasted for the rest of his life and he also became president and chairman of the Football Association, and was known as the Napoleon of Football. In 1876 Wednesday acquired Scot James Lang, although he was not employed by the club, he was given a job by a member of the Sheffield Wednesday board that had no formal duties. He is now acknowledged as the first professional player in England. With Lang in their team the club became one of the strongest in the region. In 1880 the club entered the FA Cup for the first time, but although they had had Lang on their books a decade earlier, the club officially remained staunchly amateur, and this stance almost cost the club its very existence