Brazil national football team
The Brazil national football team represents Brazil in international men's association football. Brazil is administered by the Brazilian Football Confederation, the governing body for football in Brazil, they have been a member of FIFA since 1923 and member of CONMEBOL since 1916. Brazil is the most successful national team in the FIFA World Cup, the main football international competition, being crowned winner five times: 1958, 1962, 1970, 1994 and 2002. Brazil has the best overall performance in the World Cup, both in proportional and absolute terms, with a record of 73 victories in 109 matches played, 124 goal difference, 237 points, 18 losses. Brazil is the only national team to have played in all World Cup editions without any absence nor need for playoffs; the seleção is the most successful national team in the FIFA Confederations Cup with four titles: 1997, 2005, 2009 and 2013. In relation to ranking standings Brazil fare well, having the all-time highest average football Elo Rating, the fourth all-time highest football Elo Rating established in 1962.
In FIFA's own ranking, Brazil holds the record for most Team of the Year wins with 12. Many commentators and former players have considered the Brazil team of 1970 to be the greatest football team ever. Other Brazilian teams are highly estimated and appear listed among the best teams of all time, such as the Brazil teams of 1958–62, with honorary mentions for the gifted 1982 side. Brazil is the only national team to have won the World Cup on four different continents: once in Europe, once in South America, twice in North America and once in Asia, they share with France and Argentina the feat to have won the three most important men's football titles recognized by FIFA: the World Cup, the Confederations Cup, the Olympic tournament. They share with Spain a record of 35 consecutive matches undefeated. Brazil has notable rivalries with Argentina—known as the Superclássico das Américas in Portuguese—and Italy—known as the Clásico Mundial in Spanish or the World Derby in English. Brazil has produced players considered as the best of the world at their time and among the best in history, such are the cases of Pelé, Zico, Romário, Roberto Carlos, Rivaldo, Kaká and Neymar.
A common quip about football is: "Os ingleses o inventaram, os brasileiros o aperfeiçoaram". It is believed that the first game of the Brazilian national football team was a 1914 match between a Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo select team and the English club Exeter City, held in Fluminense's stadium. Brazil won 2–0 with goals by Oswaldo Gomes and Osman, though it is claimed that the match was a 3–3 draw. In contrast to its future success, the national team's early appearances were not brilliant. Other early matches played during that time include several friendly games against Argentina and Uruguay. However, led by the goalscoring abilities of Arthur Friedenreich, they were victorious at home in the South American Championships in 1919, repeating their victory at home, in 1922. In 1930, Brazil played in the first World Cup, held in Uruguay in 1930; the squad lost to Yugoslavia, being eliminated from the competition. They lost in the first round to Spain in 1934 in Italy, but reached the semi-finals in France in 1938, being defeated 2-1 by eventual winners Italy.
Brazil were the only South American team to participate in this competition. The 1949 South American Championship held in Brazil ended a 27-year streak without official titles; the last one had been in the 1922 South American Championship played on Brazilian soil. After that, Brazil first achieved international prominence; the team went into the last game of the final round, against Uruguay at Estádio do Maracanã in Rio, needing only a draw to win the World Cup. Uruguay, won the match and the Cup in a game known as "the Maracanazo"; the match led to a period of national mourning. For the 1954 World Cup in Switzerland, the Brazilian team was almost renovated, with the team colours changed from all white to the yellow and green of the national flag, to forget the Maracanazo, but still had a group of star players. Brazil reached the quarter-final, where they were beaten 4–2 by tournament favourites Hungary in one of the ugliest matches in football history, known as the Battle of Berne. For the 1958 World Cup, Brazil were drawn in a group with the USSR and Austria.
They beat Austria 3–0 in their first match drew 0–0 with England. Before the match, coach Vicente Feola made three substitutions that were crucial for Brazil to defeat the Soviets: Zito and Pelé. From the kick-off, they kept up the pressure relentlessly, after three minutes, which were described as "the greatest three minutes in the history of football", Vavá gave Brazil the lead, they won the match by 2–0. Pelé scored the only goal of their quarter-final match against Wales, they beat France 5–2 in the semi-final. Brazil beat Sweden 5–2 in the final, winning their first World Cup and becoming the first nation to win a World Cup title outside of its own continent. Pelé described it tearfully as a nation coming of age. In the 1962 World Cup, Brazil earned its second title with Garrincha as the star player, a mantle and responsibility laid upon him after the regular talisman, Pelé, was injured during the second group match against Czechoslovakia and unable to play for the rest of t
An exhibition game is a sporting event whose prize money and impact on the player's or the team's rankings is either zero or otherwise reduced. In team sports, matches of this type are used to help coaches and managers select and condition players for the competitive matches of a league season or tournament. If the players play in different teams in other leagues, exhibition games offer an opportunity for the players to learn to work with each other; the games can be held between parts of the same team. An exhibition game may be used to settle a challenge, to provide professional entertainment, to promote the sport, to commemorate an anniversary or a famous player, or to raise money for charities. Several sports leagues hold all-star games to showcase their best players against each other, while other exhibitions games may pit participants from two different leagues or countries to unofficially determine who would be the best in the world. International competitions like the Olympic Games may hold exhibition games as part of a demonstration sport.
In the early days of football, friendlies were the most common type of match. However, since the development of The Football League in England in 1888, league tournaments became established, in addition to lengthy derby and cup tournaments. By the year 2000, national leagues were established in every country throughout the world, as well as local or regional leagues for lower level teams. Since the introduction of league football, most club sides play a number of friendlies before the start of each season. Friendly football matches are considered to be non-competitive and are only used to "warm up" players for a new season/competitive match. There is nothing competitive at stake and some rules may be changed or experimented with; such games take place between a large club and small clubs that play nearby, such as those between Newcastle United and Gateshead. Although most friendlies are one-off matches arranged by the clubs themselves, in which a certain amount is paid by the challenger club to the incumbent club, some teams do compete in short tournaments, such as the Community Shield, Emirates Cup, Teresa Herrera Trophy, International Champions Cup and the Amsterdam Tournament.
Although these events may involve sponsorship deals and the awarding of a trophy and may be broadcast on television, there is little prestige attached to them. International teams play friendlies in preparation for the qualifying or final stages of major tournaments; this is essential, since national squads have much less time together in which to prepare. The biggest difference between friendlies at the club and international levels is that international friendlies take place during club league seasons, not between them; this has on occasion led to disagreement between national associations and clubs as to the availability of players, who could become injured or fatigued in a friendly. International friendlies give team managers the opportunity to experiment with team selection and tactics before the tournament proper, allow them to assess the abilities of players they may select for the tournament squad. Players can be booked in international friendlies, can be suspended from future international matches based on red cards or accumulated yellows in a specified period.
Caps and goals scored count towards a player's career records. In 2004, FIFA ruled that substitutions by a team be limited to six per match in international friendlies in response to criticism that such matches were becoming farcical with managers making as many as 11 substitutions per match. Matches in multinational football tournaments such as the King's Cup, the Kirin Cup, the China Cup are considered international friendlies by FIFA. In the UK and Ireland, "exhibition match" and "friendly match" refer to two different types of games; the types described above as friendlies are not termed exhibition matches, while annual all-star matches such as those held in the US Major League Soccer or Japan's Japanese League are called exhibition matches rather than friendly matches. A one-off match for charitable fundraising involving one or two all-star teams, or a match held in honor of a player for contribution to his/her club, may be described as exhibition matches but they are referred to as charity matches and testimonial matches respectively.
A bounce game is a non-competitive football match played between two sides as part of a training exercise or to give players match practice. Managers may use bounce games as an opportunity to observe a player in action before offering a contract; these games are played on a training ground rather than in a stadium with no spectators in attendance. Exhibition fights were once common in boxing. Jack Dempsey fought many exhibition bouts after retiring. Joe Louis fought a charity fight on his rematch with Buddy Baer, but this was not considered an exhibition as it was for Louis' world Heavyweight title. Muhammad Ali fought many exhibitions, including one with Lyle Alzado. In more modern times, Mike Tyson, Julio Cesar Chavez Sr. Jorge Castro, Óscar de la Hoya and Floyd Mayweather Jr. have been involved in exhibition fights. Although not fought for profit, amateur bouts and sparring sessions are not considered to be exhibition fights. Prior to the
Away colours are a choice of coloured clothing used in team sports. They are required to be worn by one team during a game between teams that would otherwise wear the same colours as each other, or similar colours; this change prevents confusion for officials and spectators. In most sports, it is the visiting or road team that must change – second-choice kits are known as away kits or change kits in British English, road uniforms in American English; some sports leagues mandate that away teams must always wear an alternative kit, while others state that the two teams' colours should not match. In some sports, conventionally the home team has changed its kit. In most cases, a team wears its away kit only when its primary kit would clash with the colours of the home team. However, sometimes teams wear away colours by choice even in a home game. At some clubs, the away kit has become more popular than the home version. Replica home and away kits are available for fans to buy; some teams have produced third-choice kits, or old-fashioned throwback uniforms.
In North American sports, road teams wear a change uniform regardless of a potential colour clash. "Color vs. color" games are a rarity, having been discouraged in the era of black-and-white television. All road uniforms are white in gridiron football and the National Hockey League, while in baseball, visitors wear grey. In the National Basketball Association and NCAA basketball, home uniforms are white or yellow, visiting teams wear the darker colour. Most teams choose to wear their colour jerseys at home, with the road team changing to white in most cases. White road uniforms gained prominence with the rise of television in the 1950s. A "white vs. color" game was easier to follow in black-and-white. According to Phil Hecken, "until the mid 1950′s, not only was color versus color common in the NFL, it was the norm." Long after the advent of colour television, the use of white jerseys has remained in every game. The NFL's current rules require that a team's home jerseys must be "either white or official team color" throughout the season, "and visiting clubs must wear the opposite".
If a team insists on wearing its home uniforms on the road, the NFL Commissioner must judge on whether their uniforms are "of sufficient contrast" with those of their opponents. The road team might instead wear a third jersey, such as the Seattle Seahawks' "Wolf Grey" alternate. According to the Gridiron Uniform Database, the Cleveland Browns wore white for every home game of the 1955 season; the only times they wore brown was for games at Philadelphia and the New York Giants, when the Eagles and Giants chose to wear white. In 1964 the Baltimore Colts, Cleveland Browns, Minnesota Vikings and Los Angeles Rams wore white for their home games according to Tim Brulia's research; the St. Louis Cardinals wore white for several of their home games, as well as the Dallas Cowboys; until 1964 Dallas had worn blue at home, but it was not an official rule that teams should wear their coloured jerseys at home. The use of white jerseys was introduced by general manager Tex Schramm, who wanted fans to see a variety of opponents' jersey colours at home games.
The Cowboys still wear white at home today. White has been worn at home by the Miami Dolphins, Washington Redskins, Philadelphia Eagles, several other NFL teams. Teams in cities with hot climates choose white jerseys at home during the first half of the season, because light colours absorb and retain less heat in sunlight – as such, the Dolphins, who stay white year-round, will use their coloured jerseys for home night games; every current NFL team except the Seattle Seahawks has worn white at home at some time in its history. During the successful Joe Gibbs era, the Washington Redskins chose to wear white at home in the 1980s and 1990s, including the 1982 NFC Championship Game against Dallas. Since 2001 the Redskins have chosen to wear white jerseys and burgundy jerseys equally in their home games, but they still wear white against the Cowboys; when Gibbs returned from 2004 to 2007, they wore white at home exclusively. In 2007, they wore a white throwback jersey; the Dallas Cowboys' blue jersey has been popularly viewed to be "jinxed" because of defeats at Super Bowl V in 1971, in the 1968 divisional playoffs at Cleveland, Don Meredith's final game as a Cowboys player.
Dallas's only victory in a conference championship or Super Bowl wearing the blue jerseys was in the 1978 NFC Championship game at the Los Angeles Rams. Super Bowl rules changed to allow the designated home team to pick their choice of jersey. White was chosen by the Cowboys, the Redskins, the Pittsburgh Steelers, the Denver Broncos, the New England Patriots; the latter three teams wear colours at home, but Pittsburgh had worn white in three road playoff wins, while Denver cited its previous Super Bowl success in white jerseys, while being 0–4 when wearing orange in Super Bowls. Teams playing against Dallas at home wear their white jerseys to try to invoke the "curse", as when the Philadelphia Eagles hosted the Cowboys in the 1980 NFC Championship Game. Teams including the St. Louis Cardinals and New York Giants followed suit in the 1980s, the Carolina Panthers did so from 1995 until 2006, including two playoff games; the Hous
Iraq national football team
The Iraq national football team represents Iraq in international football. The team is known by its fans as Asood Al-Rafidain, which means Lions of Mesopotamia, is controlled by the Iraq Football Association, a member of the Asian Football Confederation as well as the West Asian Football Federation, the Union of Arab Football Associations and the Arab Gulf Cup Football Federation. Iraq are one of eight current AFC members to have won the continent's most coveted trophy, the AFC Asian Cup, having done so in 2007 when they beat Saudi Arabia 1–0 in the final; the triumph has been described as one of football's greatest fairytale victories, with the team managing to eliminate competitors with far greater preparation and resources on their way to the title, bringing joy and unity to the people of their war-torn nation. Iraq achieved success at the Asian Games when it was a senior competition, winning the gold medal in 1982 by defeating rivals Kuwait 1–0 in the decisive match; the team has been awarded the AFC National Team of the Year award twice.
From 1964 to 1988, Iraq achieved multiple honours on the Arab stage, winning three Arabian Gulf Cup titles, four Arab Nations Cup titles and the gold medal at the Pan Arab Games. They added West Asian honours to their cabinet in the 2000s, defeating Jordan 3–2 after extra time to win the 2002 WAFF Championship and beating Syria in a penalty shootout to claim gold at the 2005 West Asian Games. Iraq have participated in the FIFA World Cup once and in the FIFA Confederations Cup once, being eliminated in the group stage both times, they reached as far as the quarter-finals in the Olympic Games when it was a senior tournament, with the under-23 team going further in years. The team has been ranked as high as 39th in the FIFA World Rankings, which they achieved in October 2004; as early as 1923, an Iraqi team known as Baghdad XI, controlled by the Baghdad Football Association, started to play matches against British Army teams. The Baghdad FA soon disbanded and it was not until 8 October 1948 that the Iraq Football Association was founded.
The Iraq FA joined FIFA in 1950 and on 2 May 1951, Iraq played their first match: a 1–1 draw to a team named Basra XI. Iraq's first official international game came in the opening game of the 1957 Pan Arab Games in Beirut where Iraq drew 3–3 to Morocco with goals from Ammo Baba, Youra Eshaya and Fakhri Mohammed Salman. Iraq were knocked out in the group stage of that tournament. One of the members of Iraq’s first national team was Youra Eshaya, who in 1954 became the first Iraqi footballer to play abroad and in Europe for English Football League side Bristol Rovers, he spent 18 months playing for the 3rd team, known as the Colts and the reserve team before returning to Iraq in late 1955. In 1962, Iraq appointed Romanian coach Cornel Drăgușin. Iraq won their first trophy in 1964 when they hosted and won the Arab Nations Cup, winning three and drawing one of their four games; the next year, they participated in the Pan Arab Games for the second time, but were once again knocked out in the group stage.
The following year, they lost the final of the 1966 Tripoli Fair Tournament to Morocco, but retained their Arab Nations Cup title that year, beating Syria 2–1 in the final. In 1967, Iraq claimed the Tripoli Fair Tournament title with two wins and one draw, two years they finished fifth at the Jaam-e-Doosti Cup, hosted in Iran. In 1972, Iraq hosted, reached the final of, the Palestine Cup of Nations, losing the decisive match to Egypt; that year, Iraq played at their first AFC Asian Cup but failed to win a game in the tournament. In March 1973, Iraq played their first FIFA World Cup qualifying campaign, they finished second in their group, a point behind Australia, therefore failing to qualify for the next round. In the remaining years of the 1970s, Iraq reached the second round of the Asian Games, lost the Palestine Cup of Nations final, lost the Arabian Gulf Cup final, finished fourth at the AFC Asian Cup, lost two consecutive Merdeka Tournament finals, finished fourth in the Asian Games and hosted and won the Arabian Gulf Cup.
The 1976 Asian Cup would be the last Asian Cup that Iraq appeared in for the next 20 years, as they withdrew from the next four editions. The 1980s was arguably Iraq's most successful period in their history, they started the decade off disappointingly, being knocked out in the first round of qualifiers for the 1982 FIFA World Cup. In 1981, they won the Merdeka Tournament for the first time, followed that up by winning the gold medal at the 1982 Asian Games, meanwhile the reserve team finished third at the 1983 Marah Halim Cup. In 1984, Iraq won both the Arabian Gulf Cup and the Merlion Cup, the following year they finished fourth at the 1985 President's Cup Football Tournament, won the 1985 Arab Nations Cup and won the gold medal at the 1985 Pan Arab Games. After all this success, Iraq topped it off by qualifying for the 1986 FIFA World Cup with a win over Syria; this was the last time to date that Iraq have achieved this. Having finished in a lowly sixth place at the 1986 Arabian Gulf Cup, Iraq were unfancied in the 1986 FIFA World Cup.
Iraq's only goal in the tournament was scored by Ahmed Radhi, the second-highest goalscorer in Iraq's history with 62 goals, behind Hussein Saeed who scor
Saudi Arabia national football team
The Saudi Arabia national football team represents Saudi Arabia in international football. The team's colours are white. Saudi Arabia are known as Al-Akhdhar. Considered one of Asia's most successful national teams, Saudi Arabia have won the Asian Cup three times, reached a joint record six Asian Cup finals and have qualified for the World Cup on five occasions since debuting at the 1994 tournament. In the 1994 World Cup under the leadership of Jorge Solari, Saudi Arabia beat both Belgium and Morocco in the group stage before falling to Sweden in the Round of 16, thus Saudi Arabia became the second Arab national football team in history to reach the Round of 16 in a World Cup, after Morocco's Round of 16 elimination in the 1986 FIFA World Cup, one of the few Asian national football teams to accomplish such a feat to date. Though their football federation was established in 1956, the Saudi Arabia national team did not participate in a tournament until they qualified for the AFC Asian Cup in 1984, which they won.
They subsequently became one of Asia's most successful national teams, reaching the next four consecutive Asian Cup finals and winning two of them. They have qualified for every Asian Cup since, but their best performance in that period was reaching the final in 2007. Saudi Arabia qualified for their first FIFA World Cup in 1994. Under the leadership of Jorge Solari and with talents like Saeed Al-Owairan and Sami Al-Jaber, reinforced by national veteran Majed Abdullah as team captain, Saudi Arabia beat both Belgium and Morocco in the group stage before falling to Sweden in the Round of 16. Saudi Arabia qualified for the next three World Cups, but did not win a group stage match in any of them, they failed to qualify for the 2014 tournaments. Saudi Arabia secured qualification for the 2018 tournament, ahead of Australia. However, they started on a sour note by letting host Russia rout them 0–5 on the opening match, making this the second largest victory of any host nation at the FIFA World Cup.
The record of the host's largest opening victory is still by Italy, beating the United States 7–1, in 1934. Once again, Saudi Arabia failed to reach the next round, after suffering another defeat, this time, losing 0–1 to Uruguay. Saudi Arabia's performance in the tournament was deemed to be their worst performance since 2002 World Cup, where they were beaten 8-0 by Germany in their opening game and finished 32nd and bottom in the final rankings. Although they were eliminated, they managed to salvage some pride by winning their final group stage match against Red Sea neighbours Egypt. FIFA Confederations Cup:Runner-up: 1992 Fourth Place: 1999 AFC Asian Cup:Winner: 1984, 1988, 1996 Runner-up: 1992, 2000, 2007Asian GamesSilver Medalists: 1986 Bronze Medalists: 1982 Arabian Gulf Cup:Winner: 1994, 2002, 2003 Runner-up: 1972, 1974, 1998, 2009, 2010, 2014 Third Place: 1970, 1979, 1984, 1986, 1988, 1992, 1996Arab Nations Cup:Winner: 1998, 2002 Runner-up: 1992 Third Place: 1985Pan Arab GamesSilver Medalists: 1976 Bronze Medalists: 2007 Afro-Asian Cup of Nations:Runner-up: 1985, 19972005 Islamic Solidarity GamesGold Medalists: 2005 The Saudi Arabia national football team's first kit are traditionally white and the second kit are green.
*Denotes draws includes knockout matches decided on penalty shootouts. Red border indicates. Gold, bronze backgrounds indicate 1st, 2nd and 3rd finishes respectively. Bold text indicates best finish in tournament; the following table shows Saudi Arabia's all-time international record, correct as of 25 June 2018. Http://www.worldfootball.net/teams/saudi-arabien-team/21/ https://www.fifa.com/live-scores/teams/country=ksa/Men/matches/index.html#yearnull The following 24 players were called up for two friendly matches against United Arab Emirates and Equatorial Guinea on 21 and 25 March 2019 respectively.: Match date: 21 & 25 March 2019 Opposition: United Arab Emirates & Equatorial Guinea Caps and goals are correct as of 25 March 2019, after the match against Equatorial Guinea. Caps and goals including all matches recognized by SAFF; the following players have been called up to the Saudi Arabia squad within the last 12 months. Updated 30 January 2019; as of 20 November 2018 Saudi Arabia FA official website FIFA profile Saudi Arabia national football team website Saudi Arabia in fifaworldcup.com
Tehran is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 8.7 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran is the most populous city in Iran and Western Asia, has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East. It is ranked 24th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area. In the Classical era, part of the territory of present-day Tehran was occupied by Rhages, a prominent Median city, it was subject to destruction through the medieval Arab and Mongol invasions. Its modern-day inheritor remains as an urban area absorbed into the metropolitan area of Greater Tehran. Tehran was first chosen as the capital of Iran by Agha Mohammad Khan of the Qajar dynasty in 1796, in order to remain within close reach of Iran's territories in the Caucasus, before being separated from Iran as a result of the Russo-Iranian Wars, to avoid the vying factions of the ruling Iranian dynasties; the capital has been moved several times throughout the history, Tehran is the 32nd national capital of Iran.
Large scale demolition and rebuilding began in the 1920s, Tehran has been a destination for mass migrations from all over Iran since the 20th century. Tehran is home to many historical collections, including the royal complexes of Golestan, Sa'dabad, Niavaran, where the two last dynasties of the former Imperial State of Iran were seated. Tehran's most famous landmarks include the Azadi Tower, a memorial built under the reign of Mohammad Reza Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1971 to mark the 2,500th year of the foundation of the Imperial State of Iran, the Milad Tower, the world's sixth-tallest self-supporting tower, completed in 2007; the Tabiat Bridge, a newly-built landmark, was completed in 2014. The majority of the population of Tehran are Persian-speaking people, 99% of the population understand and speak Persian, but there are large populations of other ethno-linguistic groups who live in Tehran and speak Persian as a second language. Tehran has an international airport, a domestic airport, a central railway station, the rapid transit system of Tehran Metro, a bus rapid transit system, a large network of highways.
There have been plans to relocate Iran's capital from Tehran to another area, due to air pollution and the city's exposure to earthquakes. To date, no definitive plans have been approved. A 2016 survey of 230 cities by consultant Mercer ranked Tehran 203rd for quality of life. According to the Global Destinations Cities Index in 2016, Tehran is among the top ten fastest growing destinations. October 6 is marked as Tehran Day based on a 2016 decision by members of the City Council, celebrating the day when the city was chosen as the capital of Iran by the Qajar dynasty back in 1907; the origin of the name Tehran is uncertain. Prior to Tehran being the capital of Iran Isfahan was the capital. Isfahan has a significant Armenian Population; the settlement of Tehran dates back over 7,000 years. Tehran is situated within the historical region of Media in northwestern Iran. By the time of the Median Empire, a part of the territory of present-day Tehran was a suburb of the prominent Median city of Rhages.
In the Avesta's Videvdat, Rhages is mentioned as the 12th sacred place created by Ohrmazd. In Old Persian inscriptions, Rhages appears as a province. From Rhages, Darius I sent reinforcements to his father Hystaspes, putting down the rebellion in Parthia. In some Middle Persian texts, Rhages is given as the birthplace of Zoroaster, although modern historians place the birth of Zoroaster in Khorasan. Rhages's modern-day inheritor, Ray, is a city located towards the southern end of Tehran, absorbed into the metropolitan area of Greater Tehran. Mount Damavand, the highest peak of Iran, located near Tehran, is an important location in Ferdowsi's Šāhnāme, the Iranian epic poem, based on the ancient legends of Iran, it appears in the epics as the homeland of the protoplast Keyumars, the birthplace of king Manuchehr, the place where king Freydun binds the dragon fiend Aždahāk, the place where Arash shot his arrow from. During the reign of the Sassanian Empire, in 641, Yazdgerd III issued his last appeal to the nation from Rhages, before fleeing to Khorasan.
Rhages was dominated by the Parthian Mehran family, Siyavakhsh—the son of Mehran the son of Bahram Chobin—who resisted the 7th-century Muslim invasion of Iran. Because of this resistance, when the Arabs captured Rhages, they ordered the town to be destroyed and rebuilt anew by traitor aristocrat Farrukhzad. In the 9th century, Tehran was a well-known village, but less known than the city of Rhages, flourishing nearby. Rhages was described in detail by 10th-century Muslim geographers. Despite the interest that Arabian Baghdad displayed in Rhages, the number of Arabs in the city remained insignificant and the population consisted of Iranians of all classes; the Oghuz Turks invaded Rhages discretely in 1035 and 1042, but the city was recovered under the reigns of the Seljuks and the Khwarezmians. Medieval writer Najm od Din Razi declared the population of Rhages about 500,000 before the Mongol invasion. In the 13th century, the Mongols invaded Rhages, laid the city in ruins, massacred many of its inhabitants.
Following the invasion, many of the city's inhabitants escaped to Tehran. In July 1404, Castilian ambassador Ruy González de Clavijo visited Tehran while on a journey to Samarkand, the capital of Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur, who ruled Iran at the time. In his diary, Tehran was described as an unwalled region. Ital
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a