2017 Czech legislative election

Legislative elections were held in the Czech Republic on 20 and 21 October 2017. All 200 members of the Chamber of Deputies were elected and the leader of the resultant government – Andrej Babiš of ANO 2011, became the Prime Minister; the coalition government following the 2013 election consisted of the two largest parties: the Social Democratic Party of Prime Minister Bohuslav Sobotka, ANO 2011, led by former Finance Minister and businessman Andrej Babiš, alongside the Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People's Party. The largest opposition party was the Communist Party, followed by centre-right parties TOP 09 and the Civic Democratic Party. Opinion polling showed ANO leading since early 2014, with their lead increasing to double digits; the Social Democrats had been losing ground since early 2017, polling in the low double figures from May 2017. Polls indicated that several other parties, including the Communist Party, the Civic Democrats, KDU-ČSL and TOP 09, were to re-enter the Chamber of Deputies, with support fluctuating between 5% and 12%.

Across all parties, 7,524 candidates stood for election. There were 37 candidates per seat; the result was a victory for populist party ANO 2011, which received 29.6 % of 78 seats. The centre-right Civic Democratic Party was the second strongest party, receiving 11.3% and 25 seats. The ruling Social Democrats fell to 7 %; the Czech Pirate Party and Freedom and Direct Democracy both received over 10% and became new parliamentary parties. Nine parties entered the lower chamber, resulting in the most fragmented Chamber of Deputies in the history of the Czech Republic; this was the first time that neither ODS nor ČSSD won the legislative election. After eight months of negotiations, ANO and ČSSD agreed to form a minority coalition government, with confidence and supply from the Communist Party; this is the first time the Communist Party will participate in national politics since the communist regime ended in 1989. The Constitution of the Czech Republic states that every four years an election to the Chamber of Deputies, the lower house of the Parliament, must be held.

The Government is responsible to the Chamber of Deputies and stays in power only if has the confidence of the majority of members of parliament. Article 19 of the Constitution provides that any citizen of the Czech Republic who has right to vote and is twenty-one years old is eligible to serve as an MP; the Social Democrats, the largest party following the 2013 elections, formed a centre-left Coalition government with ANO and KDU–ČSL. The Social Democrats were represented by eight ministers in the Government, with its leader, Bohuslav Sobotka, as Prime Minister. ANO, the runner-up in the election, was represented by six of its members in the Government, led by businessman Andrej Babiš, promoted to the role of the First Deputy Prime Minister and served as Finance Minister; the smallest party in the coalition, the Christian Democrats, were represented by three ministers, their leader Pavel Bělobrádek held the position of Deputy Prime Minister. The biggest opposition party in the Chamber of Deputies was the Communist Party.

The centre-right opposition to the government was represented by the Civic Democrats. In 2014, voters elected 29 out of 81 Senators and 62,300 members of local councils; the Social Democrats won the Senate election but lost many bigger cities, including the capital Prague, to its coalition partner, ANO. In October 2016, voters elected 675 members of regional assemblies in 13 regions of the nation which elected their regional leadership. ANO won the election with 21.05%, while the Social Democrats only managed to win two regions – South Bohemia and Vysočina – and 15.25% nationwide. The Communists suffered the biggest loss, losing 96 seats in the assemblies; the centre-right ODS won 9.47% nationwide and 76 seats in regional assemblies. Alongside the regional elections, about 2.7 million voters elected 27 of the 81 senators. The KDU-ČSL won these elections with nine new senators, while both ANO and the Social Democrats suffered heavy losses. Though ANO had 14 candidates in the second round, only three managed to win election.

The Social Democrats lost 10 seats, including that of their Vice President of the Senate Zdeněk Škromach. The centre-right ODS had six candidates in the second round, with four of them being elected; the coalition government passed many of the policies, announced in 2014, such as electronic registration of sales and reverse charging of value-added tax. Bohuslav Sobotka's Cabinet was considered by pundits and commentators to be stable compared with previous cabinets. However, in early May 2017 a government crisis developed when Prime Minister Bohuslav Sobotka resigned due to the financial irregularities of Finance Minister Andrej Babiš. Sobotka reversed his decision a few days following a dispute with President Miloš Zeman over the continuation of the government, on 24 May 2017, Sobotka dismissed Babiš and replaced him with Ivan Pilný ending the crisis; the 200 members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected from 14 multi-member constituencies using open list proportional representation, in which they can give preferential votes for up to four candidates on their chosen list.

Seats are allocated using the d'Hondt method, with an electoral threshold of 5% nationwide for single parties, 10% for two-party alliances, 15% for three-party alliances and 20% for alliances of four or more parties. Candidates who receive preferential votes from more than 5% of voters are moved to the top of their list, and

Hartvig Andreas Munthe

Hartvig Andreas Munthe was a Norwegian military officer and genealogist. He was born in Elverum as a son of physician Christopher Pavels Munthe, he was an older brother of painter Gerhard Munthe, writer Margrethe Munthe and historian and military officer Carl Oscar Munthe. He was a nephew of historian and cartographer Gerhard Munthe and an uncle of librarian Wilhelm Munthe and painter Lagertha Munthe. Through his mother he was a nephew of Andreas Leigh Aabel and Oluf Andreas Aabel, a first cousin of Hauk Aabel. In May 1874 he married Jeanette Camilla Kristoffersen, he was the father of genealogist Christopher Morgenstierne Munthe. His main career was with the military. After attending the Norwegian Military Academy, he rose through the ranks, he was the fortress engineer of Fredrikstad Fortress from 1883 to 1886 and Oscarsborg Fortress from 1886 to 1888. He became Premier Lieutenant of the Engineer Corps in 1888, Captain in 1889 and Lieutenant Colonel in 1897. Since 1900 he was an aide-de-camp of King Oscar II of Sweden and Norway, in March 1905 he reached the rank of Colonel.

On 7 June 1905, the Norwegian Parliament ratified a motion by Prime Minister Christian Michelsen to depose King Oscar ending the Union between Sweden and Norway. This was confirmed by the Negotiations in Karlstad and the overwhelming Norwegian union dissolution referendum of 1905, but Hartvig Andreas Munthe lived to see neither of these as he died on 17 June 1905 in Kristiania; as a genealogist, Munthe was noted for his work on his own lineage, Efterretninger om Familien Munthe i ældre og nyere tid, released in two volumes in 1883 and 1888 and described by Einar Jansen as a "pioneer work". A work about related families—Aabel, Leigh og Pavels, slægsthistoriske Optegnelser—came in 1903. Munthe was a member of the board of the Dano-Norwegian genealogical society Samfundet for dansk-norsk Genealogi og Personalhistorie from 1902 to his death; the organization became a predecessor of the Norwegian Genealogical Society, of which his son was a co-founder in 1926. Munthe took the initiative to a description of his native Elverum.

The work was published posthumously, completed by Stian Herlofsen Finne-Grønn

Automotive industry in Croatia

The automotive industry in Croatia employs about 10,000 people in over 130 companies. AD Klaster, members of the Croatian Association of Automotive Parts Manufacturers at the Industry sector of the Croatian chamber of economy employs about 6000 employees and generates profit of about US$600 million. There are other companies which are not a part of AD Klaster, like AVL, Saint Jean Industries, König metal, Lipik Glas, Yazaki, LTH, Institut RT-RK, Galo industries, others. Croatia produces automotive parts and software for foreign market the European Union and the European automotive industry. Two most prominent car manufacturers in Croatia are DOK-ING and Rimac Automobili, while Crobus produces buses; the automotive industry accounts for 1.8 per cent of all Croatian exports, while 90 per cent of profits in the industry itself are derived from exports. Automotive parts manufacturers in Croatia are well-integrated into the global parts supply chain, such as AD Plastik, which produces for BMW, Dacia, Ford, Nissan, Peugeot, Renault and other vehicle manufacturers or Lipik Glas, which supplies windscreens to Aston Martin, Alfa Romeo, Ferrari, London Electric Vehicle Company, McLaren and Spyker.

Between and after the two World Wars, a number of automotive companies and manufacturing plants emerged: Tvornica motora Zagreb and Tvornica Autobusa Zagreb, both based in Zagreb. Tvornica Autobusa Zagreb started producing buses and trucks in 1930. In 1980, the factory produced an average of 500 -- 600 vehicles yearly. Buses were exported to China, Finland and other countries; the company produced motorcycles until it went defunct in 2000. Other companies, such as Đuro Đaković have been producing military vehicles, such as M-95 Degman tank and LOV-1 armored vehicle; the company manufactured Patria AMV vehicles under license. Rijeka-based vehicle manufacturer Torpedo produced military trucks, used in Croatian War of Independence during the 90s. Restaurant and brewery owner IPIM d.o.o. launched a truck based on the Kia K2700 in 2003. Designed for promotional purposes, the vehicle featured a retro-styled, stainless steel body and a 2.7 liter engine producing 80 horsepower. It retailed for €42,500 and was exported to other European countries.

Croatia produced its first electric city concept car DOK-ING Loox in 2012. The first car was sold to the Zagreb Faculty of Engineering. In 2015, the company produced two electric buses for the city of Koprivnica as part of the project Civitas Dyn@mo. In the following years, the company began producing a variety of electric vehicles such as communal vehicles, buses and bikes for foreign markets. In 2013, Croatian bus manufacturer CROBUS signed a 2.1 billion Croatian kuna deal to produce and export 2,000 buses to Iraq, with the first buses delivered in the same year. The same year owned Rimac Automobili produced Rimac Concept One, a two-seat high-performance electric sports car. Concept One has been described as the world's first electric supercar becoming the world's fastest accelerating electric automobile until 2015; the car was exported during the same year, was the first car exported abroad in the country's history. As of 2016, all of the eight Concept Ones manufactured were sold; the company subsequently unveiled the improved Rimac Concept S at the 2015 Geneva Motor Show.

The company's subsidiary Greyp Bikes started mass production and export of its own brand of high performance electric bikes. Greyp dealerships were opened in countries such as United Kingdom, Switzerland and Luxembourg; the Rimac group produces and manufactures engines and other electrical parts for other companies, such as the liquid cool battery pack for Koenigsegg, claimed as the most power-dense battery pack to date. In 2017, they were producing battery systems for Aston Martin, it produces entire vehicles for other companies, such as the Applus Volar-E for Applus+ IDIADA. Rimac Automobili Dok-Ing Automotiv Đuro Đaković CROBUS Tvornica Autobusa Zagreb Industry of Croatia Economy of Croatia Automobilski sektor u Hrvatskoj namijenjen je izvozu Otvorena prva hrvatska tvornica autobusa Crobus! Megaprojekt na sjeveru Hrvatske - četiri županije gradit će tvornicu automobila