New Zealand /njuːˈziːlənd/ is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, or Te Ika-a-Māui, and the South Island, or Te Waipounamu—and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, the countrys varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealands capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland, sometime between 1250 and 1300 CE, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand, in 1840, representatives of Britain and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire, the majority of New Zealands population of 4.7 million is of European descent, the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders. Reflecting this, New Zealands culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers. The official languages are English, Māori and New Zealand Sign Language, New Zealand is a developed country and ranks highly in international comparisons of national performance, such as health, economic freedom and quality of life. Since the 1980s, New Zealand has transformed from an agrarian, Queen Elizabeth II is the countrys head of state and is represented by a governor-general. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes, the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau, the Cook Islands and Niue, and the Ross Dependency, which is New Zealands territorial claim in Antarctica. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Pacific Islands Forum, and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.
Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and called it Staten Landt, in 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand, Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand. It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the country before the arrival of Europeans. Māori had several names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South, in 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907, this was the accepted norm. The New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised and this set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, and South Island or Te Waipounamu
Michael Carl Mike Bryan is an American professional tennis player. The right-hander turned professional in 1998, with his twin brother Bob, he has been world No.1 doubles player for much of the last several years, first achieving the top ranking in September 2003. The brothers became the mens doubles team to complete the career golden slam. Mike Bryan played for Stanford University in 1997 and 1998, where he helped the Cardinal win back-to-back NCAA team championships, in 1999, he won the NCAA doubles title with his twin brother Bob. Both brothers started their careers playing World TeamTennis for teams like the Idaho Sneakers through the current season for the Kansas City Explorers. Together with his twin brother Bob, he has very successful in doubles. They have won 100 doubles titles including a record 16 Grand Slam titles, in 2005, he and Bob made it to the finals of all four Grand Slam tournaments, only the second time such a feat has been achieved in the Open era. The Bryan Brothers have been ranked No.1 in the ATP, due to their success, they have been nicknamed The Wonder Twins after a fictional comic book duo.
Together with his twin brother Bob Bryan, the pair has won the most Davis Cup matches of any team in doubles for the United States, Mike owns U. S. Davis Cup records with 26 individual doubles wins and 31 ties played. By winning the 2006 Wimbledon title, Bryan completed the mens doubles Career Grand Slam and he became the 19th individual player and, with Bob Bryan, the seventh doubles pair to achieve this. In 2012, by winning the Olympic gold medal along with his brother Mike Bryan, Bob completed the career Golden Slam, as did Mike and they are the only team that has ever accomplished this
Pierre-Hugues Herbert is a French professional tennis player. In doubles, he won the title at the 2015 US Open and 2016 Wimbledon as well as several Masters 1000 tournaments along with Nicolas Mahut. In singles he has reached one ATP career final, and achieved his career high ranking of World No.68 in February 2017. Herbert won the Wimbledon boys doubles title with partner Kevin Krawietz in 2009, beating French duo of Julien Obry and he reached the 2009 US Open boys singles semifinals, where he lost to eventual champion Bernard Tomic of Australia. Herbert reached as high as No.9 in the singles world rankings in October 2009. After beginning the year outside the top 250, Herbert rose steadily up the rankings. He qualified for the 2013 Paris Masters, where he defeated Benoît Paire for the loss of four games in the first round of the main draw - his first ever ATP Tour main draw win. In the second round, he had two set points before losing to Novak Djokovic in straight sets and he ended the year with an ATP singles ranking of 151, compared with 25712 months earlier.
He made it through three rounds of qualifying, beating Borna Ćorić, Daniel Kosakowski and Miloslav Mečíř, Jr. to make the draw at Wimbledon for the first time. In the first round he faced Jack Sock, however lost in four sets despite taking the first set in a tiebreaker, Herbert again battled through three rounds of qualifying, beating Hans Podlipnik Castillo, Facundo Argüello and Íñigo Cervantes to make the main draw of Wimbledon. In the first round he beat Hyeon Chung in a three-hour, five-set match, clinching the final set 10–8, in the second round, he lost in straight sets to Bernard Tomic, the player who had beaten him in the semi-finals of Junior US Open in 2009. In doubles, Herbert reached two Grand Slam finals alongside fellow Frenchman Nicolas Mahut, at the Australian Open, they lost the final to Fabio Fognini and Simone Bolelli. At the US Open, they won the final against Jamie Murray and John Peers and Nicolas Mahut won three ATP World Tour Masters 1000 doubles titles in a row in the first half of 2016, in Indian Wells and Monte Carlo.
At the French Open, he and Mahut, seeded no.1, lost in the round to Feliciano López. At the 2016 Wimbledon Championships and Mahut beat Julien Benneteau, at the 2017 Rotterdam Open, Herbert defeated then-No. 8 Dominic Thiem in the quarterfinals for his first singles win over a Top 10-ranked player, pierre-Hugues Herbert at the Association of Tennis Professionals
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
The French Open, often referred to as Roland Garros, is a major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May and early June at the Stade Roland Garros in Paris, France. Roland Garros is the only Grand Slam event held on clay, French spelling rules dictate that in the name of a place or event named after a person, the elements of the name are joined together with a hyphen. Therefore, the names of the stadium and the tournament are hyphenated as Roland-Garros, in 1891 the Championnat de France, which is commonly referred to in English as the French Championships, was begun. It was only open to players who were members of French clubs. The first winner was a Briton—H, the first womens singles tournament, with four entries, was held in 1897. The mixed doubles event was added in 1902 and the doubles in 1907. This French club members only tournament was played until 1924, using four different venues during that period, Île de Puteaux, in Puteaux, the Racing Club de France, played on clay.
For one year,1909, it was played at the Société Athlétique de la Villa Primrose in Bordeaux, Tennis Club de Paris, at Auteuil, played on clay. Another tournament, the World Hard Court Championships, is considered the precursor to the French Open as it was open to international competitors. Winners of this tournament included world no, 1s such as Tony Wilding from New Zealand and Bill Tilden from the US. In 1924 there was no World Hard Court Championships due to tennis being played at the Paris Olympic Games, in 1925, the French Championships became open to all amateurs internationally and was designated a major championship by the ILTF. It was held at the Stade Français in Saint-Cloud in 1925 and 1927, in 1926 the Racing Club de France hosted the event in Paris, site of the previous French club members only Championship, on clay. In 1928, the Roland Garros stadium was opened and the event has held there ever since. After the Mousquetaires or Philadelphia Four won the Davis Cup on American soil in 1927, the Stade de France had offered the tennis authorities three hectares of land with the condition that the new stadium must be named after the World War I pilot, Roland Garros.
The new Stade de Roland Garros, and its Center Court hosted that Davis Cup challenge, during World War II the tournament was held from 1941 through 1945 on the same grounds but these editions are not recognized by the French governing body, Fédération Française de Tennis. From 1946 through 1947, the French Championships were held after Wimbledon, in 1968, the French Championships became the first Grand Slam tournament to go open, allowing both amateurs and professionals to compete. Since 1981, new prizes have been presented, the Prix Orange, the Prix Citron, in another novelty, since 2006 the tournament has begun on a Sunday, featuring 12 singles matches played on the three main courts. Additionally, on the eve of the opening, the traditional Benny Berthet exhibition day takes place
Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. As the worlds fifth-largest country by area and population, it is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to wildlife, a variety of ecological systems. This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, in 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a state governed under a constitutional monarchy. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, the country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup détat.
An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, Brazils current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. The federation is composed of the union of the Federal District, the 26 states, Brazils economy is the worlds ninth-largest by nominal GDP and seventh-largest by GDP as of 2015. A member of the BRICS group, Brazil until 2010 had one of the worlds fastest growing economies, with its economic reforms giving the country new international recognition. Brazils national development bank plays an important role for the economic growth. Brazil is a member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States, CPLP. Brazil is a power in Latin America and a middle power in international affairs. One of the worlds major breadbaskets, Brazil has been the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years and it is likely that the word Brazil comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil commonly given the etymology red like an ember, formed from Latin brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a red dye, it was highly valued by the European cloth industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. The popular appellation eclipsed and eventually supplanted the official Portuguese name, early sailors sometimes called it the Land of Parrots. In the Guarani language, a language of Paraguay, Brazil is called Pindorama
Not to be confused with John Piers. Peers reached his career-high of World No.2 in doubles in April 2017 and his highest ATP singles ranking is World No.456 in June 2012. John Peers went to Mentone Grammar and led the 1STS team to two premierships, his first when he was in Year 7 in 2001 and his second when he was in Year 12 in 2006. Peers is the son of former pro tennis player Elizabeth Little, Peers began the 2013 season playing with fellow Australian John-Patrick Smith, receiving a wildcard into the Australian Open. This however allowed them to compete at the Aegon Trophy, a Challenger event which ultimately won. Peers and Murray went on to have a successful grass court season, reaching the quarterfinals of the Aegon Championships. They headed to Wimbledon in a confident mindset, however went out in the first round to James Blake and Jurgen Melzer in a 5 set thriller that ended 14–12 in an 87-minute final set. Their early loss did not dishearten them however, and the pair went on to win their title of the year a few weeks later.
At the US Open, the pair had their most successful run at a Grand Slam tournament, making it all the way to the quarterfinals, defeating 9th seeds David Marrero, in the end the pair went out to eventual finalists Alexander Peya and Bruno Soares in three sets. At the PTT Thailand Open, the pair were seeded third and Murray defeated multiple Grand Slam champion and former world number 1 Leander Paes on their way to the final, where they defeated Tomasz Bednarek and Johan Brunström in three sets. The following week and Murray reached their final in a row. Despite a close first set, the pair lost to established doubles pairing of Rohan Bopanna, Peers began the year with regular doubles partner Jamie Murray at the Brisbane International. The pair made it to the semi-finals before they lost to Daniel Nestor and their next tournament was the Heineken Open. They made the quarterfinals before withdrawing from the tournament, at the Australian Open they were the 15th seeds. They made the round before losing to Raven Klaasen and Eric Butorac in straight sets.
Peers played next at the 2014 ABN AMRO World Tennis Tournament with Julian Knowle while Jamie Murray was out with injury, the pair made it to the quarterfinals before losing to Julien Benneteau and Édouard Roger-Vasselin. Peers next played at the 2014 Open 13 with Jesse Huta Galung, Peers next played at the 2014 Dubai Tennis Championships with previous partner Julian Knowle but the pair lost in the first round. Peers next played the BNP Paribas Open with regular partner Jamie Murray but the pair lost in the first round to J Benneteau and they next played at the Sony Open Tennis but lost in straight sets to sixth seeds Daniel Nestor and Nenad Zimonjić
Henri Kontinen is a Finnish tennis player. Kontinen has won 14 doubles titles on the ATP Tour in his career, on 18 October 2010, Kontinen reached his best singles rankings of world number 220. He is currently ranked as world number 1 in doubles rankings after winning the Australian Open mens doubles championship and his brother Micke is a retired tennis player. After ending his singles career due to injuries he started focusing on doubles and he reached the quarterfinals of the mens doubles 2016 Wimbledon Championships with John Peers and won the mixed doubles at the same tournament with Heather Watson. He won the 2017 Australian Open mens doubles title with John Peers, Kontinen won the 2008 French Open boys doubles title with Christopher Rungkat. He reached the final of the 2008 Wimbledon boys singles which he lost to Grigor Dimitrov having beaten Bernard Tomic in the semi final and he reached the final of the 2008 US Open boys doubles with Christopher Rungkat. Subsequently, Kontinens singles development was hampered by injuries.
In 2014 Kontinen won his first ATP title at the Bet-at-home Cup Kitzbühel with Jarkko Nieminen,2015 was a breakthrough year for him as he won five titles including title at the Barcelona Open BancSabadell, his first ATP World Tour 500 series title. Together with Zheng Jie he reached semifinals of mixed doubles at the 2015 French Open and his good results continued in 2016 as he won the title at the Brisbane International in January with John Peers. On April–May they won the BMW Open together, on July Kontinen and Peers won the German Open Tennis Championships. On August Kontinen won the Winstom-Salem Open playing with Guillermo García-López and it was Kontinens 10th doubles title in his career. He took the victory of St. Petersburg Open with Dominic Inglot and Peers had a successful end for the year as they won their first Masters title at Paris Masters and the season ending ATP World Tour Finals title. Kontinen reached the top 10 in rankings as a first Finnish tennis player ever, on 3 April 2017 he became the number one doubles player in the world and became the first Finnish player to be ranked number one male or female.
Henri Kontinens official website Henri Kontinen at the Association of Tennis Professionals Henri Kontinen at the Davis Cup Henri Kontinen at the International Tennis Federation