United States Armed Forces
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America. It consists of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, Coast Guard; the President of the United States is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and forms military policy with the Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security, both federal executive departments, acting as the principal organs by which military policy is carried out. All five armed services are among the seven uniformed services of the United States. From the time of its inception, the U. S. Armed Forces played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of national unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War. So, the founders of the United States were suspicious of a permanent military force, it played a critical role in the American Civil War, continuing to serve as the armed forces of the United States, although a number of its officers resigned to join the military of the Confederate States.
The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold War's onset, created the modern U. S. military framework. The Act established the National Military Establishment, headed by the Secretary of Defense, it was amended in 1949, renaming the National Military Establishment the Department of Defense, merged the cabinet-level Department of the Army, Department of the Navy, Department of the Air Force, into the Department of Defense. The U. S. Armed Forces are one of the largest militaries in terms of the number of personnel, it draws its personnel from a large pool of paid volunteers. Although conscription has been used in the past in various times of both war and peace, it has not been used since 1973, but the Selective Service System retains the power to conscript males, requires that all male citizens and residents residing in the U. S. between the ages of 18–25 register with the service. On February 22, 2019, however, a federal judge ruled that registering only males for Selective Service is unconstitutional.
As of 2017, the U. S. spends about US$610 billion annually to fund its military forces and Overseas Contingency Operations. Put together, the U. S. constitutes 40 percent of the world's military expenditures. The U. S. Armed Forces has significant capabilities in both defense and power projection due to its large budget, resulting in advanced and powerful technologies which enables a widespread deployment of the force around the world, including around 800 military bases outside the United States; the U. S. Air Force is the world's largest air force, the U. S. Navy is the world's largest navy by tonnage, the U. S. Navy and the U. S. Marine Corps combined are the world's second largest air arm. In terms of size, the U. S. Coast Guard is the world's 12th largest naval force; the history of the U. S. Armed Forces dates to 14 June 1775, with the creation of the Continental Army before the Declaration of Independence marked the establishment of the United States; the Continental Navy, established on 13 October 1775, Continental Marines, established on 10 November 1775, were created in close succession by the Second Continental Congress in order to defend the new nation against the British Empire in the American Revolutionary War.
These forces demobilized in 1784. The Congress of the Confederation created the current United States Army on 3 June 1784; the United States Congress created the current United States Navy on 27 March 1794 and the current United States Marine Corps on 11 July 1798. All three services trace their origins to their respective Continental predecessors; the 1787 adoption of the Constitution gave the Congress the power to "raise and support armies", to "provide and maintain a navy" and to "make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces", as well as the power to declare war. The President is the U. S. Armed Forces' commander-in-chief; the United States Coast Guard traces its origin to the founding of the Revenue Cutter Service on 4 August 1790 which merged with the United States Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915 to establish the Coast Guard. The United States Air Force was established as an independent service on 18 September 1947. S. Signal Corps, formed 1 August 1907 and was part of the Army Air Forces before becoming an independent service as per the National Security Act of 1947.
The United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps was considered to be a branch of the United States Armed Forces from 29 July 1945 until its status as such was revoked on 3 July 1952. On March 1st, 2019, the Department of Defense sent a proposal to Congress that would establish the United States Space Force as an independent military service within the Department of the Air Force. If approved, this would become the sixth military service branch to be created. Command over the U. S. Armed Forces is established in the Constitution; the sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief. The Constitution presumes the existence of "executive Departments" headed by "principal officers", whose appointment mechanism is provided for in the Appointments Clause; this allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act. The DoD is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a civilian and member of the Cabinet.
The Defense Secretary is second in the U. S. Armed Forces chain of command, with the exception of the Coast Guard, under the Secretary of Homeland Security, is just below the President and serves as the
Marek Tadeusz Kuchciński is the Marshal of the Sejm since 2015. He has served as Deputy Marshal of the Sejm, was the Parliamentary Caucus Head of Law and Justice. Since 2001, Kuchciński is a Member of the Sejm, he was studying history of art at the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, but did not graduate. He has three children. History of Poland List of political parties in Poland List of politicians in Poland Members of Polish Sejm 2005-2007 Politics of Poland Polish parliamentary election, 2005 Polish parliamentary election, 2007 Polish parliamentary election, 2011 Polish parliamentary election, 2015 Official website
History of Poland
The history of Poland has its roots in the migrations of Slavs, who established permanent settlements in the Polish lands during the Early Middle Ages. The first ruling dynasty, the Piasts, emerged by the 10th century AD. Duke Mieszko I is considered the de facto creator of the Polish state and is recognized for the adoption of Western Christianity that followed his baptism in 966. Mieszko's duchy of Poland was formally reconstituted as a medieval kingdom in 1025 by his son Bolesław I the Brave, known for military expansion under his rule; the most successful of the Piast kings was the last one, Casimir III the Great, who presided over a brilliant period of economic prosperity and territorial aggrandizement before his death in 1370 without male heirs. The period of the Jagiellonian dynasty in the 14th–16th centuries brought close ties with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, a cultural Renaissance in Poland and continued territorial expansion that culminated in the establishment of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569.
In its early phases, the Commonwealth was able to sustain the levels of prosperity achieved during the Jagiellonian period, while its political system matured as a unique noble democracy. From the mid-17th century, the huge state entered a period of decline caused by devastating wars and the deterioration of its political system. Significant internal reforms were introduced during the part of the 18th century in the Constitution of 3 May 1791, but neighboring powers did not allow the reform process to advance; the independent existence of the Commonwealth ended in 1795 after a series of invasions and partitions of Polish territory carried out by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy. From 1795 until 1918, no independent Polish state existed, although strong Polish resistance movements operated. After the failure of the last military uprising against the Russian Empire, the January Uprising of 1863, the nation preserved its identity through educational initiatives and a program of "organic work" intended to modernize the economy and society.
The opportunity to regain independence only materialized after World War I, when the three partitioning imperial powers were fatally weakened in the wake of war and revolution. The Second Polish Republic, established in 1918, existed as an independent state until 1939, when Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union destroyed it in their invasion of Poland at the beginning of World War II. Millions of Polish citizens perished in the course of the Nazi occupation of Poland between 1939 and 1945 as Germany classified ethnic Poles and other Slavs and Romani as subhuman. Nazi authorities targeted the last two groups for extermination in the short term, deferring the extermination and/or enslavement of the Slavs as part of the Generalplan Ost conceived by the Nazi régime. A Polish government-in-exile nonetheless functioned throughout the war and the Poles contributed to the Allied victory through participation in military campaigns on both the eastern and western fronts; the westward advances of the Soviet Red Army in 1944 and 1945 compelled Nazi Germany's forces to retreat from Poland, which led to the establishment of a communist satellite state of the Soviet Union, known from 1952 as the Polish People's Republic.
As a result of territorial adjustments mandated by the victorious Allies at the end of World War II in 1945, Poland's geographic centre of gravity shifted towards the west and the re-defined Polish lands lost their historic multi-ethnic character through the extermination and migration of various ethnic groups during and after the war. By the late 1980s, the Polish reform movement Solidarity became crucial in bringing about a peaceful transition from a communist state to a capitalist economic system and a liberal parliamentary democracy; this process resulted in the creation of the modern Polish state: the Third Polish Republic, founded in 1989. In prehistoric and protohistoric times, over a period of at least 500,000 years, the area of present-day Poland was intermittently inhabited by members of the Homo genus, it went through the Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age stages of development, along with the nearby regions. The Neolithic period ushered in the Linear Pottery culture, whose founders migrated from the Danube River area beginning about 5,500 BC.
This culture was distinguished by the establishment of the first settled agricultural communities in modern Polish territory. Between about 4,400 and 2,000 BC, the native post-Mesolithic populations would adopt and further develop the agricultural way of life. Poland's Early Bronze Age began around 2300–2400 BC, whereas its Iron Age commenced c. 700–750 BC. One of the many cultures that have been uncovered, the Lusatian culture, spanned the Bronze and Iron Ages and left notable settlement sites. Around 400 BC, Poland was settled by Celts of the La Tène culture, they were soon followed by emerging cultures with a strong Germanic component, influenced first by the Celts and by the Roman Empire. The Germanic peoples migrated out of the area by about 500 AD during the great Migration Period of the European Dark Ages. Wooded regions to the north and east were settled by Balts. According to mainstream archaeological research, Slavs have resided in modern Polish territories for over 1500 years. Recent genetic studies, determined that people who live in the current territory of Poland include the descendants of people who inhabited the area for thousands of years, beginning in the early Neolithic period.
Slavs on the territory of Poland were organized into tribal units, of which the larger ones were known as the Polish tribes.
Marshal of the Senate of the Republic of Poland
The Marshal of the Senate of the Republic of Poland is a presiding officer of the Senate of Poland. He or she is third person according to the Polish order of precedence, after President of the Republic of Poland and Sejm Marshal, second in line to become Acting President of the Republic of Poland; because of both precedence order and succession order, he or she is referred to as the "third person in state". His deputy is the Vice-Marshal of the Senate of the Republic of Poland. Marshal: Represent Senate Preside over Senate sessions Preside over Senate Presidium and caucus of heads of Senatorial caucuses meetings Performing some representative roles on the state level Becoming Acting President when Sejm Marshal cannot do so Is in charge on peacekeeping in the Senate Marshals of the Senate existed as early as the Duchy of Warsaw. In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the role was performed by the Grand Crown Marshals. In Second Polish Republic:The office was interrupted by German invasion of Poland in 1939 and not reinstated in People's Republic of Poland.
In modern Poland: Sejm Marshal
Beata Maria Szydło is a Polish politician, serving as Deputy Prime Minister of Poland and vice-chairman of the Law and Justice party. After the 2015 parliamentary election, as prime minister, she formed a cabinet, which took office on 16 November 2015. Before her appointment as prime minister, she had led the presidential campaign of Andrzej Duda, the 2015 presidential nominee of the Law and Justice party. On 7 December 2017 she resigned as prime minister, along with all the members of her cabinet; the next day her resignation was accepted by President Duda, who at the same time designated Mateusz Morawiecki to be Poland's new prime minister. Szydło was the third woman to be prime minister of Poland, after Hanna Suchocka and Ewa Kopacz, the first woman to succeed another woman to that office. In 2017 she was 31st in Forbes magazine's ranking of the world's 100 most powerful women and 10th among the most influential women political leaders. Szydło was raised near Brzeszcze, where her father was a miner.
She graduated from Jagiellonian University in Kraków in 1989 where she completed studies at the Department of Ethnography. In the years 1989 – 1995, she was a PhD student at the Philosophy and History Faculty of that university. In 1997, she completed post-graduate studies for managers of culture at Warsaw School of Economics, whereas in 2001 at Kraków University of Economics - management of local government in the European Union. Szydło was elected Mayor of Gmina Brzeszcze at the age of 35. During her campaign, along with locals she helped renovate the school in a small town of Pcim, which lost its roof in a storm. In 2004, she participated in International Visitor Leadership Program. In September 2005, she was elected to the Sejm, the lower house of the Parliament of the Republic of Poland receiving 14,499 votes in 12 Chrzanów district, as a candidate of the conservative Law and Justice party, she was elected member of the 6th, 7th and 8th Parliament of the Republic of Poland. She was appointed vice-chairman of the Law and Justice Party On 24 July 2010, in September 2014, she succeeded Stanisław Kostrzewski as the treasurer of the Law and Justice party.
Following her successful leadership of Andrzej Duda's presidential campaign, at the Law and Justice party convention on 20 June 2015 Szydło was named as Law and Justice's candidate for Prime Minister in the Polish parliamentary election. She was seen as being more moderate than Law and Justice chairman Jarosław Kaczyński. At the October 2015 election and Justice won a decisive victory, becoming the first Polish party to win an outright majority since the end of Communism. Szydło was sworn in as prime minister on 16 November 2015. On 18 October 2015 she made her keynote address, further receiving 236 votes in favour of her government. One of her first decisions was to remove the European Union flag from press conferences at the Chancellery of the Prime Minister and to replace the clock in the meeting hall of the Council of Ministers with a Cross. In meetings with voters, she promised to raise the minimum wage, she declared. The programme was introduced on 1 April 2016, supplying families with 500PLN for every child, starting from the second child.
It is intended to serve as a demographic stimulus, enhance population growth. One of the biggest controversies during her administration, the Polish Constitutional Court crisis, 2015 was criticized by the European Parliament, which, on 13 April 2016, passed a resolution declaring that the Parliament "is concerned that the effective paralysis of the Constitutional Tribunal in Poland endangers democracy, human rights and the rule of law". Beata Szydło's government was opposed to the UK's effort to stop EU immigrants claiming in-work benefits for four years if they moved to Britain. Increasing the support for Brexit, Beata Szydło did offer support in return for a permanent base of NATO troops on Polish territory, in breach of a 1997 agreement with Russia. On 7 December 2017, she resigned from office along with all members of her cabinet; the next day her resignation was accepted by the President Andrzej Duda, who at the same time designated Mateusz Morawiecki as new Prime Minister. On 21 November 2016, Szydlo's vehicle was involved in a 5 vehicle crash in Israel which included a police car and ambulance.
She was in Israel for government to government talks and to meet with Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. Just a few months on 10 February 2017, Szydło and 2 security officials were injured in a car crash in her hometown, Oświęcim, her Audi limousine swerved and hit a tree to avoid a small Fiat whose driver was charged with involuntary violation of traffic safety. She was hospitalised in Warsaw. Szydło is married to Edward Szydło; the couple has two sons: Tymoteusz, a Catholic priest, Błażej. She declares her adherence to conservative Christian values. Cabinet of Beata Szydło History of Poland List of political parties in Poland List of politicians in Poland Politics of Poland Polish parliamentary election, 2015 Polish presidential election, 2015 Official website Beata Szydło's entry on the Sejm website
Andrzej Sebastian Duda is a Polish politician who serves as the sixth and current President of Poland, holding the office since 6 August 2015. Before his tenure as President, Duda was a member of Polish Lower House from 2011 to 2014 and the European Parliament from 2014 to 2015. Duda was the presidential candidate for the right wing Law and Justice party, during the 2015 presidential election in May 2015. In the first round of voting, Duda received 5,179,092 votes – 34.76% of valid votes. In the second round of voting, Duda received 51.55% of the vote, beating the incumbent president Bronisław Komorowski, who received 48.45% of the vote. On 26 May 2015, Duda resigned his party membership as the president-elect. Duda was born in Kraków, to Janina Milewska and Jan Tadeusz Duda, professors at the AGH University of Science and Technology, his grandfather fought in the Polish–Soviet War and as a member of the Home Army during the Second World War. Duda attended Kraków, he subsequently studied law at the Jagiellonian University.
In October 2001 he was appointed as an assistant in the Administrative Law Department of Jagiellonian University. In January 2005, Duda obtained a PhD degree in law at the Jagiellonian University Due to his political career, he has been on unpaid leave since September 2006, except for a 13-month interval beginning in September 2010, when he returned to the university. Duda began his political career with the now-defunct Freedom Union Party in the early 2000s. After the parliamentary elections in 2005, he began his collaboration with the Law and Justice Party. From 2006 to 2007, Andrzej Duda was an undersecretary of state in the Ministry of Justice. From 2007 to 2008, Duda was a member of the Polish State Tribunal. From 2008 to 2010, during the presidency of Lech Kaczyński, Duda was an undersecretary of state in the Chancellery of the President of the Republic of Poland. In 2010, he was an unsuccessful candidate to become the Mayor of Kraków as a PiS candidate, but was more successful in the 2011 parliamentary election, where he received 79,981 votes for the Kraków area, thus became member of the Sejm.
In September 2013, the news magazine Polityka commended Duda for being one of the most active members of parliament, at the time, describing him as being open to opposition arguments and as refraining from personal attacks, as part of his role at the Commission for Constitutional Responsibility. Duda remained a member of the Sejm until he was elected to the European Parliament in 2014. In the shade of the upcoming expiration of president Bronisław Komorowski's first term, Komorowski was able to seek re-election in a scheduled presidential election. Duda was Komorowski's Justice rival in the election. In the first round of the 2015 presidential election, Duda came first, receiving 5,179,092 votes and thus 34.76% of valid votes. In the second round Duda took 51.55% of the vote against the 48.45% share of his rival, then-incumbent president Bronisław Komorowski. On 26 May 2015, he resigned from party membership; the five-year term of Andrzej Duda began on 6 August 2015 with taking an oath of office during a National Assembly session.
Duda rejected the European Union's proposal of migrant quotas to redistribute asylum seekers, saying: "I won’t agree to a dictate of the strong. I won’t back a Europe where the economic advantage of the size of a population will be a reason to force solutions on other countries regardless of their national interests". Former Prime Minister Ewa Kopacz declared that Poland, as an expression of “European solidarity”, would take in 2,000 people over the next two years from Syria and Eritrea. Duda and Croatian President Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović were the originators of the Three Seas Initiative, his approval ratings are high – In September 2017, his approval rating stood at 71% and in February 2018, at 72%. A record surpassed only by Aleksander Kwaśniewski from 1995 to 2005, whose approval ratings surpassed 75%. In November 2015, basing on Art. 139 of the Constitution of Poland, Duda pardoned former Central Anticorruption Bureau head Mariusz Kamiński and three CBA officers convicted by a court of 1st instance in the so-called "Land Affair", marking the first pardon granted by a president before reaching a final verdict.
According to some lawyers Duda breached the Constitution of Poland. Andrzej Duda has refused to swearing in any of the five Constitutional Tribunal judge candidates selected by the Sejm of the VII cadence. Three of those were selected since 7 November 2015. On 3 and 9 December 2015 Duda swore in five other candidates for the same office selected by the Sejm of the VIII cadence. On 28 December 2015, Duda signed the Constitutional Tribunal bill, which unequivocally breaches the Constitution of Poland according to the National Council of the Judiciary of Poland, the Public Prosecutor General and the Polish Ombudsman. In June 2016, Duda rejected appointing 10 judges selected by the National Council of the Judiciary of Poland. In July 2017, Duda informed the public he had decided to veto two controversial judicial bills backed by the government and passed by both houses of the Polish parliament; the President's spokesman subsequently said that the third act – the common courts bill – would be signed.
The veto was just one example of Duda opposing the policies of PiS. In February 2018, Duda said that he would sign into law the "Holocaust
Lech Trzeciakowski was a Polish historian who served as director of the Western Institute in Poznań from 1974 to 1978. Born in Poznań, he died there in 2017. Lech Trzeciakowski, Kulturkampf w zaborze pruskim, Poznań 1970 Lech Trzeciakowski, Pod pruskim zaborem 1850-1914, Warszawa 1973 Lech Trzeciakowski, Walka o polskość miast Poznańskiego na przełomie XIX i XX wieku, Poznań 1964 Lech Trzeciakowski, W dziewiętnastowiecznym Poznaniu, Poznań 1987 Nauka Polska Herder Instytut, Bibliography