England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon. The country lies within the temperate zone and has a changeable. Welsh national identity emerged among the Celtic Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Llywelyn ap Gruffudds death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of Englands conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr briefly restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century. The whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh Liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism, Welsh national feeling grew over the century, Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925 and the Welsh Language Society in 1962. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, two-thirds of the population live in south Wales, mainly in and around Cardiff, Swansea and Newport, and in the nearby valleys. Now that the countrys traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales economy depends on the sector, light and service industries. Wales 2010 gross value added was £45.5 billion, over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, and the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west. From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the land of song, Rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Celtic Britons in particular, the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, and Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales and these words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning fellow-countrymen. The use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, in particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage, culture, and language to the Welsh. The word came into use as a self-description probably before the 7th century and it is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh, until c.1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of names, Cambrian, Cambric and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales, Welsh
The FA Cup, known officially as The Football Association Challenge Cup, is an annual knockout association football competition in mens domestic English football. First played during the 1871–72 season, it is the oldest association football competition in the world and it is organised by and named after The Football Association. For sponsorship reasons, from 2015 through to 2018 it is known as The Emirates FA Cup. A concurrent womens tournament is held, the FA Womens Cup. A record 763 clubs competed in 2011–12, the tournament consists of 12 randomly drawn rounds followed by the semi-finals and the final. The last entrants are the Premier League and Championship clubs, into the draw for the Third Round Proper, in the modern era, only one non-league team has ever reached the quarter finals, and teams below Level 2 have never reached the final. As a result, as well as who wins, significant focus is given to those minnows who progress furthest, especially if they achieve an unlikely giant-killing victory. Winners receive the FA Cup trophy, of which there have two designs and five actual cups, the latest is a 2014 replica of the second design. Winners also qualify for European football and a place in the FA Community Shield match, in 1863, the newly founded Football Association published the Laws of the Game of Association Football, unifying the various different rules in use before then. On 20 July 1871, in the offices of The Sportsman newspaper, the inaugural FA Cup tournament kicked off in November 1871. After thirteen games in all, Wanderers were crowned the winners in the final, Wanderers retained the trophy the following year. The modern cup was beginning to be established by the 1888–89 season, following the 1914–15 edition, the competition was suspended due to the First World War, and did not resume until 1919–20. The 1922–23 competition saw the first final to be played in the newly opened Wembley Stadium, due to the outbreak of World War II, the competition was not played between the 1938–39 and 1945–46 editions. Having previously featured replays, the modern day practice of ensuring the semi-final and final matches finish on the day, was introduced from 2000 onwards. Redevelopment of Wembley saw the final played outside of England for the first time, the final returned to Wembley in 2007, followed by the semi-finals from 2008. The competition is open to any club down to Level 10 of the English football league system which meets the eligibility criteria, all clubs in the top four levels are automatically eligible. Clubs in the six levels are also eligible provided they have played in either the FA Cup. Newly formed clubs, such as F. C. United of Manchester in 2005–06 and also 2006–07, all clubs entering the competition must also have a suitable stadium
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Thackley F. C. are a football club based in Thackley, north Bradford, West Yorkshire, England. The club plays in the Northern Counties East Football League Premier Division, Thackley FC was formed in 1930, spending much of their early years in local football before joining the West Riding County Amateur League in 1939. The club then moved into county-wide leagues, spending 25 years in the West Riding County Amateur League, the club has never been relegated from that division throughout the Leagues 30-year history. Thackleys best efforts in national cup competitions have been in the FA Vase, the club has never progressed beyond the second qualifying round of either the FA Cup or the FA Trophy
Selby Town F.C.
Selby Town Football Club is an English football club based in Selby, North Yorkshire, founded in 1919. They play in the Northern Counties East League Division One, the clubs traditional rivals are Goole and Tadcaster Albion. Soon after the formation, in 1920 they were entered into the Yorkshire Football League as a founding member. During the 1930s Selby were one of the most successful clubs in the league, after the war the club managed to win two more Yorkshire League championships in 1952–53 and 1953–54 where they also reached the FA Cup 1st Round. During the 1954–55 season, they reached the Second Round of the FA Cup, the clubs record goalscorer is Graham Shepherd who notched up 158 goals between 1963 and 1982. They stayed in the Yorkshire League through its entirety, in 1982 the League became part of the new Northern Counties East Football League, which the Robins were drafted into. Selby became champions of the Northern Counties East League Division One in 1995–96 and until 2012 remained in the league they were promoted to, Northern Counties East League Premier Division. In recent seasons the club flourished under the guidance of former Player Bob Lyon, winning the Presidents Cup, Barkston Ash Cup, the 2011–12 season proved turbulent for Selby Town, with poor results resulting in a series of managerial changes. Leon Sewell was appointed as manager in July 2011 and he was replaced in September 2011, after only nine games, by Dave Heard. Heards tenure also proved to be short, with new manager Graham Hodder taking over in January 2012, at this point the club lay in bottom place in the league. The Robins moved from the Bowling Green across town to the current Flaxley Road ground on Richard Street which was built in the early 1950s. They hope to be moving soon to a brand new Conference-standard stadium on East Common Lane next to Selby College, the clubs highest attendance of 7,000 was in 1954 when they played Bradford Park Avenue in the FA Cup 1st Round. As a result of a deal the Flaxley Road ground was renamed the Selby Times Stadium. In August 2010 a new three season sponsorship deal with Rigid Group led to the stadium being renamed the Rigid Group Stadium, from 2012 the stadium is now known as the Fairfax Plant Hire Stadium. FPH being a local business which supports the Robins. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. President, A. Carter Chairman, Ralph Pearse Secretary, Thomas Arkley Treasurer, Mrs. R
Liversedge F. C. is a football club based in Cleckheaton, England, on the border with Hightown in Liversedge. For the 2013–14 season, they play in the Northern Counties East Football League Premier Division, prior to the 2004–05 season the ground had a large slope from the north to the south. The pitch was dug up in closed season of 2005, Liversedge had to play their first few games away for the 2005–06 season while the turf bedded in. Liversedge have been close to promotion into a league, including the 2005–06 season. However, there were not sufficient facilities for promotion to the Northern Premier League, Sedge have an under-19s team who play in the Northern U19 Alliance League West Division. The draw saw them in the draw for the first round proper of the Cup. Coalville won the replay 2–0 to face Wycombe Wanderers and that season saw Sedge finish the highest they have ever finished in the NCEL, finishing second behind high paying Buxton. Promotion wasnt to be as the ground was not up to the standard at that time. Several teams tried to sign him and he left for Garforth Town in early December. Despite leaving for a Northern Premier League team so early in the season Walker still finished top scorer in the Northern Counties East League Premier Division at the end of the season. On Sunday 25 July 2010 Sedge played a match to mark the clubs centenary against a Legends XI including Peter Beagrie. The Legends won 2–1 with both their goals being scored by Chris Freestone and it was Sean Regan and his assistant Billy Millers last game in charge before Regan left to join Scunthorpe United to work with their junior sides. His replacement as manager, Stuart Waddington, left after a start to the season and was replaced by the returning Billy Miller together with Player/Assistant Manager Cory Larkin. As of 20 July 2016 Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality
Northwich Victoria F.C.
Northwich Victoria Football Club is an English football club based in Northwich, Cheshire, playing their home games at Wincham Park, Northwich, the home of Witton Albion. The new club was a member of several leagues including the Football League Second Division. They played at the same Drill Field ground for over 125 years, at the time Drill Field was believed to be the oldest ground in the world on which football had been continuously played. The generally accepted year for the original Northwich Victoria Football Clubs founding is 1874 by Charles James Hughes and James Heyworth, however, according to club historian Ken Edwards book A Team for All Seasons, the organisation itself could have been in existence earlier in the 1870s. Northwich played their first challenge matches in the 1874 season and originally accepted both association football and rugby rules. This was shown in 1876 when they contested a match under Rugby rules at Farnworth and Appleton F. C. and then at home under association rules. The first time the club entered a competition was the 1877 Welsh Cup. Its best achievement in the competition was in the 1881–82 and 1888–89 seasons, when they reached the final in 1882, they were the first English club to do so. In 1880, the club entered the competition for the new Cheshire Football Association Challenge Cup. They went on to win the cup for the five seasons, defeating in the finals, Birkenhead, Northwich Novelty, Crewe Alexandra. In 1890, the became a founding member of the second incarnation of The Combination. In their second season in the league they finished as runners-up, a great leap forward was taken in 1892, when Northwich became one of the founding members of the English Second Division, which saw the team turn professional. In the leagues inaugural season, Northwich finished 7th, the highest finish in the clubs history and it was during the latter stages of this season that Northwich acquired the services of Billy Meredith, the Welsh International, who is widely regarded as the first football superstar. It was said by many that Finnerhan made Meredith, another notable result was holding Woolwich Arsenal to a 2–2 draw at the Drill Field. However, as a result of their position at the bottom of the league. Up to the middle of decade, Northwich played in red. However a major change in the clubs livery occurred when they adopted the colours they wear today, green. Lured by the chance of increased revenues, the joined the Manchester League in the 1900–01 season
Washington Football Club is a football club based in Washington, Tyne and Wear, England. The club was formed by the miners at the local F-Pit Colliery in the early 20th century as Washington Colliery F. C. The modern club was established in 1947 and joined the Wearside League in 1968, in the 1977–78 season, they reached the third round of the FA Vase. The club won promotion to the Northern Football League Division One after winning their last seven games of the 2014–15 season and it was their highest league standing since the 2003–04 season. Little is known of the prior to 1926–27 when the club became a founder member in division 2 of the North Eastern League. Prior to this it was known the club did exist but mainly in playing friendlies against other local pits such as Usworth Colliery. A notable player from the era was Ronnie Starling, who went on to captain Sheffield Wednesday to the FA Cup. The club won the Division 2 title in the 1927–28 season and were promoted to division one and this period however did produce their most famous son, Jimmy Hagan, who went on to represent England. He later managed the famous Benfica team that won three successive Portuguese championships between 1971 and 1973 and he was also briefly manager of Sporting Lisbon during the 1976-77 season. The Colliery stayed in the league until 1964 when they moved to the Northern Alliance League and their tenure in that league lasted only one year where then club secretary Billy Benson was successful in applying to become a member of the Wearside league under the name Washington F. C. Their greatest moment was in 1970/71 reaching the FA Cup 4th qualifying round where they were defeated 3–0 by professional league team Bradford Park Avenue, currently Washington play in the Northern league and are semi-professional with paid players. Players that have played/managed in the Football League or any equivalent to this level. Players that hold a club record, alfred Douglas Washington FC Club website Durham Alliance Football League Winners The History of the Wearside Football League History
Pickering Town F.C.
Pickering Town Football Club is an English football club based in Pickering, North Yorkshire. The club was founded in 1888 and are currently in the Northern Counties East League Premier Division, Pickering Town Football Club were first established in 1888, for many years the club competed in the local football leagues. One of the leagues they competed in was the York Football League which they joined Division Two. They were promoted to the top division after only one season. In the early 1950s, the York League was heavily contended between York Railway Institute, Market Weighton and Pickering Town, indeed, these were the teams in the top three when Pickering Town first won the York League in 1955–56. The club dropped in form for the rest of the decade in comparison, during the 1959–60 season, they finished as league runners-up to Dringhouses. Pickering eventually joining the Yorkshire Football League Division Three in 1972 and they started well in the league, and during their second season were promoted to Division Two as champions. Pickering Town finished as runners-up to Bridlington Town in the 1974–75 season and they dropped in form a couple of seasons later, getting relegated in two successive seasons. For the rest of the decade Pickering lingered around the mid parts of the Yorkshire League Division Three, in 1982 they became founding members of the Northern Counties East Football League and were in the NCE Premier Division from 1992. It was around this time that the club first entered the FA Challenge Cup, they knocked out Penrith before losing to North Yorkshire rivals, Northallerton Town in the next round. A few seasons later in 1996–97, they knocked out Pontefract Collieries 2–1 in the competition, but lost to Bishop Auckland in the next round. In terms of the draw, the club has had bad luck in the competition, as every time they reached the 1st Qualifying Round. In 1999 Pickering were relegated to the NCE First Division and this was to last only two seasons and promotion back to the Premier Division came in 2001. The club underwent a transformation with manager Jimmy Reid and his assistant Steve Brown in charge. Reid was a player with St Johnstone and York City and Brown a former Pikes player. At the end of 2001–02 season Jimmy Reid left the club, at the start of the 2002–03 season 5 first team regulars were lost for a variety of reasons which left the club struggling for much of the season. 2003–04 season was a one for the club as they were in the top half of the league table all season and for much of it, with games in hand. In the 2005–06 season the club reached the finals of the FA Vase the furthest in the clubs history
The Football Association
The Football Association, also known simply as the FA, is the governing body of association football in England, and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man. Formed in 1863, it is the oldest football association in the world and is responsible for overseeing all aspects of the amateur, the FA sanctions all competitive football matches within its remit at national level, and indirectly at local level through the County Football Associations. It runs numerous competitions, the most famous of which is the FA Cup, the FA is a member of both UEFA and FIFA and holds a permanent seat on the International Football Association Board which is responsible for the laws of the game. As the first football association, it not use the national name English in its title. The FA is based at Wembley Stadium, London, the FA is a member of the British Olympic Association, meaning that the FA has control over the mens and womens Great Britain Olympic football team. All of Englands professional football teams are members of the Football Association, although it does not run the day-to-day operations of the Premier League, it has veto power over the appointment of the League Chairman and Chief Executive and over any changes to league rules. The English Football League, made up of the three professional divisions below the Premier League, is self-governing, subject to the FAs sanctions. Another set of rules, the Sheffield Rules, was used by a number of clubs in the North of England from the 1850s, eleven London football clubs and schools representatives met on 26 October 1863 to agree on common rules. The founding clubs present at the first meeting were Barnes, Civil Service, Crusaders, Forest of Leytonstone, many of these clubs are now defunct or play rugby union. Civil Service FC, who now plays in the Southern Amateur League, is the one of the original eleven football clubs still in existence. There are only three institutions which have been members of the F. A. since 1863, those being Civil Service, Forest School and Kings College. Central to the creation of the Football Association and modern football was Ebenezer Cobb Morley and he was a founding member of the Football Association in 1863. In 1862, as captain of Barnes, he wrote to Bells Life newspaper proposing a governing body for the sport led to the first meeting at The Freemasons Tavern that created the FA. He was the FAs first secretary and its president and drafted the Laws of the Game generally called the London Rules at his home in Barnes. As a player, he played in the first ever match in 1863, the first version of the rules for the modern game was drawn up over a series of six meetings held in The Freemasons Tavern from October till December. Of the clubs at the first meeting, Crusaders, Surbiton and Charterhouse did not attend the subsequent meetings, replaced instead by the Royal Navy School, Wimbledon School, at the final meeting, F. M. Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA, the term soccer dates back to this split to refer to football played under the association rules. The Richmond side were obviously unimpressed by the new rules in practice because they helped form the Rugby Football Union in 1871
English Football League
The English Football League is a league competition featuring professional football clubs from England and Wales. Founded in 1888 as the Football League, the league is the oldest such competition in world football and it was the top-level football league in England from its foundation in the 19th century until 1992, when the top 22 clubs split away to form the Premier League. The league has 72 clubs evenly divided into three divisions, which are known as the Championship, League One and League Two, with 24 clubs in each division, the Football League has been associated with a title sponsor between 1983 and 2016. As this sponsor changed over the years the league too has been known by various names, the English Football League is also the name of the governing body of the league competition, and this body also organises two knock-out cup competitions, the EFL Cup and the EFL Trophy. The operations centre of the Football League is in Preston, while its commercial office is in London, the commercial office was formerly based in Lytham St Annes, after its original spell in Preston. The Football League consists of 70 professional association football clubs in England and 2 in Wales and it runs the oldest professional football league competition in the world. It also organises two knockout cup competitions, the Football League Cup and Football League Trophy, the Football League was founded in 1888 by then Aston Villa director William McGregor, originally with 12 member clubs. Steady growth and the addition of more divisions meant that by 1950 the League had 92 clubs, the Football League therefore no longer includes the top 20 clubs who belong to this group, although promotion and relegation between the Football League and the Premier League continues. In total,136 teams have played in the Football League up to 2013, the Football Leagues 72 member clubs are grouped into three divisions, the Football League Championship, Football League One, and Football League Two. Each division has 24 clubs, and in any season a club plays each of the others in the same division twice, once at their home stadium. This makes for a total of 46 games played each season, clubs gain three points for a win, one for a draw, and none for a defeat. At the end of the season, clubs at the top of their division may win promotion to the higher division. At the top end of the competition, three Championship clubs win promotion from the Football League to the Premier League, with the bottom three Premier League clubs taking their places, reserve teams of Football League clubs usually play in the Central League or the Football Combination. Since the 2004–05 season, penalties have existed for clubs entering financial administration during the season and it is also required that a club exiting administration agree a Creditors Voluntary Agreement, and pay in full any other footballing creditors. Failure to do either of these result in a second. The other main situation in which is a club may lose points is by fielding an improperly registered or otherwise ineligible player. If a club is found to have done this, then any points earned from any match that player participated in will be deducted, the EFL organises two knock-out cup competitions, the EFL Cup and the EFL Trophy. The EFL Cup was established in 1960 and is open to all EFL and Premier League clubs, the EFL Trophy is for clubs belonging to EFL League One and EFL League Two