Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
M-Sport is an auto racing team based at Dovenby Hall near Cockermouth, England, United Kingdom. They are the current World Rally Champions 2017. Formed in 1979 by the former WRC driver Malcolm Wilson, known as Malcolm Wilson Motorsport, the team has had varying success running cars in several rally championships. Since 1996, M-Sport has prepared and run the official Ford World Rally Team cars in the World Rally Championship and since 2014 the company is the official Bentley Motorsport outfit, competing in the Blancpain Endurance Series. Formed in 1979 under the name Malcolm Wilson Motorsport, the company was next door to Wilsons' house near Cockermouth. Following the career of Malcolm Wilson as a driver, the company grew through the 1980s, with rapid expansion in the early 1990s reflecting the success that the company was having throughout the world with the Ford Escort RS Cosworth. In 1994, the team won national titles in Italy, the Middle East, indeed the British Rally Championship with Malcolm Wilson himself behind the wheel of the Escort.
At the end of 1996, Ford Motorsport selected the company to spearhead the Ford team's entry for the 1997 World Rally Championship season with the new derivative of the Ford Escort WRC. The start of the 1997 WRC season saw the name change to M-Sport. Victories in Greece and Indonesia saw faith in the small team rewarded, they went on to finish runner-up in the manufacturers' championship. By the middle of 1998, Ford chose M-Sport to design and build the new Ford Focus WRC; the new car appeared in 1999 with a new driver — Colin McRae — and sprang to the attention of the world press by recording fastest stage times on its first event, the Monte Carlo Rally. However, the two cars entered were excluded from the event due to the use of an illegal modified water pump. By the third event — the Safari Rally in Kenya — the team had scored its first WRC victory. A month an on-form Colin McRae made it two in a row at the Rally of Portugal. With a move to new premises at Dovenby Hall, M-Sport expanded employing over 170 people.
In 2006, the Wilson-led Ford team took the manufacturers' World Rally championship title. For the 2008 season, the company employed the driving talents of Mikko Hirvonen and Jari-Matti Latvala in their challenge for the World Rally Championship; the 2009 season saw Mikko Hirvonen and Citroën's Sébastien Loeb fight a fought battle throughout the year which ended with Loeb the victor by just one point. Beside the official Ford cars, the team ran two cars on behalf of the M-Sport Ford World Rally Team. Matthew Wilson and Henning Solberg were the two drivers competing in 2010. On occasions, a third car was run with a "guest" driver. Argentinian team Munchi's Ford World Rally Team entrusts the preparation and running of its car to M-Sport; the driver running for the team in the 2010 WRC season was Federico Villagra. For the 2010 season, M-Sport ran a Ford Focus RS WRC 08 for Ken Block on behalf of the Monster World Rally Team. At the beginning of 2009 Ford with M-Sport started work on a S2000 rally version of the new Ford Fiesta.
The new car, designed by Christian Loriaux, was launched on 18 November 2009 at M-Sport's headquarters. The car will made its public debut as a course car at the IRC Rally Scotland driven by Matthew Wilson. Ford did not run a works entry in the 2010 IRC but M-Sport did its own programme of events with Ford's support both on the technical and financial side. M-Sport announced on 8 January 2010 that it was entering the IRC which means that Ford will be a registered manufacturer in the series. Works Ford WRC driver Mikko Hirvonen gave the car its first competitive outing on the Monte Carlo Rally leading the event from start to finish. A number of private entry were made in the 2010 Super 2000 World Rally Championship; the company runs the one-make Fiesta Sporting Trophy rally series, which it launched in 2006, the Fiesta Sporting Trophy International series. M-Sport started preparing Bentley Continental GT3 for Blancpain Endurance Series and British GT Championship in 2014. M-Sport supplies Ford Fiesta Rallycross Supercars to Global Rallycross Championship teams Hoonigan Racing Division since 2013, Chip Ganassi Racing and Bryan Herta Autosport since 2015.
M-Sport, alongside Ford Performance and Hoonigan Racing Division has developed Ford Focus RS RX, scheduled to competing in 2016 FIA World Rallycross Championship. Ford Racing Ford TeamRS Ford Focus RS WRC Ford Fiesta RS WRC Ford Fiesta RRC Ford Fiesta S2000 Ford Fiesta R5 Ford World Rally Team Official M-Sport website Official Ford Fiesta R2 website Ford Motorsport website Stobart Motorsport WRC team website
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Lamborghini Huracán is a sports car manufactured by Italian automotive manufacturer Lamborghini replacing the previous V10 offering, the Gallardo. The Huracán made its worldwide debut at the 2014 Geneva Auto Show, was released in the market in the second quarter of 2014; the LP 610-4 designation comes from the fact that this car has 610 metric horsepower and 4 wheel drive, while LP stands for "Longitudinale Posteriore", which refers to the longitudinal mid-rear engine position. The Huracán's name is inspired by a Spanish fighting bull. Names from historical Spanish fighting bulls has been the traditional naming scheme of most Lamborghini car models. Huracán was a bull known for its courage that fought in 1879. Huracan is the Mayan god of wind and fire; the Huracán maintains the 5.2-litre aspirated Audi/Lamborghini V10 engine from the Gallardo, tuned to generate a maximum power output of 449 kW. To ensure its balance and performance, the car is mid-engined; the engine has both direct fuel injection and multi-point fuel injection.
It combines the benefits of both of these systems. To increase its efficiency, the Huracán's engine includes a start-stop system. With a curb weight of 1,553 kg, the Huracán LP610-4 has a power-to-weight ratio of 2.55 kg per horsepower. 0–97 km/h: 2.5 seconds 0–300 km/h: 27.6 seconds 0–1⁄4 mile: 10.4 seconds at 217 km/h 0–1 km: 19.1 seconds at 272.20 km/h Maximum speed: 341 km/h The Huracán has an electronically controlled all-wheel drive system, which aims to increase the traction on various surfaces and the overall performance of the car. The car has Lamborghini's new ` Doppia Frizione' gearbox; the transmission performs differently depending on the mode. The Huracán will only be available with an automatic transmission; the Huracán has a magnetically controlled suspension system. It utilises magnetorheological dampers to quickly change how the suspension acts, ensuring performance as well as usability; the Huracan has various components in common with the second generation of the Audi R8. This is due to the sharing of Volkswagen's sports car technology among both of the cars.
The Huracán has various interior options for more comfort inside the car. It has a choice for full electric control and heating of the sport seats in addition to the standard lengthwise alignment and electric backrest; the car has an optional navigation system and leather upholstering. The Huracán is one of the first sports cars moving the infotainment system out of the center stack: Lamborghini Infotainment System; the result: a display that lets the driver decide what they want to see. It is the first Lamborghini automobile to use the 12.3 inch TFT virtual cockpit from parent company Audi, available with high-definition 3D computer graphics, Google Earth GPS navigation and Multi Media Interface-like menu and dashboard controls, all powered by Nvidia Tegra 3. Various aspects of the Huracán are technologically advanced; the car has full LED headlamps. The Huracán has optional "Lamborghini Dynamic Steering" to add to the standard power steering; the Dynamic Steering changes the steering performance from normal, comfortable steering to a racing feeling.
The main control for changing the car's performance according to driving conditions is the mode selector ANIMA. ANIMA controls the engine, the transmission, LDS, the all-wheel drive, magnetorheological suspension, the electronic stability control; the Lamborghini Piattaforma Inerziale carries out precise measurements of the vehicle movements using on board sensors linked to ANIMA via high-speed FlexRay CAN bus. The driver can select street, sport, or race mode to alter how systems like the engine or transmission respond while driving. Changes from Gallardo included full LED illumination, a 12.3 inch full-colour TFT instrument panel, Fine Nappa leather and Alcantara interior upholstery, redesigned dashboard and central tunnel, Iniezione Diretta Stratificata direct and indirect gasoline injections, engine Stop & Start technology, EU6 emissions regulation compliance, Lamborghini Doppia Frizione 7-speed dual-clutch transmission with 3 modes, 20-inch wheels, carbon-ceramic braking system, optional Lamborghini Dynamic Steering variable steering system and MagneRide electromagnetic damper control.
The main competitors of the Huracán include the McLaren 650S, the Audi R8, the Ferrari 458 Speciale and the 488 GTB. Extra options that increase the price of the car include interior enhancements, special paint schemes, improved suspension, a lifting system, as well as multiple components optionally available in carbon fibre, rather than aluminium. Taiwan models went on sale for NT$15,080,000; the Huracán LP 610-4 Polizia is the official police car variant produced for the Italian State Police, after the two Gallardos used by the Polizia Stradale were destroyed in the course of patrol duty. This model sports various features exclusive to the car, such as blue Polizia body colour, white stripes and lettering following the Huracán's dynamic design language, a video system positioned in the centre of the cabin with a camera fitted next to the rear view mirror, a police computer, recording equipment behind the seats, a Proof Video Data Syst
The Mercedes-AMG GT is a two-door, two-seater sports car produced in coupé and roadster form by Mercedes-AMG. The car was introduced on 9 September 2014 and was unveiled to the public in October 2014 at the Paris Motor Show. After the SLS AMG, it is the second sports car developed in-house by Mercedes-AMG. Lewis Hamilton assisted with the development; the Mercedes-AMG GT went on sale in two variants in March 2015, while a GT3 racing variant of the car was introduced in 2015. A GT4 racing variant, targeted at semi-professional drivers and based on the GT R variant, was introduced in 2017. All variants are assembled at the Mercedes-Benz plant in Germany; the interior of the Mercedes-AMG GT was previewed on 16 April 2014. The car made its debut on 9 September 2014 and was unveiled to the public in October 2014 at the Paris Motor Show with two performance options: the GT, with 340 kW, the GT S with 375 kW; the GT generates 600 N⋅m of torque, the GT S generates 650 N⋅m of torque. Shortly after its introduction, Mercedes-AMG CEO Tobias Moers promised a Black Series variant of the Mercedes-AMG GT.
The new variant called the AMG GT R had a starting price of US$129,900. The GT S was the Formula 1 safety car for the 2015 season, having made its debut in that role at the 2015 Australian Grand Prix. Since 2018 the GT R has replaced the GT S as F1's current safety car; the Mercedes-AMG family was given a facelift in 2017, along with the introduction of the GT C roadster variant and the Edition 50 model, a limited-edition derivative of the GT C variant. The key improvements made as part of the facelift include increased power output from the M178 engine for the GT and GT S variants and the inclusion of the'Panamericana' grille from the GT3, GT4 and GT R variants as standard equipment for all variants; the GT's exterior design was kept similar to that of the preceding SLS AMG. It features the wide wheel arches, lower bodywork, fastback sloping roofline of the SLS AMG, but uses forward-opening doors instead of the iconic gullwing style pioneered by the 300 SL in the 1950s; the large hood and slim windscreen have been retained.
The vehicle structure is made up of 93% aluminium, with the front module base made up of magnesium. The exterior lead designer was Mark Fetherston, whose previous works include the W176 A-Class, the CLA-Class, SLS AMG; the interior, designed by Jan Kaul, features a large centre console and decorative elements in a leather and carbon polymer design. The trunk offers room for a medium-sized suitcase; the GT uses a front mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, with the engine positioned inside of the vehicle's wheelbase. The spaceframe chassis and body are made out of aluminium alloys, while the boot lid is steel and the bonnet is made of magnesium; the suspension system is a double wishbone unit at the front and rear, with forged aluminium wishbones and hub carriers. The car is powered by a front-mid mounted M178 4-litre twin-turbo V8 engine; the engine is in "hot inside V" configuration—with exhaust manifolds and turbochargers inside the cylinder banks to reduce turbo lag—and uses dry-sump lubrication.
Power is sent to the rear wheels through a seven-speed AMG SPEEDSHIFT dual-clutch transmission. In a road test executed by Car and Driver, the GT S accelerated from 0–60 mph in 3.0 seconds, completed the quarter mile in 11.2 seconds and reached a top speed of 193 mph. The GT is the entry level variant of the Mercedes-AMG GT family; the M178 engine in this variant is tuned to an output of 469 hp and 465 lb⋅ft of torque, with the key differences between this and its more expensive siblings being a mechanical limited-slip differential, an absorbent glass mat battery, the lack of the "Race Mode" and "Race Start" mode settings in the AMG Dynamic Select adaptive drivetrain system, the lack of the AMG Ride Control adaptive suspensive system, a passive AMG Sport Exhaust System. Keyless-Go is an optional feature, as opposed to standard equipment; the GT is equipped with 19" wheels rear. The GT S is a more equipped variant of the Mercedes-AMG GT; the M178 engine in this variant is tuned to an output of 515 hp and 495 lb⋅ft of torque.
The key mechanical differences the GT S gains over the GT include an electronically controlled limited-slip differential, "Race Mode" and "Race Start" mode settings in the AMG Dynamic Select adaptive drivetrain system, AMG Ride Control adaptive suspensive system, an AMG Performance Exhaust System with dynamic flaps, a lithium-ion battery. Keyless-Go is standard equipment; the GT C is a performance oriented variant of the Mercedes-AMG GT. The M178 engine in this variant is tuned to an output of 557 502 lb ⋅ ft of torque. While the GT C retains the key mechanical differences the GT S gains over the GT, it has a wider body and active rear steering, which the GT S does not have. In the United States, the Lane Tracking and AMG Dynamic Plus option packages are standard equipment on the GT C. A limited-edition model, the Edition 50, was released as part of the debut of the GT C variant at the 2017 Detroit Auto Show; the Edition 50 features: a choice of two shades of matte paint known as designo Graphite Grey Magno and designo Cashmere White Magno.
South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations