Duke University is a private research university in Durham, North Carolina. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. In 1924, tobacco and electric power industrialist James Buchanan Duke established The Duke Endowment and the institution changed its name to honor his deceased father, Washington Duke. Duke's campus spans over 8,600 acres on three contiguous campuses in Durham as well as a marine lab in Beaufort; the main campus—designed by architect Julian Abele—incorporates Gothic architecture with the 210-foot Duke Chapel at the campus' center and highest point of elevation. East Campus, home to all first-years, contains Georgian-style architecture, while the main Gothic-style West Campus 1.5 miles away is adjacent to the Medical Center. The university administers two concurrent schools in Asia, Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore and Duke Kunshan University in Kunshan, China; as of 2018, 13 Nobel laureates and 3 Turing Award winners have been affiliated with the university.
Further, Duke alumni include 25 Churchill Scholars. The university has produced the 5th highest number of Rhodes, Truman and Udall Scholars of any American university between 1986 and 2015; as of 2018, Duke holds a top-ten position in several national rankings. Duke started in 1838 as Brown's Schoolhouse, a private subscription school founded in Randolph County in the present-day town of Trinity. Organized by the Union Institute Society, a group of Methodists and Quakers, Brown's Schoolhouse became the Union Institute Academy in 1841 when North Carolina issued a charter; the academy was renamed Normal College in 1851 and Trinity College in 1859 because of support from the Methodist Church. In 1892, Trinity College moved to Durham due to generosity from Julian S. Carr and Washington Duke and respected Methodists who had grown wealthy through the tobacco and electrical industries. Carr donated land in 1892 for the original Durham campus, now known as East Campus. At the same time, Washington Duke gave the school $85,000 for an initial endowment and construction costs—later augmenting his generosity with three separate $100,000 contributions in 1896, 1899, 1900—with the stipulation that the college "open its doors to women, placing them on an equal footing with men."
In 1924 Washington Duke's son, James B. Duke, established The Duke Endowment with a $40 million trust fund. Income from the fund was to be distributed to hospitals, the Methodist Church, four colleges. William Preston Few, the president of Trinity at the time, insisted that the institution be renamed Duke University to honor the family's generosity and to distinguish it from the myriad other colleges and universities carrying the "Trinity" name. At first, James B. Duke thought the name change would come off as self-serving, but he accepted Few's proposal as a memorial to his father. Money from the endowment allowed the University to grow quickly. Duke's original campus, East Campus, was rebuilt from 1925 to 1927 with Georgian-style buildings. By 1930, the majority of the Collegiate Gothic-style buildings on the campus one mile west were completed, construction on West Campus culminated with the completion of Duke Chapel in 1935. In 1878, Trinity awarded A. B. degrees to three sisters—Mary and Theresa Giles—who had studied both with private tutors and in classes with men.
With the relocation of the college in 1892, the Board of Trustees voted to again allow women to be formally admitted to classes as day students. At the time of Washington Duke's donation in 1896, which carried the requirement that women be placed "on an equal footing with men" at the college, four women were enrolled. In 1903 Washington Duke wrote to the Board of Trustees withdrawing the provision, noting that it had been the only limitation he had put on a donation to the college. A woman's residential dormitory was built in 1897 and named the Mary Duke Building, after Washington Duke's daughter. By 1904, fifty-four women were enrolled in the college. In 1930, the Woman's College was established as a coordinate to the men's undergraduate college, established and named Trinity College in 1924. Engineering, taught since 1903, became a separate school in 1939. In athletics, Duke hosted and competed in the only Rose Bowl played outside California in Wallace Wade Stadium in 1942. During World War II, Duke was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a navy commission.
In 1963 the Board of Trustees desegregated the undergraduate college. Duke enrolled its first graduate students in 1961; the school did not admit Black undergraduates until September 1963. The teaching staff remained all-White until 1966. Increased activism on campus during the 1960s prompted Martin Luther King Jr. to speak at the University in November 1964 on the progress of the Civil Rights Movement. Following Douglas Knight's resignation from the office of university president, Terry Sanford, the former governor of North Carolina, was elected president of the university in 1969, propelling The Fuqua School of Business' opening, the William R. Perkins library completion, the founding of the Institute of Policy Sciences and Public Affairs; the separate Woman's College merged back with Trinity as the liberal arts college for both men and women in 1972. Beginning in the 1970s, Duke administrators began a long-term effort to strengthen Duke's r
Josh Hart is an American professional basketball player for the Los Angeles Lakers of the National Basketball Association. He was selected with the 30th overall pick by the Utah Jazz in the 2017 NBA draft before getting traded to the Los Angeles Lakers on draft night. Hart played college basketball for Villanova; as a sophomore, Hart was named the Big East Tournament most outstanding player. He was named a third-team All-American as a junior, when he helped lead the Wildcats to a national championship in 2016; as a senior in 2017, he was a consensus first-team All-American. Hart was born on March 6, 1995 in Silver Spring, Maryland to Pat Hart, he has Moses Joseph Hart and Aimee Hart. He is the great-nephew of the baseball catcher Elston Howard. Growing up, Hart earned a reputation as a high-energy player, he attended Sidwell Friends School, where as a junior he averaged 20.6 points and 11.6 rebounds per game. However, he was nearly kicked out of school due to poor grades until several students and parents petitioned the school to give him a second chance.
As a senior, Hart averaged 24.3 points, 13.4 rebounds and 2.8 steals per game in leading the team to a 22-9 record. He was a first team All-Met selection by the Washington Post and Rivals.com's 82nd ranked prospect in the class of 2013. After considering Rutgers and Penn State, Hart signed a letter of intent with Villanova in November 2012. "It's about doing the things that the coaches want me to do," he said after committing. "I might not hit the winning three but I'm going to be the one that goes and gets a rebound when we need it and goes on the floor for a loose ball, anything to win." He got to know future Villanova teammate Kris Jenkins while playing AAU basketball in the Washington area. Hart was awarded Boy Scouts of America's highest rank, Eagle Scout, became one of only three known Eagle Scouts who have played in the NCAA's Final Four He is the only Eagle Scout to start on an NCAA Men's Basketball Championship team. A 2013-14 Big East All-Rookie Team selection, Hart averaged 7.8 points and 4.0 rebounds per contest as a freshman at Villanova.
He was named Big East Rookie of the Week three times. He did not shoot the ball well, making 31 percent of his three-point tries, but possessed "amazing confidence," according to assistant coach Baker Dunleavy. In the second game of his collegiate career, a 90–59 win over Mount St. Mary's, Hart posted a double-double of 17 points and 11 rebounds, he scored a season-high 19 points in an 88–67 win over Rider on December 21, 2013. Hart had 18 points and eight rebounds in a loss to Seton Hall in the Big East tournament quarterfinals. Hart and teammate Darrun Hilliard both scored 20 points in an 85-62 rout of Temple on December 14, 2014. Hart scored 21 points in a December 20 game against Syracuse; the Wildcats never led in regulation and were down by 14 points in the second half, but managed to pull out an 82-77 overtime win. On February 28, 2015, in the second half of a game against Xavier, Hart was hit in the mouth during a scramble for the ball, requiring stitches on his lip; as a sophomore, Hart was named the Big East's sixth man of the year at the conclusion of the regular season.
"He's the perfect sixth man because he can come in and play any position except point guard," head coach Jay Wright said. Hart was the most outstanding player of the 2015 Big East Men's Basketball Tournament, the first bench player to receive the honor, he was the tournament's leading scorer at 17.7 points per game, including a 20-point performance in an 84-49 quarterfinals victory over Marquette. He improved his three-point shooting to 47.3 percent, forcing opposing teams to guard him more on the perimeter. He improved his season averages to 4.5 rebounds per game. Hart's 2015–16 Wildcats were the unanimous coaches preseason selection to win the conference. In the NIT season tip-off, Hart scored a career-high 27 points to help Villanova defeat Akron by a score of 75-56. On January 2, 2016, Hart scored 25 points in a win over Creighton. Hart led the Wildcats to reach number one in the AP Poll by climbing to the top of the 2015–16 NCAA Division I men's basketball rankings on February 8, he was named to the 35-man midseason watchlist for the Naismith Trophy on February 11.
At the conclusion of the regular season, Hart was unanimously selected first-team All-Big East. Hart was named a third-team All-American by the National Association of Basketball Coaches He helped Villanova win its second national championship in school history, first since 1985. On the season, he averaged 15.5 points, 6.8 rebounds, 1.8 assists per game. Hart thought about the 2016 NBA Draft, but pulled his name out before the deadline. Coming into his senior season, Hart's Wildcats were projected to win the Big East by the coaches and he was named Preseason Player of the Year, he was named to the Associated Press preseason All-America team on November 2, 2016. In November Hart scored a then-career high 30 points vs Wake Forest in a 96–77 win at the Charleston Classic. On December 10, Hart scored a career-high 37 points along with 11 rebounds and four assists in a 74–66 win over Notre Dame to push No. 1 Villanova to a 10–0 record. On March 11, 2017, in the regular season finale versus Creighton Bluejays Hart scored 29 points in a 74–60 win.
Unlike the previous season, Hart's Villanova career would end in the 2nd round disappointment, when Bronson Koenig outgunned Hart and the other Wildcats while leading the Wisconsin Badgers to a 55-53 victory. On June 22, 2017, Hart was drafted 30th overall in the 2017 NBA draft by the Utah Jazz, he was subsequently traded to the Los Angeles Lakers along with the 42nd overall pick, Thomas Bryant
Jason Frederick Kidd is an American professional basketball coach and former player. He most served as the head coach of the Milwaukee Bucks of the National Basketball Association. A point guard in the NBA, Kidd was a ten-time NBA All-Star, a five-time All-NBA First Team member, a nine-time NBA All-Defensive Team member, he won an NBA Championship in 2011 as a member of the Dallas Mavericks, was a two-time Olympic Gold Medal winner during his pro career, as part of Team USA in 2000 and 2008. He was inducted as a player into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. Kidd played college basketball for the California Golden Bears and was drafted second overall by the Dallas Mavericks in the first round of the 1994 NBA draft, he was named co-NBA Rookie of the Year in his first season with the Mavericks. From 1996 to 2001, Kidd played for the Phoenix Suns and for the New Jersey Nets from 2001 to 2008, he led the Nets to two consecutive NBA Finals appearances in 2002 and 2003. In the middle of the 2007–08 season, Kidd was traded back to Dallas.
At age 38, Kidd won his only NBA championship. He finished his playing career in 2013 with the New York Knicks; the following season, he became the head coach of the Nets, who had relocated from New Jersey to Brooklyn. After one season, he was traded to the Milwaukee Bucks, where he coached for four seasons until he was fired mid-season in 2018. Kidd's ability to pass and rebound made him a regular triple-double threat, he retired ranked third all-time in the NBA for regular season triple-doubles with a career total of 107 and third in playoff triple-doubles with a career total of 11, he ranks second on the NBA all-time lists in career assists and steals and ninth in 3-point field goals made. Kidd was born in San Francisco, raised in an upper middle class section of Oakland, his father, was African-American, his mother, Anne, is Irish-American. As a youth, Kidd was scouted for AAU teams and tourneys, garnering various all-star and MVP awards, he attended the East Oakland Youth Development Center and frequented the city courts of Oakland, where he found himself pitted against future NBA Hall of Famer Gary Payton.
At St. Joseph Notre Dame High School in Alameda, under the guidance of coach Frank LaPorte, Kidd led the Pilots to consecutive state championships, averaging 25 points, 10 assists, 7 rebounds and 7 steals his senior season. During that year, he received a host of individual honors, including the Naismith Award as the nation's top high school player, was named Player of the Year by PARADE and USA Today; the all-time prep leader in assists and the state's seventh-highest career scorer, Kidd was voted California Player of the Year for the second time and a McDonald's All-American. On January 31, 2012, Kidd was honored. After a publicized recruiting process, Kidd shocked many fans and pundits alike by choosing to attend the nearby University of California, Berkeley—a school, coming off a 10–18 season and had not won a conference title since 1960—over a number of top-ranked collegiate programs including the University of Arizona, the University of Kentucky, the University of Kansas, Ohio State University.
In his first year playing for the Golden Bears, Kidd averaged 13.0 points, 7.7 assists, 4.9 rebounds, 3.8 steals per game which earned him national Freshman of the Year honors and a spot on the All-Pac-10 team. His 110 steals set an NCAA record for most steals by a freshman and set school record for most steals in a season, while his 220 assists that season was a school record, his play was a key factor in the resurgence of Cal basketball and helped the Golden Bears earn an NCAA Tournament bid, where they upset two-time defending national champion Duke in the second round of that tournament before losing to Kansas in the Sweet 16. Kidd continued his success as a sophomore, tallying averages of 16.7 points, 6.9 rebounds, 3.1 steals and 9.1 assists, breaking his previous school record for most assists in a season with 272, while leading the nation in that category. He was selected a First Team All-American, the first Cal player to be so named since 1968, as well as Pac-10 Player of the Year, becoming the first sophomore to receive that honor.
The Golden Bears made the NCAA Tournament again as a fifth seed, but was upset in the first round by Dick Bennett's Wisconsin–Green Bay team 61–57. Kidd was named a finalist for both the Naismith and Wooden Awards as college basketball's top player and subsequently opted to enter the NBA draft in 1994. In 2004, Cal retired Kidd's number 5 jersey. Kidd was selected as the second pick overall by the Dallas Mavericks, behind Glenn Robinson of Purdue, just ahead of Duke's Grant Hill. In his first year, he averaged 11.7 points, 5.4 rebounds and 7.7 assists, led the NBA in triple doubles, sharing 1995 NBA Rookie of the Year honors with Hill of the Detroit Pistons. The year before the Mavericks drafted Kidd, they finished the season with the worst record in the NBA at 13–69. After Kidd's first season with the Mavericks, their record improved to 36–46, the largest improvement in the NBA. In the following season Kidd was voted a starter in the 1996 All-Star Game. In his first two years with the Mavericks, the move most people associated him with was "the baseball pass".
Kidd was a member of the "Three J's" in Dallas along with Jamal Mashburn. After promising beginnings, things turned sour among the trio. Mashburn's injury combined with deteriorated personal relations between the immature leaders of the team resulted in the Mavericks taking a step backwards instead of further development. Kidd's continued
Luke Theodore Walton is an American professional basketball coach and former player, the head coach of the Sacramento Kings of the National Basketball Association. He played 10 seasons in the NBA as a forward, he won a title as an assistant coach with the Golden State Warriors. Walton played college basketball with the Arizona Wildcats, he was a second-team All-American and a two-time first-team all-conference selection in the Pac-10. He was selected in the second round of the 2003 NBA draft by the Lakers. After the 2010 NBA Finals and his father, Hall of Famer Bill Walton, became the first father and son to have both won multiple NBA championships: Bill won in 1977 and 1986, Luke in 2009 and 2010, his best season statistically was 2006–07 with over 11 points, 5 rebounds, over 4 assists per game. As the Warriors' interim head coach in 2015–16, he guided the team to the longest winning streak to open a season in league history; the son of former UCLA star and NBA Hall-of-Famer Bill Walton, Luke Walton was named after his father's close friend and former Portland Trail Blazers teammate Maurice Lucas.
He has three brothers: Adam and Chris. Walton attended University of San Diego High School in San Diego, graduating in 1998. Walton played basketball at the University of Arizona under coach Lute Olson, his best year statistically was as a junior, when he averaged 15.7 points, 7.3 rebounds, 6.3 assists, 1.6 steals and 0.6 blocks per game. During his senior year he averaged 5.6 rebounds, 5.1 assists and 0.9 steals per game. Walton graduated from Arizona in the spring of 2003 after completing work in family studies and human development. Walton was selected by the Los Angeles Lakers in the 2003 NBA draft with the second pick of the second round. Walton was a favorite of Lakers fans during his nine-year stint as a selfless, hard-working reserve player, he was chosen to represent Team Los Angeles in the Shooting Stars Competition during All-Star Weekend in 2005. In 2006–07, Walton had his best year in the NBA, he scored a career-high 25 points against the Atlanta Hawks on December 8, 2006. For the season he posted career-high per-game averages in minutes, field goal percentage, blocks, rebounds and points as the Lakers starting small forward.
Following the season, on July 12, 2007, Walton was signed by the Lakers to a 6-year, $30 million contract. The Lakers made three straight runs to the NBA Finals; this gave Walton two championships as a player, the same amount. On March 15, 2012, Walton was traded along with Jason Kapono and a 2012 first-round draft choice to the Cleveland Cavaliers for Ramon Sessions and Christian Eyenga. Walton's first coaching experience was with the University of Memphis, which hired Walton as an assistant coach during the 2011 NBA lockout, he remained an assistant at Memphis. Following his retirement Walton was hired as a player development coach by the Los Angeles D-Fenders of the NBA Development League, joining the team in November 2013 for the 2013–14 season; the following season in 2014–15, Walton became an assistant coach for the Golden State Warriors. Said Walton, "We are gonna run parts of the triangle offense, I know that thing front and back." The Warriors won the 2015 NBA Finals after they defeated the Cleveland Cavaliers in six games to give Walton his third NBA championship and first as a coach.
During 2015–16 training camp in October 2015, Walton was appointed as the Warriors interim head coach when Steve Kerr took an indefinite leave of absence to rehabilitate his back, bothering him after the NBA Finals. Walton made his coaching debut in the season opener on October 27 in a 111–95 win over the New Orleans Pelicans. Three games he presided over the third-largest margin of victory in franchise history when the Warriors defeated the Memphis Grizzlies, 119–69, the largest margin in the league since 1991; the Warriors set a new NBA record by winning their first four games by a total margin of 100 points. With a win over the Los Angeles Lakers on November 24, he guided the Warriors to a 16th consecutive victory to start the season, a new NBA record. Walton was named the NBA Western Conference Coach of the Month for games played in October and November, after guiding Golden State to a 19–0 start, he received the award despite technically being winless, since the Warriors' record was credited to Kerr.
Since Kerr was still the head coach, NBA rules stipulated that the team's record under an interim coach be credited to the head coach, though the league considered altering the rule given Walton's case. However, the NBA permits an acting head coach to be eligible for coaching awards; the Warriors extended their record start to 24–0. They were 39–4, the second-best start in league history, when Kerr resumed coaching full-time on January 22, 2016. Golden State ended the season an NBA-record 73–9, Kerr was voted the NBA Coach of the Year; the coach had Walton, who coached more games during the season than Kerr, sit next to him on the podium at the award press conference. Walton finished ninth in the voting. On April 29, 2016, the Lakers hired Walton to become their new head coach once the Warriors' season ended in the 2016 NBA Finals, he replaced Byron Scott. In his first season with the Lakers, the team improved upon their franchise worst 17–65 record from the previous year, finishing 26–56. During the season, Mitch Kupchak and Jim Buss were replaced by Rob Pelinka.
Johnson and Pelinka both spoke of Walton
University of Dayton
The University of Dayton is a private Roman Catholic research university in Dayton, Ohio. Founded in 1850 by the Society of Mary, it is one of three Marianist universities in the nation and the second-largest private university in Ohio; the university's campus is in the city's southern portion and spans 388 acres on both sides of the Great Miami River. The campus is noted for the University of Dayton Arena; the University operates in China's Suzhou Industrial Park, the University of Dayton China Institute. The university has about 8,000 undergraduate and 2,200 post-graduate students from a variety of religious and geographic backgrounds, drawn from across the United States and more than 40 countries, it offers more than 80 academic programs in arts and sciences, business administration and health sciences, law and, in 2009, was first in the country to offer an undergraduate degree program in human rights. The university's notable alumni include: Ohio Lieutenant Governor Jon Husted. In 1849, on a mission to establish a presence for the Society of Mary in America, the Rev. Leo Meyer, S.
M. journeyed from Alsace in France to Cincinnati. But with a cholera epidemic raging to the north, Bishop John Baptist Purcell of the Cincinnati diocese, sent Father Meyer to Emmanuel parish in Dayton to tend to the sick. In Dayton, Father Meyer met local farmer John Stuart, who had lost his infant daughter Mary Louisa to cholera the year before. Heartbroken and his wife wanted to sell their Dewberry Farm property and return to Europe. On March 19, 1850, Father Meyer, joined by three Marianist brothers — teacher Maximin Zehler, cook Charles Schultz and gardener Andrew Edel — purchased the 125-acre hilltop farm from Stuart and renamed it Nazareth. Stuart accepted a promise of $12,000 at 6 percent interest; the property included vineyards, an orchard, a mansion, various farm buildings, the grave of Stuart's daughter, which Meyer promised to maintain. Just a few months the University of Dayton had its beginnings on July 1, 1850, when St. Mary's School for Boys opened its doors to 14 primary students from Dayton.
In September, the first boarding students arrived and classes moved to the mansion. Five years the school burned to the ground, but classes resumed within months. By 1860, when Brother Zehler became president, the enrollment was nearly 100 students; the Civil War had little direct effect on the school because most of the students were too young to serve. College preparatory classes started in 1861 along with a novitiate and school for Marianist candidates; the school would become Chaminade High School, named after the order's founder William Joseph Chaminade, which has since merged with the all-girls Julienne High school run by the Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur to form the co-educational Chaminade-Julienne High School. The core of the Historic Campus was built during this time, starting in 1865 with Zehler Hall, the iconic Immaculate Conception Chapel in 1869, St. Mary's Hall the tallest building in Dayton in 1870. In 1882 the university was incorporated and empowered to confer collegiate degrees by the State of Ohio.
When floodwaters struck the community during the Great Dayton Flood of 1913, refugees fled to St. Mary's College high on a hill south of downtown Dayton. St. Mary's College equipped to provide relief to flood victims; because students had not returned to campus from Easter break, the college was amply stocked with food and other provisions. Due to its location on the hill, electric light and heating plants were not affected, a plentiful clean water supply was available and the college had other essential facilities such as a laundry and infirmary; the college's kitchen provided meals to Miami Valley Hospital and provided 12,000 pounds of provisions to St. Elizabeth Hospital; the first night, 400 refugees took shelter at St. Mary's College. In all, the college assisted 800 refugees. Known at various times as St. Mary's School, St. Mary's Institute and St. Mary's College, the school was incorporated as the University of Dayton in 1920 to reflect its close connection with the city of Dayton as well as to claim an American identity for its Catholic students.
In 1923, the University adopted the "Dayton Flyers" nickname for its athletic teams and adopted a university seal with the motto, "Pro Deo et Patria", Latin for "For God and Country." In the 1930s, women were admitted on an equal basis with men, 40 years before most Catholic universities allowed women. The school expanded its programs in engineering, and the continued to attract the children and grandchildren of Catholic immigrants. The growing Catholic presence in Dayton during the 1920s drew the hostility of the Ku Klux Klan, which focused that hostility toward the university. On December 19, 1923, 12 bombs exploded throughout the campus and an 8-foot cross was set on fire. Several hundred Klansmen were routed by hundreds of neighborhood residents who joined students in chasing them off. In June 2014, The University of Dayton announced it will begin divesting coal and fossil fuels from its $670 million investment pool, it is believed to be the first Catholic university in the nation to take this step.
Starting in the 1960s, the University began acquiring hundreds of single-family homes and duplexes in the neighborhoods adjacent to the campus for student housing, extending the campus to Brown Street. In 2007, the Univ
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association is a men's professional basketball league in North America. It is considered to be the premier men's professional basketball league in the world; the NBA is an active member of USA Basketball, recognized by FIBA as the national governing body for basketball in the United States. The NBA is one of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. NBA players are the world's best paid athletes by average annual salary per player; the league was founded in New York City on June 1946, as the Basketball Association of America. The league adopted the name National Basketball Association on August 3, 1949, after merging with the competing National Basketball League; the league's several international as well as individual team offices are directed out of its head offices located in the Olympic Tower at 645 Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan. NBA Entertainment and NBA TV studios are directed out of offices located in New Jersey; the Basketball Association of America was founded in 1946 by owners of the major ice hockey arenas in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States and Canada.
On November 1, 1946, in Toronto, Canada, the Toronto Huskies hosted the New York Knickerbockers at Maple Leaf Gardens, in a game the NBA now refers to as the first game played in NBA history. The first basket was made by Ossie Schectman of the Knickerbockers. Although there had been earlier attempts at professional basketball leagues, including the American Basketball League and the NBL, the BAA was the first league to attempt to play in large arenas in major cities. During its early years, the quality of play in the BAA was not better than in competing leagues or among leading independent clubs such as the Harlem Globetrotters. For instance, the 1948 ABL finalist Baltimore Bullets moved to the BAA and won that league's 1948 title, the 1948 NBL champion Minneapolis Lakers won the 1949 BAA title. Prior to the 1948–49 season, however, NBL teams from Fort Wayne, Indianapolis and Rochester jumped to the BAA, which established the BAA as the league of choice for collegians looking to turn professional.
On August 3, 1949, the remaining NBL teams–Syracuse, Tri-Cities, Sheboygan and Waterloo–merged into the BAA. In deference to the merger and to avoid possible legal complications, the league name was changed to the present National Basketball Association though the merged league retained the BAA's governing body, including Podoloff. To this day, the NBA claims the BAA's history as its own, it now reckons the arrival of the NBL teams as an expansion, not a merger, does not recognize NBL records and statistics. The new league had seventeen franchises located in a mix of large and small cities, as well as large arenas and smaller gymnasiums and armories. In 1950, the NBA consolidated to eleven franchises, a process that continued until 1953–54, when the league reached its smallest size of eight franchises: the New York Knicks, Boston Celtics, Philadelphia Warriors, Minneapolis Lakers, Rochester Royals, Fort Wayne Pistons, Tri-Cities Blackhawks, Syracuse Nationals, all of which remain in the league today.
The process of contraction saw. The Hawks shifted from the Tri-Cities to Milwaukee in 1951, to St. Louis in 1955; the Rochester Royals moved from Rochester, New York, to Cincinnati in 1957 and the Pistons relocated from Fort Wayne, Indiana, to Detroit in 1957. Japanese-American Wataru Misaka broke the NBA color barrier in the 1947–48 season when he played for the New York Knicks, he remained the only non-white player in league history prior to the first African-American, Harold Hunter, signing with the Washington Capitols in 1950. Hunter was cut from the team during training camp, but several African-American players did play in the league that year, including Chuck Cooper with the Celtics, Nathaniel "Sweetwater" Clifton with the Knicks, Earl Lloyd with the Washington Capitols. During this period, the Minneapolis Lakers, led by center George Mikan, won five NBA Championships and established themselves as the league's first dynasty. To encourage shooting and discourage stalling, the league introduced the 24-second shot clock in 1954.
If a team does not attempt to score a field goal within 24 seconds of obtaining the ball, play is stopped and the ball given to its opponent. In 1957, rookie center Bill Russell joined the Boston Celtics, which featured guard Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, went on to lead the club to eleven NBA titles in thirteen seasons. Center Wilt Chamberlain entered the league with the Warriors in 1959 and became a dominant individual star of the 1960s, setting new single game records in scoring and rebounding. Russell's rivalry with Chamberlain became one of the greatest rivalries in the history of American team sports; the 1960s were dominated by the Celtics. Led by Russell, Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, Boston won eight straight championships in the NBA from 1959 to 1966; this championship streak is the longest in NBA history. They did not win the title in 1966–67, but regained it in the 1967–68 season and repeated in 1969; the domination totaled nine of the ten championship banners of the 1960s.
Through this period, the NBA continued to evolve with the shift of the Minneapolis Lakers to Los Angeles, the Philadelphia Warriors to San Francisco, the Syracuse Nationals to Philadelphia to become the Philadelphia 76ers, the St. Louis Hawks moving to Atlanta, as well as the addition of its first expansion franchises; the Chicago Packers (now Wa