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2021 will be a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2021st year of the Common Era and Anno Domini designations, the 21st year of the 3rd millennium, the 21st year of the 21st century, the 2nd year of the 2020s decade. The United Nations has declared 2021 as the International Year of Peace and Trust, the International Year of Creative Economy for Sustainable Development, the International Year of Fruits and Vegetables. March 30 – The James Webb Space Telescope is scheduled to be launched after being delayed several times. April 19 – After 62 years of government by the Castro brothers, Raúl Castro is expected to step down as First Secretary at the Eighth Congress of the Communist Party of Cuba, scheduled to take place 16 to 19 April 2021. May 6 - The United Kingdom holds a series of 2021 United Kingdom local elections which will see the whole country go to the polls for the first time when there hasn't been a general election. May 26 – The shortest total lunar eclipse of the 21st century is expected to occur, lasting just 14 minutes and 30 seconds long.

June 7 – The European Union's Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market to go effect, imposing copyright limitation on upload filters, link taxes and meme bans. July 11 – August 1 – The UEFA Women's Euro 2021 is scheduled to take place in England. August 28 – 2021 Taiwanese referendum. October 23 – November 27 – The 2021 Rugby League World Cup will take place in England. October 24 – Federal election in Germany. Planned launch of NASA's Artemis 1 mission to the Moon to test the Space Launch System rocket. India hopes to conduct its first human spaceflight in 2021. In the United States, Brood X, the largest brood of North American seventeen-year cicadas, will emerge. Costa Rica has pledged to become a carbon-neutral nation by this date; the target date has been set by President Óscar Arias. Costa Rica has pledged to ban "single use" plastic products; the target date has been set by President Luis Guillermo Solís. In the United States Amtrak's Avelia Liberty trains are expected to enter service in 2021.

In Canada, Toronto's Eglinton Crosstown light rail project is projected to be completed, the first phase of the Réseau express métropolitain in Montreal is scheduled to open. Planned opening of the Dubai Creek Tower, it will become the world's tallest tower. Jeddah Tower is due for completion, it will become the world's tallest building. The new Lagos–Ibadan Expressway in Nigeria is scheduled to be completed. Completion of the Dala Bridge in Yangon, Myanmar. 21st century in fiction § 2021

Valve stem

A valve stem is a self-contained valve which opens to admit gas to a chamber, is automatically closed and kept sealed by the pressure in the chamber, or a spring, or both, to prevent the gas from escaping. They are most used on automobile and bicycle tires, but for many other applications. Schrader valves consist of a valve stem into which a poppet valve is threaded with a spring attached, they are used on all automobile and motorbike tires, on wider rimmed bicycle tires. In addition to tires, Schrader valves of varying diameters are used in refrigeration and air conditioning systems, engine fuel injection, suspension systems, SCUBA regulators, allowing the user to remove and attach a hose while in use; the Schrader valves in the fuel injector rail of many automobiles is used as a quick and easy point to check fuel pressure or connect an injector cleaner cartridge. Presta valves are only used on bicycles; the stem has a narrower diameter than the thinnest Schrader type, so the bore of the hole in the rim through which the stem passes can be smaller.

Has a locknut that needs to be opened to inflate/deflate. Dunlop valves, were once popular in Great Britain, they are still used on bicycle tires in many countries on low to medium priced bicycles. They can be pumped up with a Presta pump. Many other valves exist that are used only for limited purposes. For example, the "Regina Valve" is a valve much similar to the Presta and being used in Italy. Invisible tire valves are different in design from traditional tire valves. An inflator stem is not used; when inflating the tire, the cap is first removed with a coin, a "portable" dedicated inflator stem is screwed onto the valve stem. Through the inflator the tire is inflated as usual. Summary of bicycle valve types by Sheldon Brown common types of valves used for bicycles advantages Of tire monitoring valve cap

Rayat ash-Shaghilah

Rayat ash-Shaghilah was a communist organization in Iraq, named after its publication with the same name. Rayat ash-Shaghilah was founded in 1953 by a group, expelled from the Iraqi Communist Party, its main spokesperson was Jamal al-Haidari. Rayat ash-Shaghilah was the largest communist splinter-group in Iraq at the time. In 1952 the Iraqi Communist Party had adopted a new party programme, more radical in its call for action than the programme in use during Fahd's leadership; the new party programme called for nationalization of oil industry, eradication of British interests and the formation of a unified popular front under communist leadership. The core of the Rayat ash-Shaghilah consisted of al-Haidari, Aziz Muhammad, Abd us-Salam al-Nasiri and Zaki Khairi, who had criticized the positions of the new party programme whilst in prison and had subsequently been expelled from the party by the party leader Basim. Several other Communist Party members, who were seen as supportive of the dissidents, were expelled.

Amongst them was Abd ur-Razzak as-Safi. In February 1953 the Communist Party main organ, al-Qaidah, denounced the dissidents as'opportunists and subversives'. Moreover, al-Qaidah made the names of the dissidents public, thus revealing their identities to the police. In response, the dissidents launched the eponymous publication; the Iraqi Communist Party would continue to attack Rayat ash-Shaghilah group throughout 1953–1954 and names of Rayat ash-Shaghilah members continued to be publicized in al-Qaidah. Rejecting the dissidents, al-Qaidah branded the group as'royalists and destructive' and collaborators of the security police. Internationally, the group proclaimed its loyalty to the Soviet Union; the group sought recognition from the World Communist Movement as the legitimate representative of the Iraqi communist movement, thus challenging the international position of the Iraqi Communist Party. Rayat ash-Shaghilah sent its own delegation to the 5th World Festival of Youth and Students held in Warsaw, Poland, in 1955.

The Communist Party of the Soviet Union did however not recognize the group and continued to identify it as a splinter-group. In mid-1955 Salam Adil became the new general secretary of the Iraqi Communist Party, he undertook moves towards unity with various dissident groups. On July 22, 1955, Adil presented a proposal to Rayat ash-Shaghilah for unification into the Communist Party; the proposal consisted of four points. Rayat ash-Shaghilah responded. However, they continued to publish political assaults on al-Qaidah. In March 1956, the Iraqi Communist Party issued a public appeal to all splinter-groups to return to the party; the appeal mentioned Rayat ash-Shaghilah, stating that reasons for their departure from the party had ceased to be relevant after the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In April 1956 another faction, the Unity of Communists of Iraq, merged with the Communist Party; that merger speedied up the merger talks between the Communist Rayat ash-Shaghilah. The unification between the two groups took place in June 1956, after a series of negotiations facilitated by the Syrian communist leader Khalid Bakdash.

The last issue of Rayat ash-Shaghilah was published in mid-June 1956, in which the group expressed self-criticism over having acting divisively in the communist movement. The Communist Party on its behalf regretted its actions during the split, claiming that the 1952 expulsions had been'childish and bureaucratic'

American Academy of Neurology

The American Academy of Neurology is a professional society representing over 36,000 neurologists and neuroscientists. As a medical specialty society it was established in 1948 by A. B. Baker of the University of Minnesota to advance the art and science of neurology, thereby promote the best possible care for patients with neurological disorders, it is based in Minnesota. In April 2012, the academy relocated its headquarters to a new 63,000-square-foot building in downtown Minneapolis; the five-story facility cost $20 million to build. The current classes of membership includes: Student- a medical student enrolled in an accredited medical/osteopathic school, or graduate students enrolled in a doctoral program. Intern- a graduate of an accredited medical/osteopathic school, engaged in their first year of residency training and will be completing post-graduate training in neurology. Junior- a graduate of an accredited medical/osteopathic school, completing training in a neurology residency program or a Ph.

D. student completing post-doctoral research training. Advanced Care Practitioner- A non-physician practitioner who devotes a majority of their time to the practice of neurology. Researcher- a professional who has dedicated his/her career to the advancement of neuroscience through research. Physician Affiliate- a physician in a specialty other than neurology or a professional practicing in a specialty related to neurology; this level of membership has both United International categories. Neurologist- a physician trained in neurology and board certified by the ABPN, AOBNP, the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada or the Collège des médecins du Québec; this level of membership has both United States and International categories Fellow of the American Academy of Neurology - The highest and most respected class of membership is awarded to selected board-certified neurologists and research neuroscientists who have demonstrated high achievements in teaching, clinical practice, administration and/or research.

Awarding of Fellowship status is based on a multi-step process involving nominations from current Fellows, a rigorous review of the nomination by the AAN Membership Application Review Subcommittee and endorsement of the AAN Executive Committee. Fellows carry the post-nominal title "FAAN"; the Fellow status has both United States subcategories. Fellows practicing outside the United States or Canada are referred to as Corresponding Fellows; the annual meeting of the AAN is attended by more than 15,000 neurologists and neuroscientists from the US and abroad. The American Academy of Neurology has formal policies for avoiding conflicts of interest with pharmaceutical and device industries, meets or exceeds all recommendations of the Council of Medical Specialty Societies Code; the AAN partnered with the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation and Consumer Reports to provide their top 5 recommendations for neurologists. Out of 178 nominations from AAN members, these 5 guidelines were selected by a panel of 4 AAN Staff and 10 experienced AAN members who voted according to a modified Delphi method.

The guidelines were published in Neurology on February 20, 2013. Don’t perform EEGs for headaches. Don’t perform imaging of the carotid arteries for simple syncope without other neurologic symptoms. Don’t use opioid or butalbital treatment for migraine except as a last resort. Don’t prescribe interferon-beta or glatiramer acetate to patients with disability from progressive, non-relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Disrecommend for asymptomatic carotid stenosis. AAN publishes the following journal: Neurology Potamkin Prize AAN website

Gun laws in Utah

Gun laws in Utah regulate the sale and use of firearms and ammunition in the state of Utah in the United States. Utah's firearm laws are some of the more permissive in the United States. Utah's firearms laws are intended to protect the second amendment rights of its law-abiding citizens, while at the same time ensuring the safety of the general public. A 2013 study ranked Utah the lowest among all 50 states in the category of gun control legislation. Under Utah law, violent crimes with firearms, criminal possession of firearms, criminal negligence with firearms may all be prosecuted as felonies, punished under state law. Being part of the Western United States and Rocky Mountain States, Utah is home to a strong gun culture. Utah allows for open carry of unloaded firearms without a concealed firearm permit. "Unloaded" as it applies here, means that there is no round in the firing position, the firearm is at least two "mechanical actions" from firing. As carrying the firearm with the chamber empty, but with a full magazine, meets this definition, this is a common work around for Utah residents who do not wish to acquire a permit.

Without the permit, the firearm must be visible. Utah requires a permit to carry a concealed firearm. With a permit, a person may carry a firearm with a loaded chamber either or concealed. Utah will honor a permit issued by any county. Utah does not require concealed carry permit holders to notify police officers of their permit or possession of firearms when stopped by police officers, but the state Bureau of Criminal Identification recommends doing so "for the safety of all involved" and to give the officer "some assurance they are most dealing with a law abiding citizen."Utah law allows for a "Non-Resident" Concealed Firearm Permits to be issued. The Utah Concealed Firearm Permit is valid in thirty-four states across the US; however there are several states that have passed statutes that do not honor a "Non-Resident" permit. For example, Colorado will honor Utah's permit, but the permittee must be a resident of Utah for his permit to be valid. Utah concealed firearm permits are "shall issue" and will be issued to anyone meeting the requirements.

Utah is a "Castle Doctrine" state, in which there is no duty to retreat before use of deadly force, if the person reasonably believes that a perpetrator is going to commit a forcible felony in the habitation*, that the force is necessary to prevent the commission of the felony. Since burglary is itself a forcible felony, it is legal to use deadly force to stop a burglar. In Utah a person may carry firearms in some places not allowed by some other states, including banks, public universities, state parks. With a permit, you may carry in schools. Utah's Uniform Firearm Laws expressly prohibits public schools from enacting or enforcing any rule pertaining to firearms. Utah requires public schools to allow lawful firearms possession. Private sales of firearms are legal in Utah to anyone over the age of 18 UCA 76-10-S509.9. Online classified websites are a common meeting place for sellers. One utilized internet site was the classified advertising section of news station KSL-TV. However, after the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting in December 2012, KSL temporarily disallowed sales or advertising of firearms.

KSL has yet to rescind their stance. There are two categories of persons who may not possess firearms or dangerous weapons under Utah law. Penalties for weapons possession by category I restricted persons are more severe than the penalties for possession by category II restricted persons. Category I covers persons who have "been convicted of any violent felony" or are "on probation or parole for any felony" or have been "within the last 10 years an adjudicated delinquent for an offense which if committed by an adult would have been a violent felony". Under Utah law, "A Category I restricted person who intentionally or knowingly agrees, offers, or arranges to purchase, possess, use, or have under his custody or control, or who intentionally or knowingly purchases, possesses, uses, or has under his custody or control any firearm is guilty of a second degree felony." Category II covers persons who have "been convicted of or are under indictment for any felony" or have "within the last seven years been an adjudicated delinquent for an offense which if committed by an adult would have been a felony" or are "an unlawful user of a controlled substance" or have "been found not guilty by reason of insanity for a felony offense" or have "been found mentally incompetent to stand trial for a felony offense" or have "been adjudicated as mentally defective as provided in the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act" or are "an alien, illegally or unlawfully in the United States" or have "has been dishonorably discharged from the armed forces" or have "renounced his citizenship after having been a citizen of the United States".

A Category II restricted person who purchases, possesses, uses, or has under his custody or control any firearm is guilty of a third degree felony under Utah law. Under Utah state law, "Any person who transfers in violation of applicable state or federal law a sawed-off rifle, sawed-off shotgun, or automatic weapon to a minor is guilty of a third degree felony." Utah is a shall issue state for permits for the concealed carry of firearms. Utah law states "The bureau shall issue a permit to carry a concealed firearm for lawful self defense to an applicant, 21 years of age or older within 60 days after receiving an application, unless the bureau finds proof that the applicant does not meet the qualifications set forth". Permits are issued to both Utah residents and non reside

Flip Keegstra

Philippus Harco "Flip" Keegstra was a sailor from the Netherlands, who represented his native country as at the 1948 Summer Olympics in Torbay. Keegstra, as crew member on the Dutch Swallow St. Margrite, took the 11th place with helmsman Wim de Vries Lentsch. In 1952 Keegstra returns to the Olympics, Helsinki, in the 5.5 Metre De Ruyter. With Helmsman Wim de Vries Lentsch and fellow crew member Piet Jan van der Giessen they took the 13th place. "Flip Keegstra Bio and Results". Olympic Sports. Archived from the original on 2014-01-04. Retrieved 2014-01-08. "DE KEUZEWEDSTRIJDEN VOOR DE OLYMPISCHE SPELEN". Nieuwsblad van Friesland: Hepkema's courant. 1946-06-25. Retrieved 2014-01-24. "Bronzen medailles voor Bob Maas en Koos de Jong". Het vrije volk: democratisch-socialistisch dagblad. 1948-08-13. Retrieved 2014-01-24. "The Official Report of the Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London 1948". 1951. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2014-01-24. "OLYMPISCHE ZEILPLOEG".

De vrije pers: ochtendbulletin. 1952-06-20. Retrieved 2014-01-26. "The Officiel Report of the Organizing Committee for the games of the XV Olympiad Helsinki 1952". 1955. Archived from the original on 2008-04-11. Retrieved 2014-01-26