Toronto Eaton Centre
The Toronto Eaton Centre is a shopping mall and office complex in Downtown Toronto, Canada. It is managed by Cadillac Fairview, it was named after the Eaton's department store chain that once anchored it before the chain became defunct in the late 1990s. The Toronto Eaton Centre attracts the most visitors of any of Toronto's tourist attractions, it is North America's busiest shopping mall, due to extensive transit access, its downtown location and tourist traffic. With 48,969,858 visitors in 2015 alone, the centre sees more annual visitors than either of the two busiest malls in the United States, or Central Park in New York City; the number of visitors to the Toronto Eaton Centre in 2015 exceeds the total 2015 passenger counts at Toronto Pearson International Airport, Canada's largest and busiest airport. The main portion of the Toronto Eaton Centre complex is bounded by Yonge Street on the east, Queen Street West on the south, Dundas Street West on the north, to the west by James Street and Trinity Square.
The flagship location of the Hudson's Bay department store chain, part of the complex since Cadillac Fairview's purchase of the building in 2014, is connected to the rest of the complex by a skywalk over Queen Street West, itself is bounded by Yonge Street to the east, Queen Street West to the north, Richmond Street West to the south, Bay Street to the west. The main retail mall in the centre is organized around a long arcade, running parallel to Yonge Street; the Toronto Eaton Centre's interior passages form part of Toronto's PATH underground pedestrian network, the centre is served by two subway stations: Dundas and Queen on Line 1 Yonge–University. The complex contains four office buildings and the Ryerson University Ted Rogers School of Management. Additionally, the Eaton Centre is linked to a 17-storey Marriott hotel; the Sears Canada headquarters were inside an eight-storey Sears location within the Toronto Eaton Centre. The headquarters moved there from 222 Jarvis Street; the lower four floors of the Eaton Centre location housed a retail store while the upper four floors housed the headquarters.
Timothy Eaton founded a dry goods store on Yonge Street in the 19th century that revolutionized retailing in Canada, became the largest department store chain in the country. By the 20th century, the Eaton's chain owned most of the land bounded by Yonge, Queen and Dundas streets, with the notable exceptions of Old City Hall and the Church of the Holy Trinity; the Eaton's land, once the site of Timothy Eaton's first store, was occupied by Eaton's large Main Store, the Eaton's Annex and a number of related mail order and factory buildings. As the chain's warehouse and support operations were shifting to cheaper suburban locales in the 1960s, Eaton's wanted to make better use of its valuable downtown landholdings. In particular, the chain wanted to build a massive new flagship store to replace the aging Main Store at Yonge and Queen and the Eaton's College Street store a few blocks to the north. In the mid-1960s, Eaton's announced plans for a massive office and shopping complex that would occupy several city blocks.
Eaton's sought to demolish the Church of the Holy Trinity. The plan required the closing of a number of small city streets within the block: Albert Street, Louisa Street, Terauley Street, James Street, Albert Lane, Downey's Lane and Trinity Square. At one point the Old City Hall clock tower was to be demolished. After a fierce local debate over the fate of the city hall and church buildings, Eaton's put its plans on hiatus in 1967; the Eaton Centre plans were resuscitated in 1971, although these plans allowed for the preservation of Old City Hall. Controversy erupted anew, however, as the congregation of the Church of the Holy Trinity exhibited an increased willingness to fight the demolition plans for its church; the Eaton Centre plans were revised to save Old City Hall and the church, revised further when Holy Trinity's parishioners fought to ensure that the new complex would not block all sunlight to the church. These amendments to the plans resulted in three significant changes to the proposed centre from the 1960s concept.
First, the new Eaton's store was shifted north to Dundas Street, as the new store would be too large to be accommodated in its existing location on Queen Street as a result of the preservation of Old City Hall. This resulted in the mall being constructed with Eaton's and Simpson's acting as anchors at either end; the second significant change was the reduction in the size of the office component, so that the Eaton Centre project no longer represented an attempt to extend the City's financial district north of Queen Street, as the Eaton family had contemplated in the 1960s. The bulk of the centre was shifted east to the Yonge Street frontage, the complex was designed so that it no longer had any frontage along Bay Street. Old City Hall and the church were thus saved, as was the Salvation Army headquarters building by virtue of its location between the two other preserved buildings. At the time of the centre's opening in 1977, the complex was markete
The Colonial Tavern was one of the most famous jazz venues in Canada from the 1950s till its closure in the late 1970s. It was located at 201–203 Yonge Street in Toronto, Ontario where a historic plaque remembered this key jazz venue; the Colonial Tavern was owned and managed by brothers-in-law Mike G. Lawrence and Harvey Lichtenberg. 197–199 Yonge Street and 201–203 Yonge Street were purchased by Sal Parasuco of Montreal, who planned to erect a hotel. The properties were sold to MOD Developments of Toronto in January 2012 for the Massey Tower condo project Jazz musicians played on the ground floor on a raised stage along one wall beneath a disco ball; the stage could be seen from the balcony dining area. Musicians had a green room at times stayed in apartments on the floor above, it was a venue for small ensembles. Big bands performed either at the Imperial Room at the Royal York, in Massey Hall, or at various venues on the Toronto waterfront, including the Palais Royale, the CNE Bandshell, the Palace Pier.
Concerts were recorded by CJRT's jazz disk jockey, Ted O'Reilly, were broadcast on Saturday mornings with interviews of musicians discussing their performances and memories. Some of these interviews are in the Ryerson University archives. Other competing jazz venues in Toronto at the time were George's Spaghetti House, the Town Tavern and George's Bourbon Street. Upscale nightclubs and big band venues included the Savarin Tavern, the Imperial Room at the Royal York Hotel, the Palais Royale, the CNE Bandshell; the first band to open the Colonial Tavern was a band led by Cy McLean, who led the first full-scale black dance band in Canada. Artists who performed at the Colonial Tavern included major jazz artists from around the world. Musicians stayed in limited accommodation at the back. A brass plate memorial in the park which now remembers this historic building records the names of over 150 jazz musicians that performed at the tavern. Performers included
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century. In its purest form, it is a style principally derived from the architecture of classical antiquity, the Vitruvian principles, the work of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio. In form, neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro and maintains separate identities to each of its parts; the style is manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, in its architectural formulae as an outgrowth of some classicising features of the Late Baroque architectural tradition. Neoclassical architecture is still designed today, but may be labelled New Classical Architecture for contemporary buildings. In Central and Eastern Europe, the style is referred to as Classicism, while the newer revival styles of the 19th century until today are called neoclassical. Intellectually, neoclassicism was symptomatic of a desire to return to the perceived "purity" of the arts of Rome, to the more vague perception of Ancient Greek arts and, to a lesser extent, 16th-century Renaissance Classicism, a source for academic Late Baroque architecture.
Many early 19th-century neoclassical architects were influenced by the drawings and projects of Étienne-Louis Boullée and Claude Nicolas Ledoux. The many graphite drawings of Boullée and his students depict spare geometrical architecture that emulates the eternality of the universe. There are Edmund Burke's conception of the sublime. Ledoux addressed the concept of architectural character, maintaining that a building should communicate its function to the viewer: taken such ideas give rise to "architecture parlante". A return to more classical architectural forms as a reaction to the Rococo style can be detected in some European architecture of the earlier 18th century, most vividly represented in the Palladian architecture of Georgian Britain and Ireland; the baroque style had never been to the English taste. Four influential books were published in the first quarter of the 18th century which highlighted the simplicity and purity of classical architecture: Vitruvius Britannicus, Palladio's Four Books of Architecture, De Re Aedificatoria and The Designs of Inigo Jones... with Some Additional Designs.
The most popular was the four-volume Vitruvius Britannicus by Colen Campbell. The book contained architectural prints of famous British buildings, inspired by the great architects from Vitruvius to Palladio. At first the book featured the work of Inigo Jones, but the tomes contained drawings and plans by Campbell and other 18th-century architects. Palladian architecture became well established in 18th-century Britain. At the forefront of the new school of design was the aristocratic "architect earl", Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington; this House was a reinterpretation of Palladio's Villa Capra, but purified of 16th century elements and ornament. This severe lack of ornamentation was to be a feature of the Palladianism. In 1734 William Kent and Lord Burlington designed one of England's finest examples of Palladian architecture with Holkham Hall in Norfolk; the main block of this house followed Palladio's dictates quite but Palladio's low detached, wings of farm buildings were elevated in significance.
This classicising vein was detectable, to a lesser degree, in the Late Baroque architecture in Paris, such as in Perrault's east range of the Louvre. This shift was visible in Rome at the redesigned façade for S. Giovanni in Laterano. By the mid 18th century, the movement broadened to incorporate a greater range of Classical influences, including those from Ancient Greece. An early centre of neoclassicism was Italy Naples, where by the 1730s, court architects such as Luigi Vanvitelli and Ferdinando Fuga were recovering classical and Mannierist forms in their Baroque architecture. Following their lead, Giovanni Antonio Medrano began to build the first neoclassical structures in Italy in the 1730s. In the same period, Alessandro Pompei introduced neoclassicism to the Venetian Republic, building one of the first lapidariums in Europe in Verona, in the Doric style. During the same period, neoclassical elements were introduced to Tuscany by architect Jean Nicolas Jadot de Ville-Issey, the court architect of Francis Stephen of Lorraine.
On Jadot's lead, an original neoclassical style was developed by Gaspare Paoletti, transforming Florence into the most important centre of neoclassicism in the peninsula. In the second half of the century, Neoclassicism flourished in Turin and Trieste. In the latter two cities, just as in Tuscany, the sober neoclassical style was linked to the reformism of the ruling Habsburg enlightened monarchs; the Rococo style remained much popular in Italy until the Napoleonic regimes, which brought a new archaeological classicism, embraced as a political statement by young, urban Italians with republican leanings. The shift to neoclassical architecture is conventionally dated to the 1750s, it first gained influence in France. In France, the movement was propelled by a generation of French art students trained in Rome, was influenced by the writings of
E. J. Lennox
Edward James Lennox was a Toronto-based architect who designed several of the city's most notable landmarks in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, including Old City Hall and Casa Loma. He designed over 70 buildings in the city of Toronto; the son of Irish immigrants, he studied at the Mechanics' Institute in Toronto, where he finished first in his class. Upon graduation in 1874, he apprenticed with architect William Irving for five years, he formed a partnership with fellow architect William Frederick McCaw, before forming his own firm in 1881. He became one of the most successful architects in Toronto, he rose to the top of his profession when he won the contract for Toronto City Hall in 1886. His caricature can be seen carved in stone on the facade of Old City Hall—he's the one with the handlebar moustache. Many of his buildings were designed in the Richardsonian Romanesque style, he was one of the most important figures in bringing that style to Toronto, his creative prowess in the Romanesque Revival style was important in The Annex neighbourhood, where Lennox designed the Lewis Lukes House at 37 Madison Avenue in the mid-1880s, pioneering the Annex House.
This style of house is indigenous to Toronto, it blends elements of Romanesque with that of Queen Anne style architecture. In his life, he served as commissioner of the Toronto Transit Commission from 1923-1929. Hagerman Public School built in 1888 is believed to be designed by Lennox. A small residential street called E. J. Lennox Way is named for him in Unionville, behind the former Unionville Congregational Church, his son Edgar Edward Lennox was an architect, as well as brother Charles David Lennox, who worked with E. J. Lennox from 1887 to1915. Susan M. Lennox great grand daughter of Charles David Lennox and great great niece of E. J. Lennox an Architect. Graduate of University of Toronto 1992 Bachlor of Architecture. Founder of Lennox Architects Huntsville Ontario. Www.lennoxarchitects.com. Lennox, Edward James; the Canadian Encyclopedia. Litvak, Marilyn M. Edward James Lennox: Builder of Toronto Media related to E. J. Lennox at Wikimedia Commons<nowiki></nowiki> E. J. Lennox fonds, Archives of Ontario
Elgin and Winter Garden Theatres
The Elgin and Winter Garden Theatres are a pair of stacked theatres in Toronto, Canada. The Winter Garden Theatre is seven storeys above the Elgin Theatre, they are the last surviving Edwardian stacked theatres in the world. The pair of theatres were built as the flagship of Marcus Loew's theatre chain in 1913; the building was designed by architect Thomas W. Lamb, who designed the Ed Mirvish Theatre nearby. Both theatres were built to show the short silent movies of the time; each theatre was intended for a different class of patron. The gold-and-marble, domed,'hard-top' lower theatre was home to continuous vaudeville and movies; the upper-level Winter Garden is an'atmospheric' country garden under the stars, painted with murals of plants and garden trellises, with tree trunk columns and lantern lights. The upper theatre was built for the'Big Time' vaudeville market and had reserved seats at premium prices, catering to affluent patrons; as well as competing in a different market, the upper theatre could be used for experimentation with acts, without the risk of closing the lower theatre.
By 1928, feature-length silent films were popular. In 1928, the lower theatre was converted to show sound films and the upper theatre was closed; the Winter Garden remained shuttered for about sixty years. Left inside it was a large collection of vaudeville flats and scenery, now the world's largest surviving collection. In 1969, Loews sold the Elgin to Famous Players. By the 1970s, the Elgin was showing B movies and soft-core pornography. In 1981, the Ontario Heritage Foundation bought the structure from Famous Players. From March 1985 through March 1987 the musical Cats was successfully presented in the unrestored Elgin, showing the viability of the theatre; the building closed in 1987 for a full restoration and reopened in 1989. In 1991, Dr. David Griesinger and Steve Barbar of Lexicon, Inc. at the request of acousticians Neil Muncy and Robert Tanner, installed the first production LARES system, an electroacoustic enhancement system that augments architectural acoustics, in the Elgin Theatre.
This initial LARES system used two microphones placed at the balcony's front edge to pick up sound from the stage. The microphone signals were digitized and processed in two mainframe computers, the resulting signals were sent to 56 loudspeakers in the main ceiling and 60 under the balcony, for the purpose of providing additional intelligibility and ambience; the Elgin Theatre housed the world premiere of the Napoleon musical in 1994, which transferred to London's West End in 2000. In 1995, it was home to The, it Since 1996, Ross Petty Productions has staged pantomimes at the Elgin Theatre each Christmas season. From February 10 to 14, 2004, Conan O'Brien taped four episodes of NBC's Late Night with Conan O'Brien from the Elgin Theatre; the visit came about via the Toronto City Council's CDN$1 million payment to NBC to have the American television program visit Toronto for a week worth of shows, part of the overall council-funded PR effort of promoting Toronto as a tourist destination for Americans in the wake of the publicized summer 2003 Severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic which adversely impacted the city's tourism industry.
The Elgin Theatre serves as one of the hosts to the annual Toronto International Film Festival. The location is featured in the 2017 movie The Shape of Water and receives an acknowledgement in the closing credits; the music video for "Changes" by the Montreal band Stars is set there. The Winter Garden is seen in the 1994 film Camilla; the cover photos for Rush's 1981 live album Exit... Stage Left were shot at the Buffalo Memorial Auditorium; the Elgin Theatre played host to the taping of Bryan Adams in Concert for the American broadcast of Great Performances on PBS. The show was filmed in July 2014 and first aired on March 1, 2015. Ed Mirvish Theatre, Toronto Uptown Theatre, Toronto Capitol Cinema, Ottawa The Sanderson Centre for the Performing Arts, Brantford Opera Atelier Ontario Heritage Trust: The Elgin and Winter Garden Theatre Centre Toronto's Historical Plaques - Loew's Yonge Street and Winter Garden Theatres Toronto's Historical Plaques -Elgin and Winter Garden Theatres Heritage Property Detail for 189 Yonge Street
Bank of Toronto
The Bank of Toronto was a Canadian bank, founded in 1855 by a group of grain dealers and flour millers. On February 1, 1955, it merged with The Dominion Bank to form the Toronto-Dominion Bank, its first president was James Grant Chewett. In July 1856, the Bank of Toronto opened its offices at 78 Church Street, with a staff of three and began development of a provincial network of branches. Thomas Clarkson, a major participant in the growing Toronto commerce, served as one of the first directors from 1856 through to 1858, steering the Bank through the depression of 1857. In 1860, it opened its first branch outside of Ontario, in Canada East; the Bank of Toronto established itself as an efficient, but conservative bank through the 19th century. It maintained a high reserve against its capital and enjoyed the highest share price of any bank in Canada. Growth was slow and deliberate, with a few new branches opened in emerging regional centres. Core customers remained farmers and processors of farm products.
With the maturing of the Canadian economy and the opening of northern Ontario and the West in the 1880s and 1890s, the banks became more aggressive in loans to resource industries and manufacturing. In 1899, the Bank of Toronto opened a branch in the British Columbia mining town of Rossland. In the first decade of the twentieth century, the banks expanded their branch networks in central Canada and across the west. To mark their rise as significant national institutions, the Bank of Toronto moved into a large new head office building at the corner of King and Bay Streets in Toronto in 1913. World War I brought new challenges for the two banks when they were called upon to finance war expenditures and to support the innovation of war bonds marketed to the general public. Half of the staff of the two banks served in the armed forces. Except for some contraction in the western provinces due to drought, the decade following the war was one of expansion and increasing profitability due to resource development and industrial expansion.
The bank weathered the storm of depression in the 1930s without great difficulty, despite a decline in earnings. Like all Canadian banks, they endured criticism of its credit policies and resisted the introduction of a central bank to control the money supply and advise on fiscal policy; the Bank of Canada was established and the banks relinquished their right to issue their own currency. The coming of the Second World War involved the banks, once again, in the marketing of war bonds and in participation in the control of foreign exchange and other financial war measures. 500 staff, or half the total, entered the armed forces. The Bank of Toronto emerged from the war in 1945 stronger than with assets more than doubled since 1939. With the post-war boom they became more active in business lending and in the penetration of new markets. However, they realized that the costs of expansion and competition with much larger rivals made their objectives difficult to realize. Neither bank had engaged in acquisitions or mergers in order to grow, but both determined that a union with a bank of equal size would place them in a much stronger position to take advantage of the opportunities of the post-war economy.
The Bank of Toronto in Winnipeg, Manitoba erected in 1905-06 is on the Registry of Historical Places of Canada. The Bank of Toronto in Toronto, Ontario built in 1905 is on the Registry of Historical Places of Canada; the Bank of Toronto Building in Victoria, British Columbia built in 1951 is on the Registry of Historical Places of Canada. The Bank of Toronto Building in Chaplin, Saskatchewan built in 1915 is on the Registry of Historical Places of Canada; the Bank of Toronto Vault in Turtle Mountain, completed in 1919, is on the Registry of Historical Places of Canada. Andrew Taylor designed the Bank of Toronto at St. James Street & McGill Street, erected in 1893-94. In 1954, negotiations began between the Bank of Toronto and the Dominion Bank, by the end of the year, an amalgamation agreement was reached. In their brief to the Minister of Finance, the banks stated: "It is more burdensome for a small bank to keep pace with the development of our country than for a large bank, with the result that the effective growth and comparative influence of smaller banks will in the future decline in comparison with that of the larger banks."
On November 1, 1954, Canada's minister of finance announced that the amalgamation was accepted and shareholders were asked for their approval. This was forthcoming in December and on February 1, 1955, the Bank of Toronto and The Dominion Bank became the Toronto-Dominion Bank; the building at 78 Church Street was listed on the City of Toronto Heritage Property Inventory on August 14, 1991, in hopes of preserving some of its historical physical attributes. List of Canadian banks "The Distillery Historic District". Archived from the original on 15 November 2010. Retrieved November 20, 2010. "The Bank of Toronto 1857 Annual Report". Retrieved February 21, 2006. R. J. Graham `Canadian Bank Notes 6th Edition: A Charlton Standard Catalogue` Charlton Press July 17, 2008 Media related to Bank of Toronto at Wikimedia Commons The Bank of Toronto's Annual Reports at the McGill Digital Archive
Yonge Street is a major arterial route in the Canadian province of Ontario connecting the shores of Lake Ontario in Toronto to Lake Simcoe, a gateway to the Upper Great Lakes. Until 1999, the Guinness Book of World Records repeated the popular misconception it was 1,896 km long, thus the longest street in the world. Yonge Street is 56 kilometres long; the construction of Yonge Street is designated an Event of National Historic Significance in Canada. Yonge Street was fundamental in the original planning and settlement of western Upper Canada in the 1790s, forming the basis of the concession roads in Ontario today. Once the southernmost leg of Highway 11, linking the capital with northern Ontario, Yonge Street has been referred to as "Main Street Ontario". Today, no section of Yonge Street is a provincial highway; the street was named by Ontario's first colonial administrator, John Graves Simcoe, for his friend Sir George Yonge, an expert on ancient Roman roads. Yonge Street is a commercial main thoroughfare rather than a ceremonial one, with landmarks such as the Eaton Centre, Yonge-Dundas Square and the Hockey Hall of Fame along its length—and lends its name to the Downtown Yonge shopping and entertainment district.
In Toronto and York Region, Yonge Street is the north-south baseline from which street numbering is reckoned east and west. The eastern branch of Line 1 Yonge–University serves nearly the entire length of the street in Toronto and acts as the spine of the Toronto subway system, linking to suburban commuter systems such as the Viva Blue BRT. See the'Public Transit' section below. Yonge Street originates on the northern shore of Toronto Bay at Queens Quay as a four-lane arterial road proceeding north by north-west. Toronto's Harbourfront is built on landfill extended into the bay, with the former industrial area now converted from port and industrial uses to a dense residential high-rise community; the street passes under the elevated Gardiner Expressway and the congested rail lines of the Toronto viaduct on their approach to Union Station. The road rises near Front Street, marking the pre-landfill shoreline. Here, at the southern edge of the central business district, is the Dominion Public Building, the Sony Centre for the Performing Arts and the Hockey Hall of Fame, the latter housed in an imposing former Bank of Montreal office, once Canada's largest bank branch.
Beyond Front Street the road passes through the east side of the Financial District, within sight of many of Canada's tallest buildings, fronting an entrance to the Allen Lambert Galleria. Between Front Street and Queen Street, Yonge Street is bounded by historic and commercial buildings, many serving the large weekday workforce concentrated here. Yonge Street's entire west side, from Queen Street to Dundas Street, is occupied by the Eaton Centre, an indoor mall featuring shops along its Yonge Street frontage and a Nordstrom anchor store at the corner of Dundas Street; the east side has two historic performance venues, the Ed Mirvish Theatre and the Elgin and Winter Garden Theatres. In addition, Massey Hall is just to the east on Shuter Street. Opposite the Eaton Centre lies Yonge-Dundas Square; the area now comprising the square was cleared of several small commercial buildings and redeveloped in the late 1990s and early 2000s, with large video screens, retail shopping arcades and seating in a bid to become "Toronto's Times Square".
It is used for numerous public events. Another stretch of busy retail lines both sides of Yonge Street north of Dundas Street, including Sam the Record Man until its closure on June 30, 2007; the density of businesses diminishes north of Gerrard Street. The Art Deco College Park building, a former shopping complex of the T. Eaton Company, occupies most of the west side of Yonge Street from Gerrard Street north to College Street, it was converted into a commercial complex after the building of the Eaton Centre. From College Street north to Bloor Street, Yonge Street serves smaller street-level retail in two- to three-storey buildings of a hundred years' vintage; the businesses here, unlike the large chains which dominate south of Gerrard Street, are small independent shops and serve a dense residential community on either side of Yonge Street with amenities such as convenience stores. The intersection of Yonge and Bloor Streets is a major crossroads of Toronto, informally considered the northern edge of the downtown core.
Subway Line 2 Bloor–Danforth intersects the Yonge line here, with the resulting transfers between lines making Bloor-Yonge Station the busiest in the city. The Hudson's Bay Centre and Two Bloor West office towers dominate the corner, visible both from downtown and beyond, with the south-east corner earmarked for a major condominium development; the Mink Mile's borders extend from Yonge to Avenue Road along Bloor. The intersection of Yonge and Bloor Streets is itself a "scramble"-type intersection allowing pedestrians to cross from any corner to any other corner. North of Bloor, the street is part of the old town of Yorkville, today a major shopping district extending west of Yonge Street along Cumberland and Bloor Streets. North of Yorkville and traffic decrease somewhat and the speed limit increases as Yonge Street forms the main street of Summerhill, which together with Rosedale to the east is noted for its opulent residences; the area is marked by the historic North Toronto railway station served by the Canadian Pacific