German colonial empire
The German colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies and territories of Imperial Germany. The chancellor of this time period was Otto von Bismarck. Short-lived attempts of colonization by individual German states had occurred in preceding centuries, but crucial colonial efforts only began in 1884 with the Scramble for Africa. Claiming much of the left-over colonies that were yet unclaimed in the Scramble of Africa, Germany managed to build the third largest colonial empire after the British and the French, at the time. Germany lost control when World War I began in 1914 and its colonies were seized by its enemies in the first weeks of the war; however some military units held out for a while longer: German South West Africa surrendered in 1915, Kamerun in 1916 and German East Africa only in 1918 at the end of the war. Germany's colonial empire was confiscated with the Treaty of Versailles after Germany's defeat in the war and the various units became League of Nations mandates under the supervision of one of the victorious powers.
Until their 1871 unification, the German states had not concentrated on the development of a navy, this had precluded German participation in earlier imperialist scrambles for remote colonial territory – the so-called "place in the sun". Germany seemed destined to play catch-up; the German states prior to 1870 had retained separate political structures and goals, German foreign policy up to and including the age of Otto von Bismarck concentrated on resolving the "German question" in Europe and securing German interests on the continent. On the other hand, Germans had traditions of foreign sea-borne trade dating back to the Hanseatic League; the Hanseatic republics of Hamburg and Bremen sent traders across the globe. These trading houses conducted themselves as successful Privatkolonisatoren and concluded treaties and land purchases in Africa and the Pacific with chiefs or other tribal leaders; these early agreements with local entities, however formed the basis for annexation treaties, diplomatic support and military protection by the German government.
Many Germans in the late 19th century viewed colonial acquisitions as a true indication of having achieved nationhood. Public opinion arrived at an understanding that prestigious African and Pacific colonies went hand-in-hand with dreams of a High Seas Fleet. Both aspirations would become reality, nurtured by a press replete with Kolonialfreunde and by a myriad of geographical associations and colonial societies. Bismarck and many deputies in the Reichstag had no interest in colonial conquests to acquire square miles of territory. In essence, Bismarck's colonial motives were obscure as he had said "... I am no man for colonies" and "remained as contemptuous of all colonial dreams as ever." However, in 1884 he consented to the acquisition of colonies by the German Empire, in order to protect trade, to safeguard raw materials and export markets and to take opportunities for capital investment, among other reasons. In the next year Bismarck shed personal involvement when "he abandoned his colonial drive as and casually as he had started it" as if he had committed an error in judgment that could confuse the substance of his more significant policies.
"Indeed, in 1889, tried to give German South-West Africa away to the British. It was, he said, a burden and an expense, he would like to saddle someone else with it." The development of German overseas protectorates followed three phases. The rise of German imperialism and colonialism coincided with the latter stages of the "Scramble for Africa" during which enterprising German individuals, rather than government entities, competed with other established colonies and colonialist entrepreneurs. With the Germans joining the race for the last uncharted territories in Africa and the Pacific that had not yet been carved up, competition for colonies thus involved major European nations, several lesser powers; the German effort included the first commercial enterprises in the 1850s and 1860s in West Africa, East Africa, the Samoan Islands and the unexplored north-east quarter of New Guinea with adjacent islands. German traders and merchants began to establish themselves in the African Cameroon delta and the mainland coast across from Zanzibar.
At Apia and the settlements Finschhafen and the islands Neu-Pommern and Neu-Mecklenburg, trading companies newly fortified with credit began expansion into coastal landholding. Large African inland acquisitions followed — to the detriment of native inhabitants. In eastern Africa the imperialist and "man-of-action" Karl Peters accumulated vast tracts of land for his colonization group, "emerging from the bush with X-marks on documents... for some 60 thousand square miles of the Zanzibar Sultanate’s mainland property." Such exploratory missions required security measures that could be solved with small private, armed contingents recruited in the Sudan and led by adventurous former military personnel of lower rank. Brutality and flogging prevailed during these land-grab expeditions under Peters’ control as well as others as no-one "held a monopoly in the mistreatment of Africans."As Bismarck was converted to the colonial idea by 1884, he favored "chartered company" land management rather than establishment of colonial government due to financial consid
Microforms are scaled-down reproductions of documents either films or paper, made for the purposes of transmission, storage and printing. Microform images are reduced to about one twenty-fifth of the original document size. For special purposes, greater optical reductions may be used. All microform images may be provided as positives or negatives, more the latter. Three formats are common: microfilm and aperture cards. Microcards known as "microopaques" a format no longer produced, were similar to microfiche, but printed on cardboard rather than photographic film. Using the daguerreotype process, John Benjamin Dancer was one of the first to produce microphotographs, in 1839, he achieved a reduction ratio of 160:1. Dancer perfected his reduction procedures with Frederick Scott Archer's wet collodion process, developed in 1850–51, but he dismissed his decades-long work on microphotographs as a personal hobby, did not document his procedures; the idea that microphotography could be no more than a novelty was an opinion shared by the 1858 Dictionary of Photography, which called the process "somewhat trifling and childish".
Microphotography was first suggested as a document preservation method in 1851 by James Glaisher, an astronomer, in 1853 by John Herschel. Both men attended the 1851 Great Exhibition in London, where the exhibit on photography influenced Glaisher, he called it "the most remarkable discovery of modern times", argued in his official report for using microphotography to preserve documents. The pigeon post was in operation while Paris was besieged during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871. Charles Barreswil, proposed the application of photographic methods with prints of a reduced size; the prints were on photographic paper and did not exceed 40mm to permit insertion in the pigeon's quill. The developments in microphotography continued through the next decades, but it was not until the turn of the century that its potential for practical usage was seized by a wider audience. In 1896, Canadian engineer Reginald A. Fessenden suggested microforms were a compact solution to engineers' unwieldy but consulted materials.
He proposed that up to 150,000,000 words could be made to fit in a square inch, that a one-foot cube could contain 1.5 million volumes. In 1906, Paul Otlet and Robert Goldschmidt proposed the livre microphotographique as a way to alleviate the cost and space limitations imposed by the codex format. Otlet’s overarching goal was to create a World Center Library of Juridical and Cultural Documentation, he saw microfiche as a way to offer a stable and durable format, inexpensive, easy to use, easy to reproduce, compact. In 1925, the team spoke of a massive library where each volume existed as master negatives and positives, where items were printed on demand for interested patrons. In the 1920s microfilm began to be used in a commercial setting. New York City banker George McCarthy was issued a patent in 1925 for his "Checkograph" machine, designed to make micrographic copies of cancelled checks for permanent storage by financial institutions. In 1928, the Eastman Kodak Company bought McCarthy's invention and began marketing check microfilming devices under its "Recordak" division.
Between 1927 and 1935, the Library of Congress microfilmed more than three million pages of books and manuscripts in the British Library. Binkley, which looked at microform’s potential to serve small print runs of academic or technical materials. In 1933, Charles C. Peters developed a method to microformat dissertations, in 1934 the United States National Agriculture Library implemented the first microform print-on-demand service, followed by a similar commercial concern, Science Service. In 1935, Kodak's Recordak division began filming and publishing The New York Times on reels of 35 millimeter microfilm, ushering in the era of newspaper preservation on film; this method of information storage received the sanction of the American Library Association at its annual meeting in 1936, when it endorsed microforms. Harvard University Library was the first major institution to realize the potential of microfilm to preserve broadsheets printed on high-acid newsprint and it launched its "Foreign Newspaper Project" to preserve such ephemeral publications in 1938.
Roll microfilm proved far more satisfactory as a storage medium than earlier methods of film information storage, such as the Photoscope, the Film-O-Graph, the Fiske-O-Scope, filmslides. The year 1938 saw another major event in the history of microfilm when University Microfilms International was established by Eugene Power. For the next half century, UMI would dominate the field and distributing microfilm editions of current and past publications and academic dissertations. After another short-lived name change, UMI was made a part of ProQuest Information and Learning in 2001. Systems that mount microfilm images in punched cards have been used for archival storage of engineering information. For example, when airlines demand archival engineering drawings to support purchased equipment, they specify punch-card-mounted microfilm with an industry-standard indexing system punched into the card; this permits automated reproduction, as well as permitting mechanical card-sorting equipment to sort and select microfilm drawings.
Aperture card mounted microfilm is 3% of the size and space of conventional paper or vellum engineering drawings. Some military contracts aroun
The Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft is a German research funding organization. The DFG supports research in science and the humanities through a variety of grant programmes, prizes and by funding infrastructure; the self-governed organization is based in Bonn and financed by the German states and the federal government. As of 2017, the organization consists of approx. 100 research universities and other research institutions. The DFG endows various research prizes, including the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize; the Polish-German science award Copernicus is offered jointly with the Foundation for Polish Science. According to a 2017 article in The Guardian, the DFG has announced to publish its research in free online journals. In 1937, the Notgemeinschaft der Wissenschaft was renamed the Deutsche Gemeinschaft zur Erhaltung und Förderung der Forschung, for short known as the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. Before the election of the National Socialists to power in 1933, projects funded by the NG had worked diligently on Nazi-aligned research German ethnographic research in Eastern Europe that would lay the foundations for the Hitlerite "Lebensraum" and extermination policies.
By the end of World War II in Germany, in 1945, the DFG was no longer active. In 1949, after formation of the Federal Republic, it was re-founded as the NG and again from 1951 as the DFG; the legal status of the DFG is that of an association under private law. As such, the DFG can only act through its statutory bodies, in particular through its executive board and the General Assembly; the DFG is a member of the International Council for Science and has numerous counterparts around the globe such as the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the National Science Foundation and the Royal Society. The DFG has several representative offices in Asia, North America and Europe and maintains the Sino-German Center for Research Promotion, jointly founded by the DFG and the National Natural Science Foundation of China. On 9 June 2012, DFG launced a centre in Hyderabad; the German-based research foundation and India's Department of Science and Technology are together working on 40 bilateral research projects in science and engineering.
The Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft is a member of Science Europe. German National Library of Economics German National Library of Medicine German National Library of Science and Technology Greenpilot Virtual Library of Musicology Open access in Germany Heilbron, J. L; the Dilemmas of an Upright Man: Max Planck and the Fortunes of German Science ISBN 0-674-00439-6 Hentschel, Hentschel, Ann M. Physics and National Socialism: An Anthology of Primary Sources ISBN 978-3034898652 Perspektiven der Forschung und Ihrer Förderung. 2007–2011. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. Anne Cottebrune: Der planbare Mensch. Die DFG und die menschliche Vererbungswissenschaft, 1920–1970. Franz Steiner, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-515-09099-5. Notker Hammerstein: Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft in der Weimarer Republik und im Dritten Reich. Wissenschaftspolitik in Republik und Diktatur 1920 – 1945. Beck, München 1999, ISBN 3-406-44826-7. Thomas Nipperdey, Ludwig Schmugge: 50 jahre forschungsförderung in deutschland: Ein Abriss der Geschichte der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft.
1920-1970. Bad Godesberg: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft 1970 Official website DFG Science TV YouTube channel
Intellectual property is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect. Intellectual property encompasses two types of rights, it was not until the 19th century that the term "intellectual property" began to be used, not until the late 20th century that it became commonplace in the majority of the world. The main purpose of intellectual property law is to encourage the creation of a large variety of intellectual goods. To achieve this, the law gives people and businesses property rights to the information and intellectual goods they create – for a limited period of time; this gives economic incentive for their creation, because it allows people to profit from the information and intellectual goods they create. These economic incentives are expected to stimulate innovation and contribute to the technological progress of countries, which depends on the extent of protection granted to innovators; the intangible nature of intellectual property presents difficulties when compared with traditional property like land or goods.
Unlike traditional property, intellectual property is "indivisible" – an unlimited number of people can "consume" an intellectual good without it being depleted. Additionally, investments in intellectual goods suffer from problems of appropriation – a landowner can surround their land with a robust fence and hire armed guards to protect it, but a producer of information or an intellectual good can do little to stop their first buyer from replicating it and selling it at a lower price. Balancing rights so that they are strong enough to encourage the creation of intellectual goods but not so strong that they prevent the goods' wide use is the primary focus of modern intellectual property law; the Statute of Monopolies and the British Statute of Anne are seen as the origins of patent law and copyright firmly establishing the concept of intellectual property. "Literary property" was the term predominantly used in the British legal debates of the 1760s and 1770s over the extent to which authors and publishers of works had rights deriving from the common law of property.
The first known use of the term intellectual property dates to this time, when a piece published in the Monthly Review in 1769 used the phrase. The first clear example of modern usage goes back as early as 1808, when it was used as a heading title in a collection of essays; the German equivalent was used with the founding of the North German Confederation whose constitution granted legislative power over the protection of intellectual property to the confederation. When the administrative secretariats established by the Paris Convention and the Berne Convention merged in 1893, they located in Berne, adopted the term intellectual property in their new combined title, the United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property; the organization subsequently relocated to Geneva in 1960, was succeeded in 1967 with the establishment of the World Intellectual Property Organization by treaty as an agency of the United Nations. According to legal scholar Mark Lemley, it was only at this point that the term began to be used in the United States, it did not enter popular usage there until passage of the Bayh-Dole Act in 1980.
"The history of patents does not begin with inventions, but rather with royal grants by Queen Elizabeth I for monopoly privileges... 200 years after the end of Elizabeth's reign, however, a patent represents a legal right obtained by an inventor providing for exclusive control over the production and sale of his mechanical or scientific invention... the evolution of patents from royal prerogative to common-law doctrine." The term can be found used in an October 1845 Massachusetts Circuit Court ruling in the patent case Davoll et al. v. Brown. In which Justice Charles L. Woodbury wrote that "only in this way can we protect intellectual property, the labors of the mind and interests are as much a man's own...as the wheat he cultivates, or the flocks he rears." The statement that "discoveries are..property" goes back earlier. Section 1 of the French law of 1791 stated, "All new discoveries are the property of the author. In Europe, French author A. Nion mentioned propriété intellectuelle in his Droits civils des auteurs, artistes et inventeurs, published in 1846.
Until the purpose of intellectual property law was to give as little protection as possible in order to encourage innovation. Therefore, they were granted only when they were necessary to encourage invention, limited in time and scope; this is as a result of knowledge being traditionally viewed as a public good, in order to allow its extensive dissemination and improvement thereof. The concept's origins can be traced back further. Jewish law includes several considerations whose effects are similar to those of modern intellectual property laws, though the notion of intellectual creations as property does not seem to exist – notably the principle of Hasagat Ge'vul was used to justify limited-term publisher copyright in the 16th century. In 500 BCE, the government of the Greek state of Sybaris offered one year's patent "to all who should discover any new refinement in luxury". According to Jean-Frédéric Morin, "the global inte
German National Library of Economics
The German National Library of Economics is the world’s largest research infrastructure for economic literature, online as well as offline. The ZBW is a member of the Leibniz Association and has been a foundation under public law since 2007. Several times the ZBW received the international LIBER award for its innovative work in librarianship; the ZBW allows for access of millions of documents and research on economics, partnering with over 40 research institutions to create a connective Open Access portal and social web of research. Through its EconStor and EconBiz and students have accessed millions of datasets and thousands of articles; the ZBW edits two journals: Wirtschaftsdienst and Intereconomics. The ZBW is Germany's central subject research infrastructure for economics in Germany, its mandate is to acquire, to index, to archive theoretical and empirical literature and subject-specific information from economics and business studies, to provide access to these materials to the general public on a national basis.
The ZBW acquires all publications from related and auxiliary disciplines focussing on economics, in order to accommodate the increasing tendency towards interdisciplinary work in economic research. The ZBW is part of the system of national literature provision within the German Research Foundation; the ZBW holds 4.4 million items. The ZBW subscribes to more than 27,100 journals and enables access to 2.3 million electronic documents. The search portal. More than 134,000 full-texts from German research institutes and universities are available online and free of charge on the repository EconStor; the ZBW creates content-descriptive metadata not only for books, but for articles in journals and working papers, i.e. they are indexed with keywords from the Standard Thesaurus for Economics. The ZBW maintains the search portal EconBiz containing more than 10 million datasets of bibliographic references for economics and business studies; the ZBW offers an online reference service, Research Guide EconDesk, which provides guidance for literature and data searches in economics and business studies.
The ZBW is an active player in the Open Access movement which aims for free access to scholarly research output. It is the chief negotiator for national licences in economics in Germany; the repository EconStor serves as a platform for the free publication of research output in economics. Authors and publishing institutions can publish without charges on EconStor. More than 400 institutions use EconStor for the digital dissemination of their publications in Open Access, it is an input service for RePEc and one of its most used archives. All titles in EconStor are indexed by search engines such as Google, Google Scholar and BASE, distributed to databases such as WoldCat, OpenAire and EconBiz; the ZBW Journal Data Archive is a service for the editors of scholarly journals in economics. Editors can deposit datasets and other material relating to empirical articles and provide access to them in order to enable reproducibility of published research findings; the ZBW publishes two journals of Wirtschaftsdienst and Intereconomics.
The ZBW provides support for researchers dealing with the different aspects of the digitisation of the science system, such as publishing in Open Access or research data management. The ZBW participates in international projects to develop new services for its users. GeRDI – Generic Research Data Infrastructure; the project aims to develop a linked-up research data infrastructure. It aims to link existing and future research data centres all over Germany; this allows scientists to search for and re-use research data across disciplines and without barriers. The ZBW coordinates the project, funded by the German Research Foundation. Linked Open Citation Database; the project LOC-DB develops tools and processes based on linked data technologies that will enable individual libraries to participate in an open, distributed infrastructure for the indexation of citations. It aims to show that extensive automation of metadata creation can produce relevant added value to scholarly information discovery. Metrics: MEasuring The Reliability and perception of Indicators for interactions with sCientific productS.
The project focuses on gaining a deeper understanding of alternative indicators for measuring scientific performance. Under review are the quality and reliability of the indicators, but how far they are able to map discipline-specific differences. MOVING: the project aims to build a working environment for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of large collections of documents and data; the ZBW is the research partner for text and data mining and the scientific coordinator, contributes its expertise in the field of Science 2.0. Digital Imperial Statistics: Historical statistics are not available online. In this pilot project, the German Imperial Statistics 1873-1883 have been digitised and processed into a format that researchers can download for re-use in spreadsheets; this project is funded by the German Research Foundation. Digital preservation: Because of the rapid technical development of recent years, information is only available in digital form. At the same time, the hard- and software needed for reading this information becomes obsolete more rapidly.
Digital preservation ensures. To this end, the ZBW cooperates with two other German Libraries, the Leibniz Information Centre for Science and Technology (TIB
Kiel Institute for the World Economy
The Kiel Institute for the World Economy is an independent, non-profit economic research institute and think tank based in Kiel, Germany. In 2017, it was ranked as one of the top 50 most influential think tanks in the world and was ranked in the top 15 in the world for economic policy specifically. Germany's business newspaper, referred to the Institute as "Germany's most influential economic think tank", while the country's main newspaper, Die Welt, stated that "The best economists in the world are in Kiel". Founded in 1914, the Institute is the oldest and one of the most prestigious economic research institutes in Germany, its main areas of specialities include global economic research, economic policy, economic education. The Institute is home to the world's largest specialist library of economics and the social sciences, having access to more than four million publications in printed or electronic format and subscriptions to over 30,000 periodicals and journals, it is a member of an association of research institutions and centers called the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Scientific Community, or Leibniz Association, which includes Germany's six leading economic research institutes.
The Institute employs 160 people, of whom more than 80 are economists. The current president of the Institute is Dennis J. Snower. In March 2019, Gabriel Felbermayr will succeed him as president; the Institute was founded under the name of Königliches Institut für Seeverkehr and Weltwirtschaft an der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel on 18 February 1914, opened two days at the address Schlossgarten 14. With the help of its Sponsors' Association, it was to acquire new premises in 1919, a hotel called the Seebadeanstalt, owned by the Krupp family, a prominent family in manufacturing and steelmaking industry; the Institute moved to its new premises in the spring of 1920, where it changed its name to the current German one in 1934. Its original mission, as part of the University of Kiel, was to study the world economy, it was one of the first institutions to adopt a research agenda focused on international economics, while most other economic institutes focused on national economies. The Institute sought to understand global economic flows and trends through consulting the German government on economic policy recommendations and developing an international network of experts.
The founding director and first head of the Kiel Institute, Bernhard Harms, directed the establishment of a research library, systematically expanded by Wilhelm Gülich, the head of the library for a number of years as of 1924, into the world's largest economics library. Harms established several journals and an economics-related press archive. Further, he attached great importance to linking research to practical economics and to teaching research findings to economics students; the Institute at the time conducted international research for the benefit of Germany, which led to the establishment of a war archive and to the expansion of the Institute during World War I. During the Weimar Republic, the Institute established a reputation for competence in international economics. In 1926, the Institute established a department for statistical economics and business-cycle research, which gave the Institute a new profile in business cycle theory and business cycle policies; the new department was headed by Adolph Lowe and staffed by such researchers as Gerhard Colm, Hans Neisser, Jacob Marschak, Wassily Leontief, all of whom published acclaimed research findings.
When the Nazi Party seized power in Germany, Jewish members of staff and members of staff who were active in the Social Democratic Party were forced to leave the Institute. This affected the new department for statistical economics and business cycle research the most, many of the staff in the department emigrated to the United States, where they became professors of economics. Bernhard Harms supported the Nazis and remained the head of the Institute, but resisted the Sturmabteilung when it forced the Jewish members of staff to leave the Institute, was himself forced to leave. Formally, he retained his professorship at the University of Kiel, but was only active academically as an honorary professor in Berlin until his death in 1939. Harms was succeeded by Jens Jessen, because of differences with the Nazis, had himself transferred to the University of Marburg in October 1934, he was succeeded by Andreas Predöhl. Predöhl served as director of the Institute from July 1934 to November 1945, he strengthened the ties between the Institute and the University of Kiel and prevented the Institute's library from being cleansed of books written by Jews.
During his term in office, the library was able to buy foreign literature until far into World War II. Throughout the war, the Institute continued to conduct international economic research, important for Germany's war planning and its economic aspects, for example, access to natural resources and the geopolitical significance of areas that Germany considered to be part of its "Grossraum", up until 1945. A comprehensive analysis of the research conducted by the Institute between 1933 and 1945 has never been undertaken; the complete holdings of the library were moved to Ratzeburg and thus were not destroyed during the war. However, parts of the Institute and its press archive were destroyed. After the war, British occupation authorities dismissed Predöhl as the director of the Institute (in
University of Hamburg
The University of Hamburg is a comprehensive university in Hamburg, Germany. It was founded on 28 March 1919, having grown out of the previous General lecture system and the Colonial Institute of Hamburg as well as the Akademic Gymnasium. In spite of its short history, six Nobel Prize Winners and serials of scholars are affiliated to the university; the University of Hamburg is the biggest research and education institution in Northern Germany and one of the most extensive universities in Germany. The main campus is located in the central district of Rotherbaum, with affiliated institutes and research centres spread around the city state; the institution is classified as a global top 200 university by cited ranking systems such as the Times Higher Education Ranking, the Shanghai Ranking and the CWTS Leiden Ranking, placing it among the top 1% of global universities. On a national scale, U. S. News & World Report ranks UHH 7th and QS World University Rankings 14th out of a total of 426 German institutions of higher education.
At the beginning of the 20th century, wealthy individuals made several petitions to the Hamburg Senate and Parliament requesting the establishment of a university, however those were made to no avail. Although for a time, senator Werner von Melle supported the merger of existing institutions into one university, this plan failed because of the parliaments composition due to the effects of class voting. Much of the establishment wanted to see Hamburg limited to its dominant role as a trading center and shunned both the costs of a university and the social demands of the professors that would have to be employed. Progress was made however, since proponents of a university founded the Hamburg Science Foundation in 1907 and the Hamburg Colonial Institute in 1908; the former institution supported the recruitment of scholars for the chairs of the General lecture system and funding of research cruises, the latter was responsible for all education and research questions concerning overseas territories.
In the same year, the citizenry approved a construction site on the Moorweide for the establishment of a lecture building, which opened in 1911 and became the main building of the university. However, the plans for the foundation of the university itself had to be shelved, following the outbreak of the First World War. After the war, the first elected senate chose von Melle as mayor, he and Rudolf Ross made a push for education reform in Hamburg, their law establishing the university and an adult high school went through. On March 28, 1919 the University of Hamburg opened its gates; the number of full professorships in Hamburg was increased from 19 to 39. Both the Colonial Institute and the General lecture system were absorbed into the university; the first faculties created by the university were Law and Political Science, Medicine and Natural Sciences. During the Weimar Republic, the university grew into importance. Several thousand students were continuously enrolled, it drew scholars like Albrecht Mendelssohn Bartholdy, Aby Warburg and Ernst Cassirer to Hamburg.
The number of full professors had by 1931 grown to 75. Because many students were suffering due to the bad economic situation that prevailed in the early republic, the Hamburg Association of Student Aid was founded in 1922. Ernst Cassirer became principal of the university in 1929, one of the first Jewish scholars with that role in Germany; the academic situation shifted after the general election in March 1933. On May 1 of that year – the university held a ceremony to honor Adolf Hitler as its leader. Massive political influence by the Nazis followed, including the removal of books from the libraries and harassment against alleged enemies of the people. About fifty scientists, including Ernst Cassirer and William Stern, had to leave the university. At least ten students working with the White Rose in Hamburg were arrested. In the foyer of the lecture hall a design by Fritz Fleer commemorative plate was taken in 1971 in memory of the four resistance fighters. Once the Second World War was over, the university was reopened in the winter of 1945 with 17,800 employees.
Out of the 2,872 students who were enrolled at the University of Hamburg in the first postwar semester of 1945/46, 601 had been admitted at the Philosophical, 952 at the Medical and 812 to the Faculty of Law and Political Science. The smallest number joined the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences with 506 students in total; the first student association during this period was elected in 1946 under British supervision, it formed the foundation of the AStA in 1947. During the West German era, new departments were added to the university, most notably the Faculty of Theology as well as the Faculty of Economic and Social Sciences in 1954; the late 1950s and early 1960s saw a lot of construction: the Auditorium and the Philosopher's Tower where inaugurated near the Von-Melle-Park, while the Botanical Institute and Botanical Garden were relocated to Flottbeck. The university grew from 12,600 students in 1960 to 19,200 in 1970. A wave of protests during the student movements of 1968 sparked a reform of the university structure, in 1969 the faculties were dissolved in favor of more interdisciplinary departments.
Student and staff involvement in the administration was strengthened, the office of Rektor abolished in favor of a university president. However, parts of the reform were rescinded in 1979. Further construction in the 1970s built up the remaining space on the main campus of Rotherbaum quarter, with the Geomatikum