The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to determine the proper days of Islamic holidays and rituals, such as the annual period of fasting and the proper time for the pilgrimage to Mecca; the civil calendar of all countries where the religion is predominantly Muslim is the Gregorian calendar. Notable exceptions to this rule are Afghanistan, which use the Solar Hijri calendar. Rents and similar regular commitments are paid by the civil calendar; the Islamic calendar employs the Hijri era whose epoch was established as the Islamic New Year of 622 AD/CE. During that year and his followers migrated from Mecca to Yathrib and established the first Muslim community, an event commemorated as the Hijra. In the West, dates in this era are denoted AH in parallel with the Christian and Jewish eras. In Muslim countries, it is sometimes denoted as H from its Arabic form. In English, years prior to the Hijra are reckoned as BH.
The current Islamic year is 1440 AH. In the Gregorian calendar, 1440 AH runs from 11 September 2018 to 30 August 2019. For central Arabia Mecca, there is a lack of epigraphical evidence but details are found in the writings of Muslim authors of the Abbasid era. Inscriptions of the ancient South Arabian calendars reveal the use of a number of local calendars. At least some of these South Arabian calendars followed the lunisolar system. Both al-Biruni and al-Mas'udi suggest that the ancient Arabs used the same month names as the Muslims, though they record other month names used by the pre-Islamic Arabs; the Islamic tradition is unanimous in stating that Arabs of Tihamah and Najd distinguished between two types of months and forbidden months. The forbidden months were four months during which fighting is forbidden, listed as Rajab and the three months around the pilgrimage season, Dhu al-Qa‘dah, Dhu al-Hijjah, Muharram. Information about the forbidden months is found in the writings of Procopius, where he describes an armistice with the Eastern Arabs of the Lakhmid al-Mundhir which happened in the summer of 541 AD/CE.
However, Muslim historians do not link these months to a particular season. The Qur'an links the four forbidden months with Nasī’, a word that means "postponement". According to Muslim tradition, the decision of postponement was administered by the tribe of Kinanah, by a man known as the al-Qalammas of Kinanah and his descendants. Different interpretations of the concept of Nasī’ have been proposed; some scholars, both Muslim and Western, maintain that the pre-Islamic calendar used in central Arabia was a purely lunar calendar similar to the modern Islamic calendar. According to this view, Nasī’ is related to the pre-Islamic practices of the Meccan Arabs, where they would alter the distribution of the forbidden months within a given year without implying a calendar manipulation; this interpretation is supported by Arab historians and lexicographers, like Ibn Hisham, Ibn Manzur, the corpus of Qur'anic exegesis. This is corroborated by an early Sabaic inscription, where a religious ritual was "postponed" due to war.
According to the context of this inscription, the verb ns'’ has nothing to do with intercalation, but only with moving religious events within the calendar itself. The similarity between the religious concept of this ancient inscription and the Qur'an suggests that non-calendaring postponement is the Qur'anic meaning of Nasī’; the Encyclopaedia of Islam concludes "The Arabic system of can only have been intended to move the Hajj and the fairs associated with it in the vicinity of Mecca to a suitable season of the year. It was not intended to establish a fixed calendar to be observed." The term "fixed calendar" is understood to refer to the non-intercalated calendar. Others concur that it was a lunar calendar, but suggest that about 200 years before the Hijra it was transformed into a lunisolar calendar containing an intercalary month added from time to time to keep the pilgrimage within the season of the year when merchandise was most abundant; this interpretation was first proposed by the medieval Muslim astrologer and astronomer Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi, by al-Biruni, al-Mas'udi, some western scholars.
This interpretation considers Nasī’ to be a synonym to the Arabic word for "intercalation". The Arabs, according to one explanation mentioned by Abu Ma'shar, learned of this type of intercalation from the Jews; the Jewish Nasi was the official. Some sources say that the Arabs followed the Jewish practice and intercalated seven months over nineteen years, or else that they intercalated nine months over 24 years. Postponement of one ritual in a particular circumstance does not imply alteration of the sequence of months, scholars agree that this did not happen. Al-Biruni says this did not happen, the festivals were kept within their season by intercalation every second or third year of a month between Dhu al-Hijjah and Muharram, he says that, in terms of the fixed calendar, not introduced until 10 AH, the first intercalation was, for example, of a month between Dhu al-Hijjah and Muharram, the second of a month between Muharram and Safar, the third of a month between Safar and Rabi'I, so on. The intercalations were arranged.
The notice of interca
1st millennium BC
The 1st millennium BC is the period of time between from the year 1000 BC to 1 BC. It encompasses the Iron Age in the Old World and sees the transition from the Ancient Near East to classical antiquity. World population doubled over the course of the millennium, from about 100 million to about 200–250 million; the Neo-Assyrian Empire dominates the Near East in the early centuries of the millennium, supplanted by the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century. Ancient Egypt is in decline, falls to the Achaemenids in 525 BC. In Greece, Classical Antiquity begins with the colonization of Magna Graecia and peaks with the conquest of the Achaemenids and the subsequent flourishing of Hellenistic civilization; the Roman Republic supplants the Etruscans and the Carthaginians. The close of the millennium sees the rise of the Roman Empire; the early Celts dominate Central Europe. In East Africa, the Nubian Empire and Aksum arise. In South Asia, the Vedic civilization blends into the Maurya Empire; the Scythians dominate Central Asia.
In China, the Spring and Autumn period sees the rise of Confucianism. Towards the close of the millennium, the Han Dynasty extends Chinese power towards Central Asia, where it borders on Indo-Greek and Iranian states. Japan is in the Yayoi period; the Maya civilization rises in Mesoamerica. The first millennium BC is the formative period of the classical world religions, with the development of early Judaism Zoroastrianism in the Near East, Vedic religion and Vedanta and Buddhism in India. Early literature develops in Greek, Hebrew, Sanskrit and Chinese; the term Axial Age, coined by Karl Jaspers, is intended to express the crucial importance of the period of c. the 8th to 2nd centuries BC in world history. World population more than doubled over the course of the millennium, from about an estimated 50–100 million to an estimated 170–300 million. Close to 90% of world population at the end of the first millennium BC lived in the Iron Age civilizations of the Old World; the population of the Americas was below 20 million, concentrated in Mesoamerica.
The population of Oceania was less than one million people. 10th century BC Near East: Neo-Assyrian Empire Near East: Shoshenq I invades Canaan Aegean: Helladic period ends 9th century BC Egypt: 872 BC: Nile floods the Temple of Luxor Egypt: 836 BC: Civil war in Egypt North Africa: 814 BC: Carthage founded China: 841 BCndash. Greece: Archaic Greece, Greek alphabet Greece: Homer 776 BC: Greece: First Olympiad 753 BC: Europe: foundation of Rome 7th century BC 671 BC: Assyrian conquest of Egypt Near East: 631 BC: Death of Ashurbanipal, decline of the Assyrian Empire 6th century BC Egypt: 592 BC: Psamtik II sacks Napata Sudan: Aspelta moves the Kushite capital to Meroe Near East: 539 BC: Achaemenid conquest of Babylon under Cyrus the Great South Asia: Śramaṇa movement and "second urbanisation" South Asia: Early Buddhism Europe: 509 BC: Roman Republic 5th century BC China: 479 BC: death of Confucius China: 476 BC: Warring States period China: 486 BC: Grand Canal construction begins Near East: Second Temple Judaism, redaction of the Hebrew Bible Greece: beginning of the classical period.
Greece: Greco-Persian Wars Greece: 440 BC: Herodotus' Histories Greece: 431 BC: Peloponnesian War Oceania: Austronesian expansion reaches Western Polynesia 4th century BC Greece: 395 BC: Corinthian War Egypt: 343 BC: Achaemenid conquest Greece/Asia/Egypt: 330s BC: conquests of Alexander the Great, end of the Achaemenid Empire, Macedonian Empire, beginning of the Hellenistic period South Asia: Mauryan Empire 3rd century BC China: Qin Unified China China: 206 BC: Han Dynasty South Asia: 261 BC: Kalinga war Rome: Roman expansion in Italy Rome/Carthage: Punic Wars 264 BC: First Punic War 218 BC Second Punic War 2nd century BC Rome/Carthage: 149 BC Third Punic War, Roman province of Africa Rome/Greece: 146 BC Battle of Corinth, beginning of the Roman era South Asia: 185 BC: Fall of the Maurya Empire China: Confucianism became the state ideology of China 1st century BC China: 91 BC: Records of the Grand Historian finished Rome/Europe: 58-50 BC Gallic Wars Rome: 32/30 BC: Final War of the Roman Republic Rome/Egypt: 31 BC: Roman conquest of Egypt Rome/Europe/West Asia/Africa: 27 BC: Roman Empire Some of the central figures of the Axial Age are legendary or semi-legendary, with no contemporary written records available RulersChina: Dynasties in Chinese history, List of Chinese monarchs Egypt: Third Intermediate Period of Egypt Carthage: List of monarchs of Carthage Assyrian Empire: List of Assyrian kings Babylonia: Neo-Babylonian_dynasty Canaan / Biblical Levant: Kings of Israel and Judah Achaemenid Persia: List of monarchs of Persia Kingdom of Kush: List of monarchs of Kush Classical Greece: Monarchs: List of kings of Sparta, Thirty Tyrants Athenian democracy: Pericles Macedon: List of ancient Macedonians, Argead dynasty Hellenistic period: Ptolemaic Dynasty, Antigonid dynasty, Hasmonean dynasty Rome: kings of Rome, List of Roman consuls Parthian Empire: List of Parthian kings India: List of Indian monarchsReligion, p
The Berber calendar is the agricultural calendar traditionally used by Berbers. It is known as the fellaḥi; the calendar is utilized to regulate the seasonal agricultural works. The Islamic calendar, a lunar calendar, is not suited for agriculture because it does not relate to seasonal cycles. In other parts of the Islamic world either Iranian solar calendars, the Coptic calendar, the Rumi calendar, or other calendars based on the Julian calendar, were used before the introduction of the Gregorian calendar; the current Berber calendar is a legacy of the Roman province of Mauretania Caesariensis and the Roman province of Africa, as it is a surviving form of the Julian calendar. The latter calendar was used in Europe before the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, with month names derived from Latin. Berber populations used various indigenous calendars, such as that of the Guanche autochthones of the Canary Islands; however little is known of these ancient calendrical systems. The agricultural Berber calendar still in use is certainly derived from the Julian calendar, introduced in the Roman province of Africa at the time of Roman domination.
The names of the months of this calendar are derived from the corresponding Latin names and races of the Roman calendar denominations of Kalends and Ides exist: El Qabisi, an Islamic jurisconsult by Kairawan who lived in the 11th century, condemned the custom of celebrating "pagans'" festivals and cited, among traditional habits of North Africa, that of observing January Qalandas. The length of the year and of the individual months is the same as in the Julian calendar: three years of 365 days followed by a leap year of 366, without exceptions, 30- and 31-day months, except for the second one that has 28 days; the only slight discrepancy lies in that the extra day in leap years is not added at the end of February, but at the end of the year. This means that the beginning of the year corresponds to the 14th day of January in the Gregorian calendar, which coincides with the offset accumulated during the centuries between astronomical dates and the Julian calendar. In addition to the subdivision by months, within the traditional agricultural calendar there are other partitions, by "seasons" or by "strong periods", characterized by particular festivals and celebrations.
Not all the four seasons have retained a Berber denomination: the words for spring and autumn are used everywhere, more sparingly the winter and, among northern Berbers, the Berber name for the autumn has been preserved only in Jebel Nafusa. Spring tafsut – Begins on 15 furar Summer anebdu – Begins on 17 mayu Autumn amwal / aməwan ( – Begins on 17 ghusht Winter tagrest - Begins on 16 numbír An interesting element is the existing opposition between two 40-day terms, one representing the coldest part of winter and one the hottest period of summer; the coldest period is made up by 20 "white nights", from 12 to 31 dujamber, 20 "black nights", beginning on the first day of yennayer, corresponding to the Gregorian 14 January. The first day of the year is celebrated in various ways in the different parts of North Africa. A widespread tradition is a meal with particular foods. In some regions, it is marked by the sacrifice of an animal. In Algeria, such a holiday is celebrated by many people who don't use the Berber calendar in daily life.
A characteristic trait of this festivity, which blurs with the Islamic Day of Ashura, is the presence, in many regions, of ritual invocations with formulas like bennayu, babiyyanu, bu-ini, etc. Such expressions, according to many scholars, may be derived from of the ancient bonus annus wishes. A curious aspect of the Yennayer celebrations concerns the date of New Year's Day. Though once this anniversary fell everywhere on 14 January, because of a mistake introduced by some Berber cultural associations active in recovering customs on the verge of extinction, at present in a wide part of Algeria it is common opinion that the date of "Berber New Year's Day" is 12 January and not the 14th; the celebration at the 12, two days before the traditional one, it had been explicitly signaled in the city of Oran. El Azara is the period of the year extending, according to the Berber calendar, from 3 to 13 February and known by a climate sometimes hot, sometimes cold. Before the cold ends and spring begins there is a period of the year, feared.
It consists of ten days straddling the months of furar and mars, it is characterised by strong winds. It is said that, during this term, one should suspend many activities, should not marry nor go out during the night, leaving instead full scope to mysterious powers, which in that period are active and celebrate their weddings. Due to a linguistic taboo, in Djerba these creatures are called imbarken, i.e. "the blessed ones", whence this period takes its name. Jamrat el Ma, "embers of the sea", 27 February, is marked by a rise in sea temperature. Jamrat el Trab, "land embers" in English, is the period from 6 to 10 March and known to be marked by a mixture of heavy rain and sunny weather. Jamrat or coal is a term used t
Kali Yuga in Hinduism is the last of the four stages the world goes through as part of a'cycle of yugas' described in the Sanskrit scriptures. The other ages are called Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga, Dvapara Yuga. Kali Yuga is associated with the demon Kali; the "Kali" of Kali Yuga means "strife", "discord", "quarrel" or "contention". According to Puranic sources, Krishna's departure marks the end of Dvapara Yuga and the start of Kali Yuga, dated to 17/18 February 3102 BCE. According to the Surya Siddhanta, Kali Yuga began at midnight on 18 February 3102 BCE; this is considered the date on which Lord Krishna left the earth to return to Vaikuntha. This information is placed at the temple of the place of this incident. According to the astronomer and mathematician Aryabhatta the Kali Yuga started in 3102 BCE, he finished his book "Aryabhattiya" in 499 CE, in which he gives the exact year of the beginning of Kali Yuga. He writes that he wrote the book in the "year 3600 of the Kali Age" at the age of 23; as it was the 3600th year of the Kali Age when he was 23 years old, given that Aryabhatta was born in 476 CE, the beginning of the Kali Yuga would come to 3102 BCE.
According to KD Abhyankar, the starting point of Kali Yuga is an rare planetary alignment, depicted in the Mohenjo-Daro seals. Going by this alignment the year 3102 BCE is off; the actual date for this alignment is 7 February of 3104 BCE. There is sufficient proof to believe that Vrdhha Garga knew of precession at least by 500 BCE. Garga had calculated the rate of precession to within 30 % of; the common belief until Swami Sri Yukteswar Giri had analyzed the dating of the Yuga cycles was that the Kali Yuga would last for 432,000 years after the end of the Dwapara Yuga. This originated during the puranic times when the famous astronomer Aryabhatta recalculated the timeline by artificially inflating the traditional 12,000 year figure with a multiplication of 360, represented as the number of "human years" that make up a single "divine year"; this was a purposeful miscalculation due to conflicts with one of the preeminent astronomer of the time Brahmagupta. However, both the Mahabharata and the Manu Smriti have the original value of 12,000 years for one half of the Yuga cycle.
Contemporary analysis of historical data from the last 11 millennia matches with the indigenous Saptarishi Calendar. The length of the transitional periods between each Yuga is unclear, can only be estimated based on historical data of past cataclysmic events. Using a 300 year period for transitions, Kali Yuga has either ended in the past 100 to 200 years, or is to end soon sometime in the next 100 years. Other authors, such as the revered Hindu guru Swami Sri Yukteswar in his book The Holy Science, as well as the influential Yogi Paramhansa Yogananda, believe that the Kali Yuga has ended, that we are now in an ascending Dvapara Yuga; this calculation is supported by modern day spiritual masters such as Sadhguru Jaggi Vasudev. Hindus believe that human civilization degenerates spiritually during the Kali Yuga, referred to as the Dark Age because in it people are as far away as possible from God. Hinduism symbolically represents morality as an Indian bull. Common attributes and consequences are spiritual bankruptcy, mindless hedonism, breakdown of all social structure and materialism, unrestricted egotism and maladies of mind and body.
In Satya Yuga, the first stage of development, the bull has four legs, but in each age morality is reduced by one quarter. By the age of Kali, morality is reduced to only a quarter of that of the golden age, so that the bull of Dharma has only one leg; the Mahabharata War and the decimation of Kauravas thus happened at the "Yuga-Sandhi", the point of transition from one yuga to another. The scriptures mention Sage Narada to have momentarily intercepted the demon Kali on his way to the Earth when Duryodhana was about to be born in order to make him an embodiment of arishadvargas and adharma in preparation of the era of decay in values and the consequent havoc. A discourse by Markandeya in the Mahabharata identifies some of the attributes of Kali Yuga. In relation to rulers, it lists: Rulers will become unreasonable: they will levy taxes unfairly. Rulers will no longer see it as their duty to promote spirituality, or to protect their subjects: they will become a danger to the world. People will start seeking countries where wheat and barley form the staple food source.
"At the end of Kali-yuga, when there exist no topics on the subject of God at the residences of so-called saints and respectable gentlemen of the three higher varnas and when nothing is known of the techniques of sacrifice by word, at that time the Lord will appear as the supreme chastiser." (Srimad-Bhagavatam With regard to human relationships, Markandeya's discourse says: Avarice and wrath will be common. Humans will display animosity towards each other. Ignorance of dharma will occur. People will see nothing wrong in that. Lust will be viewed as acceptable and sexual intercourse will be seen as the central requirement of life. Sin will increase exponentially, while virtue will cease to flourish. People will become addicted to intoxicating drugs. Gurus will no longer be respected and their students will attempt
3rd century BC
The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of epoch, or historical period. In the Mediterranean Basin, the first few decades of this century were characterized by a balance of power between the Greek Hellenistic kingdoms in the east, the great mercantile power of Carthage in the west; this balance was shattered when conflict arose between the Roman Republic. In the following decades, the Carthaginian Republic was first humbled and destroyed by the Romans in the First and Second Punic Wars. Following the Second Punic War, Rome became the most important power in the western Mediterranean. In the eastern Mediterranean, the Seleucid Empire and Ptolemaic Kingdom, successor states to the empire of Alexander the Great, fought a series of Syrian Wars for control over the Levant. In mainland Greece, the short-lived Antipatrid dynasty of Macedon was overthrown and replaced by the Antigonid dynasty in 294 BC, a royal house that would dominate the affairs of Hellenistic Greece for a century until the stalemate of the First Macedonian War against Rome.
Macedon would lose the Cretan War against the Greek city-state of Rhodes and its allies. In India, Ashoka ruled the Maurya Empire; the Pandya and Chera dynasties of the classical age flourished in the ancient Tamil country. The Warring States period in China drew to a close, with Qin Shi Huang conquering the six other nation-states and establishing the short-lived Qin dynasty, the first empire of China, followed in the same century by the long-lasting Han dynasty. However, a brief interregnum and civil war existed between the Qin and Han periods known as the Chu-Han contention, lasting until 202 BC with the ultimate victory of Liu Bang over Xiang Yu; the Protohistoric Period began in the Korean peninsula. In the following century the Chinese Han dynasty would conquer the Gojoseon kingdom of northern Korea; the Xiongnu were at the height of their power in Mongolia. They defeated the Han Chinese at the Battle of Baideng in 200 BC, marking the beginning of the forced Heqin tributary agreement and marriage alliance that would last several decades.
299 BC: The Samnites, seizing their chance when Rome is engaged on the Lombard plain, start the Third Samnite War with a collection of mercenaries from Gaul and Sabine and Etruscan allies to help them. 298 BC: The Samnites defeat the Romans under Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus in the Battle of Camerinum, the first battle of the Third Samnite War. 294 BC: Antipater II of Macedon is killed by Lysimachus, allowing Demetrius I to become king of Macedonia, thus ending the Antipatrid dynasty's control over Hellenistic Greece and ushering in a period of rule by the Antigonid dynasty. 293 BC: The Chinese State of Qin reduced the threat of the State of Wei and the State of Han with the Qin victory in the Battle of Yique. Roman armies penetrate into the heart of the Samnite territory and capture the Samnite cities of Taurasia, Bovianum Vetus and Aufidena. Agathocles, king of Syracuse, assists the Italian Greeks against the Bruttians. Bindusara succeeds his father Chandragupta Maurya as emperor of the Mauryan Empire.
The Epi-Olmec culture forms as a successor civilization to the Olmecs in Mesoamerica. 285 BC: The Pharos of Alexandria is completed. 281 BC: Antiochus I Soter, on the assassination of his father Seleucus becomes emperor of the Seleucid empire. 281 BC: Achaean League founded in Greece. 280 BC: King Pyrrhus of Epirus invades Italy in an attempt to subjugate the Romans and bring Italy under a new empire ruled by himself. 280 BC: Construction of the Colossus of Rhodes is completed. 279 BC: Singidunum and Taurunum, today's Belgrade and Zemun, are founded by Scordisci Celts. After failing to decisively defeat the Romans, Pyrrhus of Epirus withdraws from Italy. Gallic migration to Macedon and Galatia. During the Gallic invasion of Greece, the Macedonian king Ptolemy Keraunos is killed in battle by the forces of the Celtic ruler Bolgios. However, both he and Brennus are driven out of Macedonian territory by Sosthenes of Macedon. 277 BC: in the Battle of Lysimachia, the invasion by Gauls is defeated by Antigonus II of Macedon.
274 BC: the First Syrian War erupts between Antiochus I Soter of the Seleucid dynasty and Ptolemy II Philadelphus of the Ptolemaic dynasty over control of Syria and southern Anatolia. 273 BC – 232 BC: Ashoka the Great ruled the Maurya Empire. 265 BC: Kalinga War takes place between Ashoka the Great and the kingdom of Kalinga. 264 BC: First Punic War breaks out between the Carthaginian Empire and the Roman Republic. 261 BC: Antiochus II Theos, 2nd son, at the death of his father becomes emperor of the Seleucid empire. 260 BC: Battle of Changping between the State of Qin and the State of Zhao in China. 260 BC: Ashoka inscribes the Edicts of Ashoka. 258 BC: An Dương Vương overthrows the Hồng Bàng Dynasty in Viet Nam. 257 BC: Thục Dynasty takes over Vietnam. 246 BC: The death of Antiochus II sparks the Third Syrian War. Expansion of the Achaean League. 241 BC: First Punic War ends in Carthaginian defeat. Rome demands large reparations, annexes Sicily and Corsica. 240 BC: On May 15, Chinese mathematicians observed and recorded the passage of the Halley's Comet.
230 BC: The Chinese Qin State conquers Han. 230 BC: Simuka declares independence from Mauryan rule and establishes the Satavahana Empire. 229 BC: The First Illyrian War ends with a Roman victory. 229 BC: Last tyrants on the Peloponnese abdicate, Argos joins the Achaean League, Athens liberated from Macedonian garrison. 227 BC: The attempted assassination of Ying Zheng, king
4th century BC
The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of epoch, or historical period; this century marked the height of Classical Greek civilization in all of its aspects. By the year 400 Greek philosophy, art and architecture had spread far and wide, with the numerous independent Greek colonies that had sprung up throughout the lands of the eastern Mediterranean. Arguably the most important series of political events in this period were the conquests of Alexander, bringing about the collapse of the once formidable Persian Empire and spreading Greek culture far into the east. Alexander dreamed of an east/west union, but when his short life ended in 323 BC, his vast empire was plunged into civil war as his generals each carved out their own separate kingdoms, thus began the Hellenistic age, a period characterized by a more absolute approach to rule, with Greek kings taking on royal trappings and setting up hereditary successions. While a degree of democracy still existed in some of the remaining independent Greek cities, many scholars see this age as marking the end of classical Greece.
In India, the Mauryan Empire was founded in 322 BC by Chandragupta Maurya who expanded his power westwards across central and western India, taking advantage of the disruptions of local powers in the wake of the withdrawal westward by the armies of Alexander. China in the 4th century BC entered an era of constant warfare known as the Warring States period; the period saw the rapid rise of large states over smaller ones thanks to technological advancement. Though the period has been characterized by historians as being excessively violent compared to the Spring and Autumn period, it was punctured by several cultural and social growths through the expansion of several different sects of Confucianism and Taoism, the formulation of Legalist thought. Oldest Brāhmī script dates from this period. Brāhmī is the ancestor of Brahmic scripts, used in much of Southeast Asia. Romans build their first aqueduct. Chinese use the handheld trigger crossbow for the first time; the first crossbow, the gastraphetes, is invented at Syracuse.
Burnt brick'or fired bricks' were first used in Medeterranean Civilizations. Donkey-powered mills or ` Pompeiian Mills' were first used in Italy. In Greece, Aristotle proposes the division of the known sciences. Torque with lion's-head terminals, from Susa was made, it is now in Paris. Daric, a coin first minted under Darius I of Persia is made, it is now kept in Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Second half of the 4th century BC – Tomb II, so called Tomb of Philip II of Macedon, Macedonia is made. Starting in the year 309 BC, the Chinese historian Sima Qian wrote that the Qin-employed engineer Bi Ling of the newly conquered State of Shu in Sichuan had the shoulder of a mountain cut through, making the'Separated Hill' that abated the Mo River, excavated two canals in the plain of Chengdu; the significance of this was phenomenal, as it allowed the new Guardian irrigation system to populate an area of some 40 by 50 miles with over five million people, still in use today. The Chinese astronomer Gan De divides the celestial sphere into 365¼ degrees, the tropical year into 365¼ days at a time when most astronomers used the Babylon division of the celestial sphere as 360 degrees.
First written in Sanskrit. Agnodice, female Athenian physician and midwife Alexander the Great, king of Macedon Antigonus I Monophthalmus, Macedonian diadoch Antipater, Macedonian statesman Atropates, Persian nobleman Bessus, Persian satrap of Bactria Cassander, King of Macedon Chandragupta Maurya, Founder of the "Mauryan Dynasty" Craterus, Macedonian diadoch Darius III, king of the Achaemenid Empire Demetrius Poliocretes, King of Macedon Demosthenes, Athenian statesman and orator Dhana Nanda, last emperor of the Nanda dynasty Duke Xiao of Qin, ruler of Qin Epaminondas, Theban statesman Hephaestion, Macedonian general King Wuling of Zhao, ruler of Zhao Lysimachus, Macedonian diadoh and king of Thrace Mahapadma Nanda, founding emperor of the Nanda dynasty Manius Curius Dentatus, Roman statesman Nakhthorheb, last native Pharaoh of Egypt Pang Juan, Chinese general Parmenion, Macedonian general Pelopidas, Theban statesman Perdiccas, Macedonian diadoh Philip II, King of Macedon Ptolemy I Soter, Macedonian diadoh and king of Egypt Porus, King of the Pauravas, in the Indian Subcontinent Seleucus I Nicator, Macedonian diadoh and founder of the Seleucid Empire Shang Yang, Chinese statesman Su Qin, Chinese politician and strategist Tian Ji, Chinese general Zhang Yi, Chinese strategist Apelles, Greek painter Cephisodotus the Elder, Greek sculptor Leochares, Greek sculptor Lysippos, Greek sculptor Praxiteles, Greek sculptor Scopas, Greek sculptor and architect Demetrius of Phalerum, Greek rhetorician Isocrates, Greek rhetorician and writer Menander, Greek playwright Onesicritus, Greek historical writer Qu Yuan, Chinese poet Simonides of Ceos, Greek lyric poet Xenophon, Greek historian and writer Anaximenes of Lampsacus, Greek rhetorician and historian.
Antisthenes, Greek philosopher Archytas, Greek philosopher Aristippus, Greek philosopher Aristotle, Greek philosopher Callisthenes, Greek historian Chanakya, Indian economist and political advisor Crates of Thebes, Greek philosopher Diogenes of Sinope, Greek philosopher Epicurus, Greek philosopher Mencius, Chinese philosopher Panini, Indian philosopher and writer Plato, Greek philosopher Pyrrho, Greek philosopher Socrates, Greek Philo
The Hebrew or Jewish calendar is a lunisolar calendar used today predominantly for Jewish religious observances. It determines the dates for Jewish holidays and the appropriate public reading of Torah portions and daily Psalm readings, among many ceremonial uses. In Israel, it is used for religious purposes, provides a time frame for agriculture and is an official calendar for civil purposes, although the latter usage has been declining in favor of the Gregorian calendar; the present Hebrew calendar is the product including a Babylonian influence. Until the Tannaitic period, the calendar employed a new crescent moon, with an additional month added every two or three years to correct for the difference between twelve lunar months and the solar year; the year in which it was added was based on observation of natural agriculture-related events in ancient Israel. Through the Amoraic period and into the Geonic period, this system was displaced by the mathematical rules used today; the principles and rules were codified by Maimonides in the Mishneh Torah in the 12th century.
Maimonides' work replaced counting "years since the destruction of the Temple" with the modern creation-era Anno Mundi. The Hebrew lunar year is about eleven days shorter than the solar year and uses the 19-year Metonic cycle to bring it into line with the solar year, with the addition of an intercalary month every two or three years, for a total of seven times per 19 years. With this intercalation, the average Hebrew calendar year is longer by about 6 minutes and 40 seconds than the current mean tropical year, so that every 217 years the Hebrew calendar will fall a day behind the current mean tropical year; the era used. As with Anno Domini, the words or abbreviation for Anno Mundi for the era should properly precede the date rather than follow it. AM 5779 began at sunset on 9 September 2018 and will end at sunset on 29 September 2019; the Jewish day is of no fixed length. The Jewish day is modeled on the reference to "...there was evening and there was morning..." in the creation account in the first chapter of Genesis.
Based on the classic rabbinic interpretation of this text, a day in the rabbinic Hebrew calendar runs from sunset to the next sunset. Halachically, a day ends and a new one starts when three stars are visible in the sky; the time between true sunset and the time when the three stars are visible is known as'bein hashmashot', there are differences of opinion as to which day it falls into for some uses. This may be relevant, for example, in determining the date of birth of a child born during that gap. There is no clock in the Jewish scheme. Though the civil clock, including the one in use in Israel, incorporates local adoptions of various conventions such as time zones, standard times and daylight saving, these have no place in the Jewish scheme; the civil clock is used only as a reference point – in expressions such as: "Shabbat starts at...". The steady progression of sunset around the world and seasonal changes results in gradual civil time changes from one day to the next based on observable astronomical phenomena and not on man-made laws and conventions.
In Judaism, an hour is defined as 1/12 of the time from sunrise to sunset, so, during the winter, an hour can be much less than 60 minutes, during the summer, it can be much more than 60 minutes. This proportional hour is known as a sha'ah z'manit. A Jewish hour is divided into parts. A part is 1/18 minute; the ultimate ancestor of the helek was a small Babylonian time period called a barleycorn, itself equal to 1/72 of a Babylonian time degree. These measures are not used for everyday purposes. Instead of the international date line convention, there are varying opinions as to where the day changes. One opinion uses the antimeridian of Jerusalem. Other opinions exist as well; the weekdays proceed to Saturday, Shabbat. Since some calculations use division, a remainder of 0 signifies Saturday. While calculations of days and years are based on fixed hours equal to 1/24 of a day, the beginning of each halachic day is based on the local time of sunset; the end of the Shabbat and other Jewish holidays is based on nightfall which occurs some amount of time 42 to 72 minutes, after sunset.
According to Maimonides, nightfall occurs. By the 17th century, this had become three-second-magnitude stars; the modern definition is when the center of the sun is 7° below the geometric horizon, somewhat than civil twilight at 6°. The beginning of the daytime portion of each day is determined both by sunrise. Most halachic times are based on some combination of these four times and vary from day to day throughout the year and vary depending on location; the daytime hours are divided into Sha'oth Zemaniyoth or "Halachic hours" by taking the time between sunrise and sunset or between dawn and nightfall and dividing it into 12 equal hours. The nighttime hours are s