Commonwealth Liberal Party
The Commonwealth Liberal Party was a political movement active in Australia from 1909 to 1917, shortly after Federation. The CLP came about as a result of a merger between the two non-Labor parties, the Protectionist Party and the Anti-Socialist Party which most of their MPs accepted; the CLP is the earliest direct ancestor of the current Liberal Party of Australia. George Reid adopted a strategy of trying to reorient the party system along Labour vs non-Labour lines – prior to the 1906 election, he renamed his Free Trade Party to the Anti-Socialist Party. Reid envisaged a spectrum running from socialist to anti-socialist, with the Protectionist Party in the middle; this attempt struck a chord with politicians who were steeped in the Westminster tradition and regarded a two-party system as much the norm. The Commonwealth Liberal Party was formed in response to Labor forming its second government under Andrew Fisher in 1908. Under considerable pressure from middle- and upper-class interests, Alfred Deakin, the leader of the Protectionists, Joseph Cook, leader of the Anti-Socialists, joined forces in order to counter Labor's growing popularity.
In 1909, the two parties at a meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House agreed to merge into the CLP, based on a shared anti-Labor platform. Deakin was the new party's first leader, with Cook as deputy leader; the merger didn't sit well with several of the more liberal Protectionists, who defected to Labor or sat as independents. Between them, the Protectionists and Anti-Socialists held a majority of seats on the floor of the House of Representatives; as a result, the newly merged party used its numbers to force Fisher to hand power to Deakin. However, the CLP was defeated by Labor at the 1910 election, which saw Labor with an elected majority in both houses, the first federal occurrence for a party. Cook took over the leadership from Deakin shortly before the 1913 election and won government by a single seat. However, only a year Cook deliberately introduced a bill abolishing preferential treatment for public-service union members. Cook knew the Labor-controlled Senate would vote the bill down, giving him an excuse to call a double dissolution election, the first time one would be called.
When the Senate rejected the bill twice, Cook called the 1914 election. The CLP was again defeated with Labor again winning a majority in both houses; the CLP remained in opposition until November 1916, when it reached a confidence and supply agreement with Prime Minister Billy Hughes, expelled from Labor for supporting conscription in World War I and organised his followers as the National Labor Party. In February 1917, the CLP and National Labor formally merged to form the Nationalist Party of Australia. Although the merged party was dominated by former Liberals, Hughes became its leader with Cook as his deputy. Hughes would stay on as Prime Minister until the 1922 election where the new Country Party of Australia stripped the Nationalists of their majority, demanded his resignation in exchange for confidence and supply. Stanley Bruce subsequently became Prime Minister; the Commonwealth Liberal Party is referred to by the retronym "Deakinite Liberal Party" in order to distinguish it from the Liberal Party of Australia, founded in 1945.
Alfred Deakin 1909–13 Joseph Cook 1913–16 Liberalism in Australia List of political parties in Australia Australian Dictionary of Biography – Alfred Deakin Australian Dictionary of Biography – Joseph Cook Media related to Commonwealth Liberal Party at Wikimedia Commons
Glenn Patrick Lazarus is a former professional rugby league footballer and a former Australian Senator. An Australian international and New South Wales State of Origin representative prop, Lazarus won premierships with the Canberra Raiders, Brisbane Broncos and Melbourne Storm, who he captained, he is the only player in the history of the game to win grand finals with three separate clubs, with the grand final wins being the first for each club. After his retirement from football he assisted several NRL clubs in a coaching capacity. In the 2013 federal election, Lazarus was elected to the Australian Senate for the state of Queensland as the lead Queensland candidate for the Palmer United Party, he became PUP Senate leader at the commencement of his term on 1 July 2014. He quit PUP on 13 March 2015 citing issues with its leader Clive Palmer, established his own political party, the Glenn Lazarus Team, he did not retain his seat in the 2016 federal election. Lazarus was born in New South Wales, he attended Karabar High School.
He excelled at swimming and football, both Australian rules and rugby league. Lazarus achieved a formidable reputation in prop forward position at club and international levels, he was the first player in the history of the game to win premierships with three different clubs: Canberra Raiders, Brisbane Broncos and Melbourne Storm. Lazarus was named Players' Player for two consecutive Kangaroo Tours: 1990 and 1994. In addition, Lazarus scored the first rugby league try at the Melbourne Cricket Ground during a State of Origin game. Lazarus began his first-grade career with the Canberra Raiders in 1987, was selected to make his debut for New South Wales in the 1989 State of Origin series, he played a starring role in the club's victory over the Balmain Tigers in the 1989 grand final. He travelled with the Raiders to England for the 1989 World Club Challenge, lost to Widnes. Lazarus played in the Raiders' victory over the Penrith Panthers in the 1990 grand final. At the end of the 1990 NSWRL season, he went on the 1990 Kangaroo tour of Great France.
He played for Canberra in their grand final loss to Penrith in 1991. In the summer preceding the 1992 season, Lazarus was recruited from Canberra by his former coach at the Raiders, Wayne Bennett and joined the Brisbane Broncos, with whom he played the largest portion of his career. During the 1992 Great Britain Lions tour of Australia and New Zealand, he helped Australia retain The Ashes, he played for the Broncos at prop forward in the 1992 grand final victory over the St. George Dragons, following which he travelled with the Broncos to England, where he played at prop forward in the 1992 World Club Challenge against British champions Wigan, helping Brisbane become the first NSWRL club to win the match in Britain, he played for Australia at prop forward in the World Cup final victory over Great Britain at Wembley Stadium. Lazarus played for the Broncos at prop forward in the 1993 grand final victory again over the St. George Dragons; this constituted a remarkable feat of playing in five consecutive grand finals.
During the 1994 NSWRL season, Lazarus played at prop forward for defending premiers Brisbane when they hosted British champions Wigan for the 1994 World Club Challenge and lost. In 1996, he captained the Broncos in a game against the Penrith Panthers due to Allan Langer being injured, he was selected to go on the 1994 Kangaroo Tour. It was only a broken ankle suffered during a 1997 World Club Championship match that prevented Lazarus from playing in that year's Super League grand-final-winning Brisbane side. Lazarus was recruited to the newly established Melbourne Storm by his former CEO and teammate from the Broncos, both responsible for setting up and managing the growth of new club in Melbourne. Lazarus commenced with the club in its inaugural year, 1998 and was named as the club's first captain and given a newspaper column to write in The Herald Sun, he went on to lead the Melbourne Storm at prop forward in their 1999 grand final victory. Lazarus announced his retirement from the game with five premierships for three different clubs.
In 2000, Lazarus was awarded the Australian Sports Medal for his contribution to Australia's international standing in rugby league. In 2003, he was one of the first four former players inducted into the Broncos' official Hall of Fame. In 2005, the western grandstand of Olympic Park Stadium was named the Glenn Lazarus stand in his honour. Lazarus spent, he assisted the Canberra Raiders and Brisbane Broncos in an assistant coaching capacity. In February 2008, Lazarus was named in the list of Australia's 100 Greatest Players, commissioned by the NRL and ARL to celebrate the code's centenary year in Australia. Lazarus has been 612 ABC Brisbane Breakfast rugby league tipster since 2008. In 2008 New South Wales announced their rugby league team of the century. At the end of the 2008 Queensland Cup season, who served as assistant coach at the Ipswich Jets club under the departing Kevin Walters, was named as head coach of the club from the 2009 season. Lazarus was not re-appointed for 2011. Lazarus was selected to head the Palmer United Party Senate ticket in Queensland at the 2013 federal election and was elected on a 9.89 percent primary vote.
He got to the required 14.3 percent quota from a favourable preferential tally from group voting tickets. His term as a PUP Senator commenced on 1 July 2014 and he became PUP Senate leader, he announced his resignat
Australian Broadcasting Corporation
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation is Australia's national broadcaster founded in 1929. It is principally funded by direct grants from the Australian government, but is expressly independent of government and partisan politics; the ABC plays a leading role in journalistic independence and is fundamental in the history of broadcasting in Australia. Modelled on the BBC in the United Kingdom, it was financed by consumer licence fees on broadcasting receivers. Licence fees were abolished in 1973 and replaced principally by direct government grants, as well as revenue from commercial activities related to its core broadcasting mission; the ABC now provides television, radio and mobile services throughout metropolitan and regional Australia and overseas through ABC Australia and Radio Australia. The ABC headquarters is in an inner-city suburb of Sydney, New South Wales. Founded in 1929 as the Australian Broadcasting Company, the ABC was a Government licensed consortium of private entertainment and content providers, authorised under supervision to broadcast on the airwaves using a two-tiered system.
The "A" system derived its funds from the licence fees levied on the purchasers of the radio receivers, with an emphasis on building the radio wave infrastructure into regional and remote areas, whilst the "B" system relied on privateers and their capacity to establish viable enterprises using the new technology. Following the general downward economic trends of the era, as entrepreneurial ventures in National infrastructure struggled with viability, the "Company" was subsequently acquired to become a state-owned corporation on 1 July 1932 and renamed as Australian Broadcasting Commission, re-aligning more to the British, BBC model; the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983 changed the name of the organisation to the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, effective 1 July 1983. Although funded and owned by the government, the ABC remains editorially independent as ensured through the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983; the ABC is sometimes informally referred to as "Aunty" in imitation of the British Broadcasting Corporation's nickname.
The first public radio station in Australia opened in Sydney on 23 November 1923 under the call sign 2SB with other stations in Melbourne, Adelaide and Hobart following. A licensing scheme, administered by the Postmaster-General's Department, was soon established allowing certain stations government funding, albeit with restrictions placed on their advertising content. Following a 1927 royal commission inquiry into radio licensing issues, the government established the National Broadcasting Service which subsequently took over a number of the larger funded stations, it nationalised the Australian Broadcasting Company, created by entertainment interests to supply programs to various radio stations. On 1 July 1932, the Australian Broadcasting Commission was established, taking over the operations of the National Broadcasting Service and establishing offices in each of Australia's capital cities. Over the next four years the stations were reformed into a cohesive broadcasting organisation through regular program relays, coordinated by a centralised bureaucracy.
The Australian broadcast radio spectrum was constituted of the commercial sector. News broadcasts were restricted, due to pressure from Sir Keith Murdoch, who controlled many Australian newspapers. However, journalists such as Frank Dixon and John Hinde began to subvert the agreements in the late 1930s. In 1939, Warren Denning was appointed to Canberra as the first ABC political correspondent, after Murdoch had refused to allow his newspapers to cover a speech by Joseph Lyons. In 1942 The Australian Broadcasting Act was passed, giving the ABC the power to decide when, in what circumstances, political speeches should be broadcast. Directions from the Minister about whether or not to broadcast any matter now had to be made in writing, any exercise of the power had to be mentioned in the Commission's Annual Report, it was used only once, in 1963. In the same year, "Kindergarten of the Air" began on ABC Radio in Perth, was broadcast nationally. In 1944 18-year-old Patricia Delaney, of Sydney, was the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's only girl cadet announcer, the youngest member of announcing staff.
Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 1920-1949 The ABC commenced television broadcasting in 1956, followed the earlier radio practice of naming the station after the first letter of the base state. ABN-2 Sydney was inaugurated by Prime Minister Robert Menzies on 5 November 1956, with the first broadcast presented by Michael Charlton, James Dibble reading the first television news bulletin. ABV-2 followed two weeks on 18 November 1956. Stations in other capital cities followed: ABQ-2, ABS-2, ABW-2, ABT-2. ABC-3 Canberra opened in 1961, ABD-6 started broadcasting in 1971, both named after the base city. Although radio programs could be distributed nationally by landline, television relay facilities were not in place until the early 1960s; this meant that news bulletins had to be sent to each capital city by teleprinter, to be prepared and presented separately in each city, with filmed materials copied manually and sent to each state. Other television programs at the time included the popular Six O'Clock Rock hosted by Johnny O'Keefe, Mr. Squiggle, as well as operas and plays.
In 1973 New South Wales Rugby League boss Kevin Humphreys negotiated rugby league's first television deal with the ABC. In 1975, colour television was
Division of New England
The Division of New England is an Australian electoral division in the state of New South Wales. The division is located in the north-east of adjoining the border with Queensland; the division was proclaimed in 1900, was one of the original 65 divisions to be contested at the first federal election. It is named after the New England region in northern New South Wales; the 66,394 km² division covers a rural area, with agriculture the main industry. From south to north it includes the regional population centres of Scone, Armidale, Glen Innes and Tenterfield; the member since the 2013 federal election has been Barnaby Joyce, who served as Deputy Prime Minister of Australia and leader of the National Party from 2016 to 2018. Amid the 2017–18 Australian parliamentary eligibility crisis, the seat was declared vacant on 27 October 2017 by the High Court of Australia arising from Joyce's dual citizenship. Joyce had renounced his dual citizenship effective from August in order to become a sole citizen of Australia and was thus eligible to run for federal parliament.
Joyce regained the seat at a by-election on 2 December. From 1922 to 2001, New England was regarded as a comfortably safe seat for the Country Party known as the National Party. Only one Labor candidate has won the seat – Francis Foster at the 1906 election and again at the 1910 election, both times on small margins. From 2001 until his retirement in 2013, the seat was represented by independent Tony Windsor. Former Queensland Senator Barnaby Joyce has represented the seat for the National Party since; the seat's best-known member was Ian Sinclair, leader of the National Party from 1984 to 1989, a minister in the Menzies, Gorton, McMahon and Fraser governments and Speaker of the Australian House of Representatives for a few months in 1998. Under the original redistribution proposal in 2015, the Australian Electoral Commission announced it intended to abolish Hunter. Electors in the north of Hunter would have joined New England. However, the Commission opted for a less radical proposal that saw Charlton abolished, Hunter pushed eastward to absorb most of Charlton's territory, New England absorbing a few small areas in Hunter's north.
Due to changing populations, overall New South Wales lost a seat while Western Australia gained a seat. Division of New England - Australian Electoral Commission
New England (New South Wales)
New England or New England North West is the name given to a undefined region in the north of the state of New South Wales, Australia about 60 kilometres inland, that includes the Northern Tablelands and the North West Slopes regions. The region has been occupied by Indigenous Australians for thousands of years, notably in the west by the Kamilaroi people. In the highlands, the original languages, which are now extinct, were Anaiwan to the south of Guyra and Ngarrabal and Marabal to the north of Guyra; the first European to explore the New England area was English explorer John Oxley, who crossed the southern part of the New England Range near the Apsley Falls before he discovered and named Port Macquarie in 1818. In 1827 Allan Cunningham travelled north along the western edge of the Range until he reached the Darling Downs in Queensland. In 1831 Thomas Mitchell reached Wallamoul Station near Tamworth and explored to the Namoi River followed it to Narrabri. Moving on, Mitchell found a deep, broad river, the Gwydir.
In 1832, Mitchell cut across the plains to the Gwydir River near Moree. The team spent several weeks charting the tributaries between the Gwydir and the Barwon Rivers. Hamilton Collins Sempill was the first settler in the New England area when he took up the'Wolka' run in 1832, establishing slab huts where'Langford' now stands close to Walcha. During the 1830s further squatters moved their sheep flocks onto the Northern Tablelands as they had been displaced by the Australian Agricultural Company, which dominated resources in the Hunter Valley; when the area was opened up for settlement in the 1830s, this led to the gazetting of nine pastoral districts. These districts had a Commissioner of Crown Lands. Australian red cedar cutters moved into the headwaters of the Macleay River in the early 1830s to harvest the valuable trees; the ranges between Kempsey and Glen Innes yielded about 300,000 board feet in 1950. Work commenced in 1838 with the use of convicts to build a road known as Major's Line, across the Great Dividing Range to link the wool-growing settlement of Walcha with Port Macquarie.
This road was named the Oxley Highway. On 22 May 1839 the New England District was gazetted thus: New England District: Bounded on the east by a line north by compass from the top of Werrikimber Mountain, at the head of the Hastings River. In 1840 there were 66 separate pastoral licences, in 1842 it rose to 98, 1845 – 116. Only 10 new runs were registered between 1848 and 1855. In 1843 the Darling Downs district was separated from the New England; this region ceased to be a statistical division after 1874, but the counties of Arrawatta, Clive, Hardinge, Hawes and Vernon approximated the region’s limits. In 1847 these counties, with the exception of Hawes and Vernon formed part of the "Unsettled District" of the colony. By 1850 all major communication routes had been forged, with little government assistance. During the 1860s the famous bushranger, Captain Thunderbolt, robbed properties, mail coaches and hotels throughout the region. Thunderbolt was shot dead in May 1870 near Uralla; the population of the New England Region, including the slopes in 1957 was 143,788 and in 1971 there were 164,128 people, according to the census data.
In the 2006 census the New England region had a population of 180,000 which included the local government areas of Armidale Dumaresq, Walcha, Glen Innes Severn, Guyra, Liverpool Plains, Moree Plains, Tamworth Regional and Uralla. Gold was discovered in 1851 at Rocky River two kilometres west of Uralla and started a rush to the area. Gold was found at Hanging Rock and nearby Swamp Creek in 1852. In the early 1850s some alluvial gold was found at Mulla Rywung on Swamp Oak Creek. In 1852 the first licenses to prospect were taken out. In the late 19th century several gold and antimony mines were established at places such as Halls Peak and Hillgrove, as well as two ambitious hydro-electric schemes to power them, the remains of which can be seen today along the Styx River and at Gara Gorge; the first gold mining was recorded at Tia in 1866 and in 1873 a reef was discovered at McLeod’s Creek, near Walcha. The discovery of the Torrington Tin Lode was made in 1881 but the small prospectors soon lost control to overseas mining companies.
Tin and arsenic were mined from the 1880s near Emmaville. Copper was discovered at Gulf Creek, near Barraba, in 1889 and the first mine was established there in 1892. At its peak, in 1901, the copper mine was one of the largest in the state. Asbestos was first mined at Woodsreef near Barraba, from 1919 to the 1980s. Mining had a major influence on the rise and fall of other towns and villages such as, Bear Hill, Emmaville, Nundle, Stannifer and Torrington. Construction of the Northern Tablelands railway service commenced in the 1870s and the Main North railway line reached Werris Creek and west Tamworth in 1878, Armidale in 1883 and Wallangarra on the Queensland border in 1888; the Main North railway line is now closed north of Armidale. The Mungindi railway line from Werris Creek to Gunnedah opened in 1879, Narrabri in 1884 and Moree in 1897, Mungindi in 1914; the line is truncated to Weemelah between Moree and Mungindi. The line between Werris Creek and Moree is known as the North-West line. A branch line was
The Australian Democrats is a centre to centre-left political party in Australia. Founded in 1977 from a merger of the Australia Party and the New Liberal Movement, both of which were descended from Liberal Party splinter group, it was Australia's largest minor party from its formation in 1977 through to 2004 and held the balance of power in the Senate during that time; the party's inaugural leader was Don Chipp, a former Liberal cabinet minister, who famously promised to "keep the bastards honest". At the 1977 federal election, the Democrats polled 11.1 percent of the Senate vote and secured two seats. The party would retain a presence in the Senate for the next 30 years, at its peak holding nine out of 76 seats, though never securing a seat in the lower house; the party's share of the vote collapsed at the 2004 election and was further diminished in 2007 with the last senators leaving office in 2008. Due to the party's numbers in the Senate, both Liberal and Labor governments required the assistance of the Democrats to pass contentious legislation, most notably in the case of the Howard Government's goods and services tax.
Ideologically, the Democrats were regarded as centrists, occupying the political middle ground between the Liberal Party and the Labor Party, though preferences favoured Labor. The party was formally deregistered in 2016 for not having the required 500 members. In 2018 the Australian Democrats merged with Country Minded—an Australian political party seeking accountable regional and agricultural representation. On 7 April 2019 the Australian Democrats regained registration as a political party with the Australian Electoral Commission; the party plans to run candidates in the 2019 federal election and campaign on energy and political accountability. The party was founded on principles of honesty, tolerance and direct democracy through postal ballots of all members, so that "there should be no hierarchical structure... by which a engineered elite could make decisions for the members." From the outset, members' participation was fiercely protected in national and divisional constitutions prescribing internal elections, regular meeting protocols, annual conferences—and monthly journals for open discussion and balloting.
Dispute resolution procedures were established, with final recourse to a party ombudsman and membership ballot. Policies determined by the unique participatory method promoted environmental awareness and sustainability, opposition to the primacy of economic rationalism, preventative approaches to human health and welfare, animal rights, rejection of nuclear technology and weapons; the Australian Democrats were the first representatives of green politics at the federal level in Australia. They played a key role in the cause célèbre of the Franklin River Dam; the party's centrist role made it subject to criticism from both the right and left of the political spectrum. In particular, Chipp's former conservative affiliation was recalled by opponents on the left; this problem was to torment leaders and strategists who, by 1991, were proclaiming "the electoral objective" as a higher priority than the rigorous participatory democracy espoused by the party's founders. Because of their numbers on the cross benches during the Hawke and Keating governments, the Democrats were sometimes regarded as exercising a balance of power—which attracted electoral support from a significant sector of the electorate, alienated by both Labor and Coalition policies and practices.
Over three decades, the Australian Democrats achieved representation in the legislatures of the ACT, South Australia, New South Wales, Western Australia and Tasmania as well as Senate seats in all six states. However, at the 2004 and 2007 federal elections, all seven of its Senate seats were lost; the last remaining State parliamentarian, David Winderlich, left the party and was defeated as an independent in 2010. The Australian Democrats were formed in May 1977 from an amalgamation of the Australia Party and the New Liberal Movement; the two groups found a common basis for a new political movement in the widespread discontent with the two major parties. In the former Liberal Government Minister, Don Chipp, the two groups found their leader; the first Australian Democrat to sit in the federal parliamentarian was Senator Janine Haines who in 1977 was nominated by the South Australian Parliament to fill the casual vacancy caused by the resignation of Liberal Senator Steele Hall. The party's broad aim was to achieve a balance of power in one or more parliaments and to exercise it responsibly in line with policies determined by membership.
In 1977 the Australian Democrats secured two seats in the Senate with the election of Colin Mason and Don Chipp. In 1980 this increased to five seats with the election of Michael Macklin and John Siddons and the re-election of Janine Haines. Thereafter they held enough seats to give them the balance of power in the upper chamber. At a Melbourne media conference on 19 September 1980, in the midst of the 1980 election campaign, Chipp described his party's aim as to "keep the bastards honest"—the "bastards" being the major parties and/or politicians in general; this became a long-lived slogan for the Democrats. In South Australia, the New Liberal Movement dissolved and merged with the Democrats, making its sole parliamentary representative, Robin Millhouse, the Democrats' first member of the South Australian parliament. Millhouse held his seat at 1979 state elections. In 1982, Millhouse resigned to take up a senior judicial apppointment, Heather Southcott won the by-election for the Democrats, but lost the seat to the Liberals that year at the 1982 state election.
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National Party of Australia
The National Party of Australia is an Australian political party. Traditionally representing graziers and rural voters it began as the Australian Country Party in 1920 at a federal level, it would briefly adopt the name National Country Party in 1975, before adopting its current name in 1982. Federally, in New South Wales, to an extent in Victoria and in Western Australia, it has, in government, been the minor party in a centre-right Coalition with the Liberal Party of Australia, its leader has served as Deputy Prime Minister. In Opposition the Coalition was maintained, but otherwise still continued to work in co-operation with the Liberal Party of Australia. In Queensland however, they were the senior coalition party between 1925 and 2008, after which they merged with the junior Liberal Party of Australia to form the Liberal National Party; the current leader of the National Party is Michael McCormack, who won a leadership spill following Barnaby Joyce's resignation in February 2018. The deputy leader of the Nationals, since 7 December 2017, is Bridget McKenzie.
The Country Party was formally founded in 1913 in Western Australia, nationally in 1920 from a number of state-based parties such as the Victorian Farmers' Union and the Farmers and Settlers Party of New South Wales. Australia's first Country Party was founded in 1912 by Harry J. Stephens, editor of The Farmer & Settler, but under fierce opposition from rival newspapers, failed to gain momentum; the VFU won a seat in the House of Representatives at the Corangamite by-election held in December 1918, with the help of the newly introduced preferential voting system. At the 1919 federal election the state-based Country Parties won federal seats in New South Wales and Western Australia, they began to win seats in state parliaments. In 1920 the Country Party was established as a national party led by William McWilliams from Tasmania. In his first speech as leader, McWilliams laid out the principles of the new party, stating "we crave no alliance, we spurn no support but we intend drastic action to secure closer attention to the needs of primary producers" McWilliams was deposed as party leader in favour of Dr Earle Page in April 1921 following instances where McWilliams voted against the party line.
McWilliams would leave the Country Party to sit as an Independent. According to historian B. D. Graham, the graziers who operated the sheep stations were politically conservative, they disliked the Labor Party, which represented their workers, feared that Labor governments would pass unfavorable legislation and listen to foreigners and communists. The graziers were satisfied with the marketing organisation of their industry, opposed any change in land tenure and labour relations, advocated lower tariffs, low freight rates, low taxes. On the other hand, Graham reports, the small farmers, not the graziers, founded the Country party; the farmers advocated government intervention in the market through price support schemes and marketing pools. The graziers politically and financially supported the Country party, which in turn made the Country party more conservative; the Country Party's first election as a united party, in 1922, saw it in an unexpected position of power. It won enough seats to deny the Nationalists an overall majority, was the Nationalists' only realistic coalition partner.
However, Page let it be known that his party would not serve under Hughes, forced his resignation. Page entered negotiations with the Nationalists' new leader, Stanley Bruce, for a coalition government. Page's terms were stiff—five seats in a Cabinet of 11, including the Treasurer portfolio and the second rank in the ministry for himself. Nonetheless, Bruce agreed, the "Bruce-Page Ministry" was formed—thus beginning the tradition of the party's leader ranking second in Coalition cabinets. Page remained dominant in the party until 1939 and served as an interim Prime Minister between the death of Joseph Lyons and the election of Robert Menzies as his successor, but Page's refusal to serve under Menzies led to his resignation as leader; the coalition was re-formed under Archie Cameron in 1940, continued until October 1941 despite the election of Arthur Fadden as leader after the 1940 Election. Fadden was well regarded within conservative circles and proved to be a loyal deputy to Menzies in the difficult circumstances of 1941.
When Menzies was forced to resign as Prime Minister, the UAP was so bereft of leadership that Fadden succeeded him. However, the two independents, propping up the government rejected Fadden's budget and brought the government down. Fadden stood down in favour of Labor leader John Curtin; the Fadden-led Coalition made no headway against Curtin, was defeated in the 1943 election. After that loss, Fadden became deputy Leader of the Opposition under Menzies, a role that continued after Menzies folded the UAP into the Liberal Party of Australia in 1944. Fadden remained a loyal partner of Menzies, though he was still keen to assert the independence of his party. Indeed, in the lead up to the 1949 federal election, Fadden played a key role in the defeat of the Chifley Labor government making inflammatory claims about the "socialist" nature of the Labor Party, which Menzies could "clarify" or repudiate as he saw fit, thus appearing more "moderate". In 1949, Fadden became Treasurer in the second Menzies government and remained so until his retirement in 1958.
His successful partnership with Menzies was o