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21st Michigan Volunteer Infantry Regiment

The 21st Regiment Michigan Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War. The 21st Michigan Infantry was mustered into Federal service at Ionia and Grand Rapids, Michigan, on September 9, 1862; the regiment recruited its members starting on July 15, 1862, from the 4th Congressional District which included the Michigan counties of Barry, Montcalm, Ottawa, Oceana, Mecosta, Manistee, Grand Traverse, Manitou, Emmet, Mackinac and Cheboygan. The 21st Michigan Infantry rendezvous was at Ionia. Among the ranks were future prominent Michigan politicians John Avery and Charles E. Belknap; the regiment left its quarters at Ionia, Michigan, on the 12th of September in command of Colonel Stevens, 1,008 strong, under orders to report at Cincinnati. It was pushed forward into Kentucky via Louisville, became early engaged in the realities of war. A beautiful silk flag was provided by the ladies of Ionia and delivered to the 21st Michigan Volunteer Infantry Regiment on 6 September 1862, at that city.

The center of the flag was decorated with the American eagle, holding its quiver of arrows, olive branch, etc. Over this a small National flag, beneath it the words "Union," "Constitution." An excellent speech was made by L. B. Soule, Esq. on behalf of the ladies, to which Colonel A. A. Stevens, commanding the regiment, appropriately replied. Afterwards speeches were made by Z. Chandler, T. W. Ferry, F. W. Kellogg. At the same time there was presented a flag by the children of the Grand Haven Sunday-schools to Company G of the regiment; the flag given to the regiment was carried through all of its engagements, brought back to the State, at a celebration on July 4, 1865, was formally returned, on behalf of the regiment, to the ladies by the Hon. John Avery, of Greenville, the highest-ranking officer of the regiment present, was received on behalf of the ladies by the Hon. John B. Hutchins, of Ionia. On 1 October, the 21st Michigan broke camp at Louisville and entered upon a long march through Kentucky.

On the 8th it bore an important part in the Battle of Perryville in Kentucky. In this battle, the 21st Michigan suffered a loss of 24 wounded and 3 missing, Colonel Stevens being among the wounded. From Perryville the regiment moved to Bowling Green, on November 4, 1862, proceeded to Nashville, arriving there on the 12th and encamped, remaining there until the general advance of General Rosecrans on Murfreesboro; the 21st Michigan left Nashville on 26 December 1862, with the army, in command of Lieutenant Colonel McCreery, was engaged at Lavergne on the 27th, at Stewart's creek on the 29th. It participated with Sill's brigade of Sheridan's division in the five days' Battle of Stone's River, sustaining a loss of 17 killed, 85 wounded, including Captain Leonard O. Fitzgerald, 37 missing; the regiment, in command of Colonel McCreery, Colonel Stevens having resigned on account of ill health, remained at Murfreesboro, employed on picket duty and as guard for forage trains, until June 24, 1863, when it advanced with the army on Tullahoma.

During July 1863 the regiment was stationed at Cowan and Anderson Station, on the Nashville and Chattanooga railroad. Subsequently, it occupied Bridgeport, under General Lytle, who commanded the brigade to which the 21st was attached. September 2, 1863, the regiment crossed the Tennessee, advanced with the corps of Major General McCook to Trenton, Ga. from whence it crossed the mountains to Alpine, 30 miles from Rome. The following day the regiment participated in the battle of Chickamauga, sustaining a loss of 11 killed, 58 wounded, 35 missing, 3 prisoners. Of the missing, 21 were known to be wounded. Lieutenant Colonel M. B. Wells was among the killed, Captain Edgar W. Smith, being mortally wounded, died October 13 following, while Colonel McCreery, commanding the regiment, was wounded and taken prisoner. In this engagement the regiment belonged to the same brigade as at Stone River, commanded by General Lytle, was serving in Sheridan's division of the 4th corps. On September 20, while the division was advancing to the support of General Thomas, it became engaged, captured prisoners from four different rebel divisions.

The 21st was in the hottest of the fight, behaved with great courage, never yielding except when overcome by immense odds, but after a brave but fruitless effort against a perfect torrent of the enemy was compelled to give way. After the battle of Chickamauga the regiment, in command of Lieutenant Colonel S. K. Bishop, was detached from its brigade by order of General Thomas, was placed under General Smith, Chief Engineer of the Department, performed duty as engineer troops, forming part of Engineer Brigade, was on that duty during the engagement of Mission Ridge, it was stationed, until the 11th of June, 1864, on the north side of the Tennessee River, near Chattanooga, was employed in building a bridge over the river, in the erection of storehouses in Chattanooga. At the above date the regiment was ordered to Lookout Mountain, where it was engaged in building hospitals, running mills, in the performance of the usual picket duty, until the 20th of September following, when it was relieved from further duty with the Engineer Corps.

On the 27th of September the regiment left Lookout Mountain for Tullahoma, thence it proceeded to Nashville. Joining the forces under General Rosseau, it participated with them in the pursuit of the rebels under General Forrest, beyond Florence, Ala. returning to Florence on the 11th of October. On the 14th, the regiment was o

Khan of Heaven

Khan of Heaven or Tian Kehan, Celestial Khagan, Tengri Khan was a title addressed to Emperor Taizong of Tang by various Turkic nomads. It was first mentioned in accounts on May 20, 630 and again on October 24, 646, shortly after the Eastern Turkic Khaganate and Xueyantuo were annihilated by Emperor Taizong's generals; the title Tengri Khagan used to refer another Turkic rulers, both known as the Dengli Khagan or Täŋridä qaγan to the Chinese, during the Second Eastern Turkic Khaganate and Uyghur Khaganate periods. It is not certain whether the title applied to the rest of the Tang emperors, or to the empress Wu Zetian, since the term "Kaghan" only referred to male rulers and Empress Wu had started her dominion in the Chinese court after the year 665 AD until the year 705 AD, after the title's first use by a Chinese emperor. However, we do have two appeal letters from the Turkic hybrid rulers, Ashina Qutluγ Ton Tardu in 727, the Yabgu of Tokharistan, Yina Tudun Qule in 741, the king of Tashkent, addressing Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Li Longji as Tian Kehan during the Umayyad expansion.

A letter sent by the Tang court to the Yenisei Kirghiz Qaghan explained that "the peoples of the northwest" had requested Emperor Taizong of Tang to become the "Heavenly Qaghan". Chinese Tributary System Pax Sinica Emperor of China Emperor Taizong of Tang Khan Khagan Sinocentrism Tang dynasty Tian / Shangdi Tian Xia Tian Chao Tian Ming Tian Zi

Old Loggers Path

The Old Loggers Path is a 27.1 mi loop hiking trail in Lycoming County in north-central Pennsylvania in the United States. Marked with international orange blazes, the Old Loggers Path is located within the Loyalsock State Forest. Most hikers take two and a half to three days and two nights to complete the Old Loggers Path, making it popular for weekend hikes. Highlights of the trail include waterfalls, several scenic streams and creeks, panoramic vistas; the land the Old Loggers Path is on was owned and clear-cut by the Union Tanning Company, followed by the Central Pennsylvania Lumber Company. The trail chiefly follows the grades of abandoned logging roads and railroads, its trailhead is the lumber ghost town of Masten. Parts of the trail were made by the Civilian Conservation Corps, which operated a camp in the area from 1933 to 1941. Masten was founded as a lumber mill town in 1905 by Charles W. Sones. Sones owned the mill and town and worked under a contract with the Union Tanning Company, which needed hemlock bark for tanning leather and sold hardwoods from the area.

The village was served by two railroad lines: the Susquehanna and New York Railroad and the Susquehanna and Eagles Mere Railroad. The railroads passed through many cuts and fills, the grades built at the height of the lumber era in Pennsylvania today carry the Old Loggers Path. In April 1917 the contract with Sones expired and the mill and railroads were purchased by the Central Pennsylvania Lumber Company; the mill was in operation from 1905 to September 1930, when the last log was cut. After the mill closed, many of the houses were torn down and their lumber sold and the Susquehanna and Eagles Mere Railroad was abandoned. On May 6, 1933, Civilian Conservation Corps "State Forest Camp" S-80-Pa was established at the site of Masten, some of the remaining houses were demolished to make room for the camp; the CCC built 40 mi of trails. The camp closed in 1940; some families had stayed after the mill closed and during the CCC era, but in 1941 the last family left Masten. The Old Loggers Trail was established after the Second World War.

Today, few buildings remain, which are now hunting camps, but there are many foundations throughout the area, a smokestack. A free map of the Old Loggers Path is available from online. Most hikers completing the whole trail start at the trailhead in head north; the Old Loggers Path is blazed in international orange, with double blazes and/or arrows to mark a change in direction. Leaving Masten, the trail crosses Hoghouse one of many streams along the path, it follows parts of several old roads and grades, modern hiking and cross-country skiing trails, including the Sharp Shinned Ski Trail. At just over 6 mi the trail reaches Rock Run, which has worn a series of pools into the rock near a camping area. Another camping area used for the first night stop is at 10 mi along the trail. There are picturesque views of the McIntyre Wild Area of the Loyalsock State Forest across Rock Run; the Old Loggers Path next reaches Buck Run climbs Sullivan Mountain and reaches Pleasant Stream, a tributary of Lycoming Creek.

The road along Pleasant Stream is the old Susquehanna and New York Railroad bed, the trail crosses the stream at 16.6 mi - there is no bridge. Tom Thwaites writes of Sharp Top Vista, at 18.9 mi: "I find it hard to understand why this view isn't famous. In front of you the world drops away to reveal a broad wooded valley surrounded by mountains." A good camping site for the second day is at the East Branch of Wallis Run, a tributary of Loyalsock Creek, at 20 mi. The last section of the trail has Sprout Point Vista. At 23.3 mi the Hillsgrove Road is reached, the old Susquehanna and Eagles Mere Railroad bed. The trail follows Burnetts Ridge and Bear Run back to the Pleasant Stream valley returning to the trailhead at Masten. After numerous reports of seismic testing activity in and around the Rock Run area during the summer of 2011, a search of the Lycoming County Courthouse records has revealed that Anadarko Petroleum had purchased, not leased, a 50% share of the mineral rights under Loyalsock State Forest land in a checkerboard-type pattern that reaches the Rock Run watershed in parts, while being located to the south and east of it, up on Sullivan and Potash Mountains, to the east around the old Masten town site, right in the heart of the circular route of this nationally-acclaimed hiking and backpacking trail.

When the Commonwealth purchased the forest land in 1933, it did not acquire the mineral rights now owned by Anadarko, but did acquire other mineral rights in adjacent rectangular blocks either surrounding or touching the Anadarko rights in what looks to be about a 20,000 acre region. We understand that subsurface rights take precedence over surface ownership rights and that the Department of Conservation and Natural Resources would be stuck having to grant some kind of access to Anadarko and the owners of the other half of those rights to get their eons in creation windfall, but it is believed that the deed to the property limited the surface rights access to a fifty -year term – a term that has long since expired. What we don’t know is whether the DCNR is taking full advantage of its legal rights to stop or slow and minimize any development in that precious wild wonder in the forested ecosystem that makes up the Rock Run and Old Logger’s Path registry. In 2011 Tropical Storm Lee flooded much of the lower Loyalsock valley, flooding many of the