Cairo is the capital of Egypt. The city's metropolitan area is one of the largest in Africa, the largest in the Middle East, the 15th-largest in the world, is associated with ancient Egypt, as the famous Giza pyramid complex and the ancient city of Memphis are located in its geographical area. Located near the Nile Delta, modern Cairo was founded in 969 CE by the Fatimid dynasty, but the land composing the present-day city was the site of ancient national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo. Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life, is titled "the city of a thousand minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture. Cairo is considered a World City with a "Beta +" classification according to GaWC. Cairo has the oldest and largest film and music industries in the Middle East, as well as the world's second-oldest institution of higher learning, Al-Azhar University. Many international media and organizations have regional headquarters in the city.
With a population of over 9 million spread over 3,085 square kilometers, Cairo is by far the largest city in Egypt. An additional 9.5 million inhabitants live in close proximity to the city. Cairo, like many other megacities, suffers from high levels of traffic. Cairo's metro, one of two in Africa, ranks among the fifteen busiest in the world, with over 1 billion annual passenger rides; the economy of Cairo was ranked first in the Middle East in 2005, 43rd globally on Foreign Policy's 2010 Global Cities Index. Egyptians refer to Cairo as Maṣr, the Egyptian Arabic name for Egypt itself, emphasizing the city's importance for the country, its official name al-Qāhirah means "the Vanquisher" or "the Conqueror" due to the fact that the planet Mars, an-Najm al-Qāhir, was rising at the time when the city was founded also in reference to the much awaited arrival of the Fatimid Caliph Al-Mu'izz who reached Cairo in 973 from Mahdia, the old Fatimid capital. The location of the ancient city of Heliopolis is the suburb of Ain Shams.
The Coptic name of the city is Kashromi which means "man breaker", akin to Arabic al-Qāhirah . Sometimes the city is informally referred to as Kayro by people from Alexandria; the area around present-day Cairo Memphis, the old capital of Egypt, had long been a focal point of Ancient Egypt due to its strategic location just upstream from the Nile Delta. However, the origins of the modern city are traced back to a series of settlements in the first millennium. Around the turn of the 4th century, as Memphis was continuing to decline in importance, the Romans established a fortress town along the east bank of the Nile; this fortress, known as Babylon, was the nucleus of the Roman and the Byzantine city and is the oldest structure in the city today. It is situated at the nucleus of the Coptic Orthodox community, which separated from the Roman and Byzantine churches in the late 4th century. Many of Cairo's oldest Coptic churches, including the Hanging Church, are located along the fortress walls in a section of the city known as Coptic Cairo.
Following the Muslim conquest in 640 AD, the conqueror Amr ibn As settled to the north of the Babylon in an area that became known as al-Fustat. A tented camp Fustat became a permanent settlement and the first capital of Islamic Egypt. In 750, following the overthrow of the Umayyad caliphate by the Abbasids, the new rulers created their own settlement to the northeast of Fustat which became their capital; this was known as al-Askar. A rebellion in 869 by Ahmad ibn Tulun led to the abandonment of Al Askar and the building of another settlement, which became the seat of government; this was al-Qatta ` closer to the river. Al Qatta'i was centred around a ceremonial mosque, now known as the Mosque of ibn Tulun. In 905, the Abbasids re-asserted control of the country and their governor returned to Fustat, razing al-Qatta'i to the ground. Since 1860s, Cairo expanded west as far as what is called now In 968, the Fatimids were led by general Jawhar al-Siqilli to establish a new capital for the Fatimid dynasty.
Egypt was conquered from their base in Ifriqiya and a new fortified city northeast of Fustat was established. It took four years to build the city known as al-Manṣūriyyah, to serve as the new capital of the caliphate. During that time, Jawhar commissioned the construction of the al-Azhar Mosque by order of the Caliph, which developed into the third-oldest university in the world. Cairo would become a centre of learning, with the library of Cairo containing hundreds of thousands of books; when Caliph al-Mu'izz li Din Allah arrived from the old Fatimid capital of Mahdia in Tunisia in 973, he gave the city its present name, al-Qāhiratu. For nearly 200 years after Cairo was established, the administrative centre of Egypt remained in Fustat. However, in 1168 the Fatimids under the leadership of vizier Shawar set fire to Fustat to prevent Cairo's capture by the Crusaders. Egypt's capital was permanently moved to Cairo, expanded to include the ruins of Fustat and the previous capitals of
Code of Ur-Nammu
The Code of Ur-Nammu is the oldest known law code surviving today. It is written on tablets, in the Sumerian language c. 2100–2050 BC. The first copy of the code, in two fragments found at Nippur, was translated by Samuel Kramer in 1952; these fragments are held at the Istanbul Archaeological Museums. Owing to its partial preservation, only the prologue and 5 of the laws were discernible. Kramer noted that luck was involved in the discovery: In all probability I would have missed the Ur-Nammu tablet altogether had it not been for an opportune letter from F. R. Kraus, now Professor of Cuneiform Studies at the University of Leiden in Holland... His letter said that some years ago, in the course of his duties as curator in the Istanbul Museum, he had come upon two fragments of a tablet inscribed with Sumerian laws, had made a "join" of the two pieces, had catalogued the resulting tablet as No. 3191 of the Nippur collection of the Museum... Since Sumerian law tablets are rare, I had No. 3191 brought to my working table at once.
There it lay, light brown in color, 20 by 10 centimeters in size. More than half of the writing was destroyed, what was preserved seemed at first hopelessly unintelligible, but after several days of concentrated study, its contents began to become clear and take shape, I realized with no little excitement that what I held in my hand was a copy of the oldest law code as yet known to man. Further tablets were found in Ur and translated in 1965, allowing some 30 of the 57 laws to be reconstructed. Another copy found in Sippar contains slight variants; the preface directly credits the laws to king Ur-Nammu of Ur. The author who had the laws written onto cuneiform tablets is still somewhat under dispute; some scholars have attributed it to Ur-Nammu's son Shulgi. Although it is known that earlier law-codes existed, such as the Code of Urukagina, this represents the earliest extant legal text, it is three centuries older than the Code of Hammurabi. The laws are arranged in casuistic form of IF THEN —a pattern followed in nearly all codes.
For the oldest extant law-code known to history, it is considered remarkably advanced because it institutes fines of monetary compensation for bodily damage as opposed to the lex talionis principle of Babylonian law. However, robbery and rape were capital offenses; the code reveals a glimpse at societal structure during the "Sumerian Renaissance". Beneath the lugal, all members of society belonged to one of two basic strata: the "lu" or free person, or the slave; the son of a lu was called a dumu-nita until he married, becoming a "young man". A woman went from being a daughter to a wife if she outlived her husband, a widow, who could remarry; the prologue, typical of Mesopotamian law codes, invokes the deities for Ur-Nammu's kingship and Utu, decrees "equity in the land".... After An and Enlil had turned over the Kingship of Ur to Nanna, at that time did Ur-Nammu, son born of Ninsun, for his beloved mother who bore him, in accordance with his principles of equity and truth... Did Ur-Nammu the mighty warrior, king of Ur, king of Sumer and Akkad, by the might of Nanna, lord of the city, in accordance with the true word of Utu, establish equity in the land.
He fashioned the bronze sila-measure, standardized the one-mina weight, standardized the stone weight of a shekel of silver in relation to one mina... The orphan was not delivered up to the rich man. One mina was made equal to 60 shekels. Among the surviving laws are these: 1. If a man commits a murder, that man must be killed. 2. If a man commits a robbery, he will be killed. 3. If a man commits a kidnapping, he is to pay 15 shekels of silver. 4. If a slave marries a slave, that slave is set free, he does not leave the household.^ 5. If a slave marries a native person, he/she is to hand the firstborn son over to his owner. 6. If a man violates the right of another and deflowers the virgin wife of a young man, they shall kill that male. 7. If the wife of a man followed after another man and he slept with her, they shall slay that woman, but that male shall be set free. 8. If a man proceeded by force, deflowered the virgin female slave of another man, that man must pay five shekels of silver. 9. If a man divorces his first-time wife, he shall pay one mina of silver.
10. If it is a widow whom he divorces, he shall pay half a mina of silver. 11. If the man had slept with the widow without there having been any marriage contract, he need not pay any silver. 13. If a man is accused of sorcery he must undergo ordeal by water. 14. If a man accused the wife of a man of adultery, the river ordeal proved her innocent the man who had accused her must pay one-third of a mina of silver. 15. If a prospective son-in-law enters the house of his prospective father-in-law, but his father-in-law gives his daughter to another man, the father-in-law shall return to the rejected son-in-law twofold the amount of bridal presents he had brought. 16. If, he shall weigh and deliver to him 2 shekels of silver. 17. If a slave escapes from the city limits, someone returns him, the owner shall pay two shekels to the one who returned him
Third Dynasty of Ur
The Third Dynasty of Ur called the Neo-Sumerian Empire, refers to a 22nd to 21st century BC Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state which some historians consider to have been a nascent empire. The Third Dynasty of Ur is abbreviated as Ur III by historians studying the period; the Third Dynasty of Ur was the last Sumerian dynasty. It began after several centuries of control by Gutian kings, it controlled the cities of Isin and Eshnunna and extended as far north as the Jazira. The dynasty corresponded to a Sumerian renaissance following the fall of the First Dynasty of Ur; the Third Dynasty of Ur arose some time after the fall of the Akkad Dynasty. The period between the last powerful king of the Akkad Dynasty, Shar-Kali-Sharri, the first king of Ur III, Ur-Nammu, is not well documented, but most Assyriologists posit that there was a brief "dark age", followed by a power struggle among the most powerful city-states. On the king-lists, Shar-Kali-Shari is followed by six in Uruk.
Akkad's primacy, seems to have been usurped by Gutian invaders from the Zagros, whose kings ruled in Mesopotamia for an indeterminate period An illiterate and nomadic people, their rule was not conducive to agriculture, nor record-keeping, by the time they were expelled, the region was crippled by severe famine and skyrocketing grain prices. Their last king, was driven out by Utu-hengal of Uruk, beginning the "Sumerian Renaissance". Following Utu-Hengal's reign, Ur-Nammu founded the Third Dynasty of Ur, but the precise events surrounding his rise are unclear; the Sumerian King List tells us that Utu-hengal had reigned for seven years, although only one year-name for him is known from records, that of his accession, suggesting a shorter reign. It is possible that Ur-Nammu was his governor. There are two stelae discovered in Ur that include this detail in an inscription about Ur-Nammu's life. Ur-Nammu rose to prominence as a warrior-king when he crushed the ruler of Lagash in battle, killing the king himself.
After this battle, Ur-Nammu seems to have earned the title'king of Sumer and Agade.' Ur's dominance over the Neo-Sumerian Empire was consolidated with the famous Code of Ur-Nammu the first such law-code for Mesopotamia since that of Urukagina of Lagash centuries earlier. Many significant changes occurred in the empire under Shulgi's reign, he took steps to standardize the procedures of the empire. He is credited with standardizing administrative processes, archival documentation, the tax system, the national calendar, he captured the city of Susa and the surrounding region, toppling Elamite king Kutik-Inshushinak, while the rest of Elam fell under control of Shimashki dynasty. The rulers of Ur III were in conflict with the highland tribes of the Zagros mountain area who dwelled in the northeastern portion of Mesopotamian area; the most important of these tribes were the Lullubi tribal kingdoms. They were often in conflict with Elam. Assyriologists employ many complicated methods for establishing the most precise dates possible for this period, but controversy still exists.
Scholars use either the conventional or the low chronologies. They are as follows: Abraham, the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions, was born in Ur around that time, although estimated dates range from 2300 BCE until 1960 BCE, date of the destruction of Ur, the identification of Ur with the Ur of the Chaldees in the Hebrew Bible is not certain; the power of the Neo-Sumerians was waning. Ibbi-Sin in the 21st century launched military campaigns into Elam, but did not manage to penetrate far into the country. In 2004/1940 BC, the Elamites, allied with the people of Susa and led by Kindattu, king of the Elamite Shimashki dynasty, managed to sack Ur and lead Ibbi-Sin into captivity, ending the third dynasty of Ur. After this victory, the Elamites destroyed the kingdom, ruled through military occupation for the next 21 years. Mesopotamia fell under Amorite influence; the Amorite kings of the Dynasty of Isin formed successor states to Ur III. They managed to drive the Elamites out of Ur, rebuilt the city, returned the statue of Nanna that the Elamites had plundered.
The Amorites were nomadic tribes from the northern Levant who were Northwest Semitic speakers, unlike the native Akkadians of southern Mesopotamia and Assyria, who spoke East Semitic. By around the 19th century BC, much of southern Mesopotamia was occupied by the Amorites; the Amorites at first did not practice agriculture like more advanced Mesopotamians, preferring a semi-nomadic lifestyle, herding sheep. Over time, Amorite grain merchants rose to prominence and established their own independent dynasties in several south Mesopotamian city-states, most notably Isin, Eshnunna and founding Babylon as a state; the land ruled by the Ur III kings was divided up into provinces. In certain tumultuous regions, military commanders assumed more power in governing; each province contained a redistribution center where provincial taxes, called bala, would all go to be shipped to the capital. Taxes could be payable from crops to livestock to land; the governme
Seahenge, known as Holme I, was a prehistoric monument located in the village of Holme-next-the-Sea, near Old Hunstanton in the English county of Norfolk. A timber circle with an upturned tree root in the centre, Seahenge was built in the 21st century BCE, during the early Bronze Age in Britain, most for ritual purposes; the site consisted of an outer ring comprising fifty-five small split oak trunks forming a circular enclosure around 7 by 6 metres. Rather than being placed in individual holes, the timbers had been arranged around a circular construction trench, their split sides faced their bark faced outwards. One of the trunks on the south western side had a narrow Y fork in it, permitting access to the central area. Another post had been placed outside this entrance, which would have prevented anyone from seeing inside; the timbers were set in ground to a depth of 1-metre from the contemporary surface although how far they extended upwards is not known. In the centre of the ring was a large inverted oak stump.
Although the henge's existence had been common knowledge amongst locals for several decades, Seahenge received its name from the press in 1998, who named it after the more famous prehistoric structure Stonehenge in Wiltshire, was picked up by the local and national media, inducing a great deal of publicity around its excavation. This was only increased due to the protests held against the excavation by both locals, who wanted it to remain as a tourist site, Neopagans, who believed that the removal of the structure was an insult to the religious beliefs of its original builders; the name Seahenge come from the title of one of the national newspapers. Seahenge was constructed during the Early Bronze Age, a period of time that saw the increasing adoption of agriculture and sedentary living in Britain; those constructing the monument made use of at least fifty different bronze axes, which were used to shape the timber to the desired lengths and shapes, at a time when, archaeologists believe, bronze tools were still rare and had only been introduced to Britain a few centuries before.
Using a variety of scientific techniques, archaeologists have come to the conclusion that the trees used in the construction of the monument had all been felled in the same year, 2049 BCE, whilst the condition of the sapwood indicated that it had been cut down in spring or early summer. According to writer Charlie Watson, "Confirming that all the trees had been felled at the same time suggested that the building of the circle was a single event. Further, a great amount of work would have been involved in felling, transporting and erecting the timbers, so it was too that the job was done by a large number of people - an entire community or an extended family - working together."Seahenge was constructed on a salt marsh, over the centuries the area became a freshwater wetland, as an offshore barrier grew up, preventing sea water from getting access to the area around the circle. This in turn allowed alder trees to grow in the area, which created a layer of peat above the mudflats. With rising sea levels in millennia, the sea advanced, sand began to cover the peat.
Through this process, Seahenge found itself from once being inland to being on the beach, where it was revealed by the eroding away of the sand and peat by the late 20th century, four thousand years since its original construction. Researchers were unable to determine activity at Seahenge in the centuries after it was built, its purpose is unknown. However, the presence of Middle and Late Bronze Age pottery at the site suggests that it became a focal point again several centuries after construction. Theories about the site have focused on the idea of inversion, as represented by the upside-down central tree stump and the single post turned 180 degrees from the others within the circle itself; the theme of inversion has been noticed in some Early Bronze Age burials. Not all the split posts can be accounted for and it has been suggested that another structure was built nearby using them. Seahenge is so named by analogy with Stonehenge and does not possess an extant henge and appears to have had little functionally in common with its namesake.
The contemporary ground surface associated with the monument has long since been washed away meaning no associated features survive and the silt Seahenge stood in when found postdates the timber circle. It is thought. In early Spring, 1998, John Lorimer, a special-needs worker, amateur archaeologist and beach comber, was catching shrimps with his brother-in-law Gary on Holme beach; the pair found a Bronze Age axe head in the silt, but at first did not know. Intrigued, Lorimer visited the area eventually finding a lone tree stump, unearthed on the beach, unusual in that it seemed to be upside down. A metal detectorist friend recognised the site's importance, so they contacted the Castle Museum in Norwich. Archaeologists at the museum examined the axe head, the second one found on Holme Beach within only a few months. Lorimer continued to monitor the inverted tree stump. Wave erosion exposed a surrounding ring of wooden posts, confirming that the site was an intentional human construction. Lorimer contacted Castle Museum again.
The museum contacted Edwin Rose, at the time Norfolk Landscape Archaeology's Development Control Officer, who visited the site with Lorimer on 12 August 1998. At first, Rose suspected it was
Eleventh Dynasty of Egypt
The Eleventh Dynasty of ancient Egypt is a well-attested group of rulers. Its earlier members before Pharaoh Mentuhotep II are grouped with the four preceding dynasties to form the First Intermediate Period, whereas the members are considered part of the Middle Kingdom, they all ruled from Thebes in Upper Egypt. The relative chronology of the 11th Dynasty is well established by contemporary attestations and, except for count Intef and Mentuhotep IV, by the Turin canon. Manetho's statement that Dynasty XI consisted of 16 kings, who reigned for 43 years is contradicted by contemporary inscriptions and the evidence of the Turin King List, whose combined testimony establishes that this kingdom consisted of seven kings who ruled for a total of 143 years. However, his testimony that this dynasty was based at Thebes is verified by the contemporary evidence, it was during this dynasty. This dynasty traces its origins to a nomarch of Thebes, "Intef the Great, son of Iku", mentioned in a number of contemporary inscriptions.
However, his immediate successor Mentuhotep. An inscription carved during the reign of Wahankh Intef II shows that he was the first of this dynasty to claim to rule over the whole of Egypt, a claim which brought the Thebans into conflict with the rulers of Herakleopolis Magna, Dynasty X. Intef undertook several campaigns northwards, captured the important nome of Abydos. Warfare continued intermittently between the Thebean and Heracleapolitan dynasts until the 14th regnal year of Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II, when the Herakleopolitans were defeated, this dynasty could begin to consolidate their rule; the rulers of Dynasty XI reasserted Egypt's influence over her neighbors in Africa and the Near East. Mentuhotep II sent renewed expeditions to Phoenicia to obtain cedar. Sankhkara Mentuhotep III sent an expedition from Coptos south to the land of Punt; the reign of its last king, thus the end of this dynasty, is something of a mystery. Contemporary records refer to "seven empty years" following the death of Mentuhotep III, which correspond to the reign of Nebtawyra Mentuhotep IV.
Modern scholars identify his vizier Amenemhat with Amenemhat I, the first king of Dynasty XII, as part of a theory that Amenemhat became king as part of a palace coup. The only certain details of Mentuhotep's reign was that two remarkable omens were witnessed at the quarry of Wadi Hammamat by the vizier Amenemhat. Eleventh Dynasty of Egypt family tree Media related to 11th dynasty of Egypt at Wikimedia Commons
Aššur known as Ashur and Qal'at Sherqat, was the capital of the Old Assyrian Empire, the Middle Assyrian Empire, for a time, of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The remains of the city lie on the western bank of the Tigris River, north of the confluence with its tributary, the Little Zab, in what is now Iraq, more in the al-Shirqat District of the Saladin Governorate. Occupation of the city itself continued for 4000 years, from c. 2600 BC to the mid-14th century AD, when the forces of Timur massacred its population. The site is a World Heritage Site, having been added to that organisation's list of sites in danger in 2003 following the conflict that erupted following the 2003 invasion of Iraq and as a result of a proposed dam which would flood some of the site. Assur lies 65 kilometres south of 100 km south of Nineveh. Exploration of the site of Assur began in 1898 by German archaeologists. Excavations began in 1900 by Friedrich Delitzsch, were continued in 1903–1913 by a team from the Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft led by Robert Koldewey and by Walter Andrae.
More than 16,000 clay tablet with cuneiform texts were discovered. Many of the objects found made their way to the Pergamon Museum in Berlin. More Ashur was excavated by B. Hrouda for the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich and the Bavarian Ministry of Culture in 1990. During the same period, in 1988 and 1989, the site was being worked by R. Dittmann on behalf of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. Aššur is the name of the city, of the land ruled by the city, of its tutelary deity from which the natives took their name, as did the entire nation of Assyria which encompassed what is today northern Iraq, north east Syria and south east Turkey. Today the Assyrians are still found throughout the Middle East in Iraq, Syria and the Diaspora in the western world. Assur is the origin of the names Syria and terms for Syriac Christians, these being Indo-European derivations of Assyria, for many centuries applying only to Assyria and the Assyrians before being applied to the Levant and its inhabitants by the Seleucid Empire in the 3rd century BC.
Archaeology reveals the site of the city was occupied by the middle of the 3rd millennium BC. This was still the Sumerian period, before Assyria emerged in the 25th to 21st century BC; the oldest remains of the city were discovered in the foundations of the Ishtar temple, as well as at the Old Palace. In the subsequent period, the city was ruled by kings from the Akkadian Empire. During the Third Dynasty of Ur, the city was ruled by Assyrian governors subject to the Sumerians. By the time the Neo-Sumerian Ur-III dynasty collapsed at the hands of the Elamites around the end of the 21st century BC according to the Middle Chronology and mid-20th century according to the Short Chronology following increasing raids by Gutians and Amorites; the native Akkadian-speaking Assyrian kings were now free while Sumer fell under the yoke of the Amorites. The Assyrian king Ushpia who reigned around the 21st century BC is credited with dedicating the first temple of the god Ashur in his home city, although this comes from a inscription from Shalmaneser I in the 13th century.
The temple dates to the original settlement of the site when the people of Ashur established their nation under the patronage of the city's god. Soon after in around 2000 BC, Puzur-Ashur I founded a new dynasty, with his successors such as Ilushuma, Erishum I and Sargon I leaving inscriptions regarding the building of temples to Ashur and Ishtar in the city. Prosperity and independence produced the first significant fortifications in this period; as the region enjoyed relative peace and stability, trade between Mesopotamia and Anatolia increased, the city of Ashur benefited from its strategic location. Merchants would dispatch their merchandise via caravan into Anatolia and trade at Assyrian colonies in Anatolia, the primary one being at Karum Kanesh. With Shamshi-Adad I's capital at Assur, he magnified the city's power and influence beyond the Tigris river valley, establishing what some regard as the first Assyrian Empire. In this era, the Great Royal Palace was built, the temple of Assur was expanded and enlarged with a ziggurat.
However, this empire met its end when Hammurabi, the Amorite king of Babylon conquered and incorporated the city into his short lived empire following the death of Ishme-Dagan I around 1756 BC, while the next three Assyrian kings were viewed as vassals. Not long after, the native king Adasi expelled the Babylonians and Amorites from Assur and Assyria as a whole around 1720 BC, although little is known of his successors. Evidence of further building activity is known from a few centuries during the reign of a native king Puzur-Ashur III, when the city was refortified and the southern districts incorporated into the main city defenses. Temples to the moon god Sin and the sun god Shamash were built and dedicated through the 15th century BC; the city was subsequently subjugated by the king of Mitanni, Shaushtatar in the late 15th century, taking the gold and silver doors of the temple to his capital, Washukani, as spoils. Ashur-uballit I emulated his ancestor Adasi and overthrew the Mitanni empire in 1365 BC.
The Assyrians reaped the benefits of this triumph by taking control of the eastern portion of the Mitanni Empire, also annexing Hittite, Babylonian and Hurrian territory. The following centuries witnessed the restoration of the old temples and palaces of Assur, the city once mo
22nd century BC
The 22nd century BC was a century which lasted from the year 2200 BC to 2101 BC. 4.2 kiloyear event – a severe aridification event that lasted the entire 22nd century BC and caused the collapse of several Old World civilizations. 2217 BC – 2193 BC: Nomadic invasions of Akkad. C. 2184 BC: Possible date for the death of pharaoh Pepi II Neferkare, the longest reigning monarch of history with 94 years on the throne. C. 2184 BC: ephemeral rule of Merenre Nemtyemsaf II in Egypt. C. 2184-2181 BC: Reign of Netjerkare Siptah, last pharaoh of the 6th Dynasty of Egypt, who would give rise to the legendary figure of Nitocris. C. 2181 BC: estimated date for the end of the Old Kingdom in Ancient Egypt and the start of the First Intermediate Period. Another proposed date is c. 2160 BC with the end of the Eighth Dynasty. The fall of the Old Kingdom may have been caused by a conjunction of severe droughts, strong decentralization of the state and confusion following the long reign of Pepi II. C. 2181 BC: start of the Eighth Dynasty of Egypt with Menkare.
C. 2180 BC: Akkadian Empire fell under attack by the Guti, a mountain people from the northeast. C. 2160 or 2130 BC: Egypt: end of the reign of pharaoh Neferirkare, last king of the 8th Dynasty. Beginning of the 9th Dynasty after overthrowing Neferirkare. C. 2160 BC: Beginning of Middle Minoan period in Crete. C. 2150 BC: Lagash. C. 2150–2030 BC: Gilgamesh epic was written. C. 2144 BC: Gudea, the ruler of the city of Lagash, started to reign. 2138 BC: Babylon: A solar eclipse on 9 May and a lunar eclipse on 24 May occurred and are believed to be the double eclipse that took place 23 years after the ascension of king Shulgi of Babylon by those holding to the long chronology. C. 2125 BC – 2055 BC: "Model of a house and garden, from Thebes". Eleventh dynasty of Egypt, it is now in the Metropolitan Museum of New York. 2124 BC: Gudea, the ruler of the city of Lagash, died. C. 2120 BC: Votive statue of Gudea from Lagash was made. It is now in the Musée du Louvre. 2119 BC – 2113 BC:, Utu-hengal, first king of the third dynasty of Ur. 2116 BC – 2110 BC: Uruk–Gutian war.
2112 BC – 2095 BC: Sumerian campaigns of Ur-Nammu. 2104 BC – 2103 BC: Approximate date of the Biblical flood according to the Hebrew Calendar. Pepi II Neferkare Gudea Ur-Nammu