220 Stephania

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220 Stephania
220Stephania (Lightcurve Inversion).png
Lightcurve-based 3D-model of Stephania
Discovery [1]
Discovered by J. Palisa
Discovery site Vienna Obs.
Discovery date 19 May 1881
MPC designation (220) Stephania
Named after
Princess Stéphanie[2]
(Belgian royalty)
1925 VE · 1931 FP
1932 UA · 1943 WB
1946 MA · 1950 TT4
1961 WB
main-belt · (inner)[3]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 86.28 yr (31,514 days)
Aphelion 2.9543 AU
Perihelion 1.7443 AU
2.3493 AU
Eccentricity 0.2575
3.60 yr (1,315 days)
0° 16m 25.32s / day
Inclination 7.5895°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 31.04 km (derived)[3]
31.12±1.5 km[5]
31.738±0.219 km[6]
31.96±9.77 km[7]
32.29±0.33 km[8]
33±2 km[9]
35.097±0.260 km[10]
38.46±5.77 km[11]
18.19 h[a]
18.198 h[12]
18.2±0.2 h[9]
18.21 h[b]
0.0607 (derived)[3]
Tholen = XC[1][3]
C[13] · P[10]
11.00[5][8][10] · 11.10[7] · 11.2[1][3] · 11.35[11]

220 Stephania is a dark background asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 32 km (20 mi) in diameter. It was discovered on 19 May 1881, by Austrian astronomer Johann Palisa at the Vienna Observatory.[14] The C-type asteroid has a rotation period of 18.2 hours.[3] It was named after Princess Stéphanie of Belgium.[2]

Classification and orbit[edit]

Stephania is a non-family asteroid of the main belt's background population, when applying the Hierarchical Clustering Method to its proper orbital elements.[4] It orbits the Sun in the inner asteroid belt at a distance of 1.7–3.0 AU once every 3 years and 7 months (1,315 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.26 and an inclination of 8° with respect to the ecliptic.[1]

Discovery and naming[edit]

Stephania was discovered by Johann Palisa on May 19, 1881, in Vienna.[14] It was the first discovery he made after transferring to the observatory from Pola.[2]

The name honours Crown Princess Stéphanie (1864–1945), wife of the heir-apparent Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria. The couple was married the year the asteroid was discovered. It was the first time that a naming commemorated a wedding and was given as a wedding gift.[2] The official naming citation was mentioned in The Names of the Minor Planets by Paul Herget in 1955 (H 27).[2]

Physical characteristics[edit]

Spectral type[edit]

In the Tholen classification, this asteroid's spectrum is ambiguous, close to an X-type and somewhat similar to that of a carbonaceous C-type asteroid (CX).[3] A French spectroscopic survey that observed two dozens of these X-types classified by Tholen, determined that Stephania is in fact a carbonaceous C-type asteroid (rather than an X-type).[13] The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has also characterized it as a primitive P-type asteroid.[3][10]


Lightcurve data has also been recorded by observers at the Antelope Hill Observatory (H09), which has been designated as an official observatory by the Minor Planet Center.[b]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's WISE telescope, Stephania measures between 31.12 and 38.46 kilometers in diameter and its surface has a low albedo between 0.03 and 0.075.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.0607 and a diameter of 31.04 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 11.2.[3]


  1. ^ Anonymous lightcurve –CALL-2011 (web): rotation period 18.19 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.25 mag. Quality code of 2. Summary figures for (220) Stephania at the LCDB
  2. ^ a b Lightcurve plot of (220) Stephania by Robert A. Koff (a.k.a William Koff) Antelope Hills Observatory, Colorado (H09); Rotation period 18.21 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.21 mag. Quality code of 2. Summary figures at the LCDB


  1. ^ a b c d e "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 220 Stephania" (2017-07-01 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 28 October 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (220) Stephania. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 35. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 28 October 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i "LCDB Data for (220) Stephania". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 28 October 2017. 
  4. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 28 October 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 28 October 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645Freely accessible. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121. Retrieved 28 October 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; et al. (December 2015). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year One: Preliminary Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 814 (2): 13. arXiv:1509.02522Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015ApJ...814..117N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/117. Retrieved 28 October 2017. 
  8. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 28 October 2017. 
  9. ^ a b c d Durech, J.; Delbo', M.; Carry, B.; Hanus, J.; Alí-Lagoa, V. (July 2017). "Asteroid shapes and thermal properties from combined optical and mid-infrared photometry inversion". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 604: 8. arXiv:1706.01232Freely accessible. Bibcode:2017A&A...604A..27D. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201730868. Retrieved 28 October 2017. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 28 October 2017. 
  11. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv:1606.08923Freely accessible. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...63N. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63. Retrieved 28 October 2017. 
  12. ^ Mohamed, R. A.; Chiorny, V. G.; Dovgopol, A. N.; Shevchenko, V. G. (November 1994). "Photometry of five asteroids: 189 Phthia, 220 Stephania, 289 Nenetta, 312 Pierretta and 626 Notburga". Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement. 108: 69–72. Bibcode:1994A&AS..108...69M. Retrieved 28 October 2017. 
  13. ^ a b Fornasier, S.; Clark, B. E.; Dotto, E. (July 2011). "Spectroscopic survey of X-type asteroids" (PDF). Icarus. 214 (1): 131–146. arXiv:1105.3380Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011Icar..214..131F. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2011.04.022. Retrieved 28 October 2017. 
  14. ^ a b "220 Stephania". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 28 October 2017. 

External links[edit]