Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was governed by a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. Under Hitlers rule, Germany was transformed into a fascist state in which the Nazi Party took totalitarian control over all aspects of life. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943, the period is known under the names the Third Reich and the National Socialist Period. The Nazi regime came to an end after the Allied Powers defeated Germany in May 1945, Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic Paul von Hindenburg on 30 January 1933. The Nazi Party began to eliminate all opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934, and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the powers and offices of the Chancellery, a national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany. All power was centralised in Hitlers person, and his word became above all laws, the government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitlers favour.
In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending, extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen. The return to economic stability boosted the regimes popularity, especially antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime. The Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the purest branch of the Aryan race, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were murdered in the Holocaust. Opposition to Hitlers rule was ruthlessly suppressed, members of the liberal and communist opposition were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. The Christian churches were oppressed, with many leaders imprisoned, education focused on racial biology, population policy, and fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, and the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased the Third Reich on the international stage.
Propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. Beginning in the late 1930s, Nazi Germany made increasingly aggressive territorial demands and it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Hitler made a pact with Joseph Stalin and invaded Poland in September 1939. In alliance with Italy and smaller Axis powers, Germany conquered most of Europe by 1940, reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas, and a German administration was established in what was left of Poland. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, following the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, the tide gradually turned against the Nazis, who suffered major military defeats in 1943
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the law of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility. The concept of war crimes emerged at the turn of the century when the body of customary international law applicable to warfare between sovereign states was codified. Moreover, trials in national courts during this period further helped clarify the law, following the end of World War II, major developments in the law occurred. Numerous trials of Axis war criminals established the Nuremberg principles, such as notion that war crimes constituted crimes defined by international law, the Geneva Conventions in 1949 defined new war crimes and established that states could exercise universal jurisdiction over such crimes. The trial of Peter von Hagenbach by an ad hoc tribunal of the Holy Roman Empire in 1474 was the first international war crimes trial, and of command responsibility. He was convicted and beheaded for crimes that he as a knight was deemed to have a duty to prevent, although he had argued that he was only following orders.
In 1654 a Major Connaught was tried at Chester Assizes and hanged for his part in the massacre of villagers in the church at the village of Boughton, twelve villagers were smoked out, stripped naked and had their throats cut. He was hanged at the scene of the crime having been convicted of striking a blow to the head of John Fowler with an axe. The Geneva Conventions are four related treaties adopted and continuously expanded from 1864 to 1949 that represent a legal basis, states retain different codes and values with regard to wartime conduct. Some signatories have routinely violated the Geneva Conventions in a way which either uses the ambiguities of law or political maneuvering to sidestep the laws formalities and principles. Three conventions were revised and expanded with the one added in 1949, First Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded. Second Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, third Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War.
Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Protocol II relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts. Protocol III relating to the Adoption of an Additional Distinctive Emblem, a small number of German military personnel of the First World War were tried in 1921 by the German Supreme Court for alleged war crimes. The modern concept of war crime was further developed under the auspices of the Nuremberg Trials based on the definition in the London Charter that was published on August 8,1945. Along with war crimes the charter defined crimes against peace and crimes against humanity, on July 1,2002, the International Criminal Court, a treaty-based court located in The Hague, came into being for the prosecution of war crimes committed on or after that date. Several nations, most notably the United States, Russia, the United States still participates as an observer. Article 12 of the Rome Statute provides jurisdiction over the citizens of non-contracting states in the event that they are accused of committing crimes in the territory of one of the state parties
War crimes of the Wehrmacht
War crimes of the Wehrmacht were those carried out by the German armed forces during World War II. The Nuremberg Trials at the end of World War II initially considered whether the Wehrmacht high command structure should be tried, had it not been for these legalistic reasons, the OKW would have been judged a criminal organization by the IMT. This has often been misconstrued, not the least by German World War Two veterans that the IMT ruled that the OKW was not a criminal organization because the Wehrmacht committed no war crimes. Prior to the developments of the Second World War there was a history of the German Army committing violent acts against civilians in previous conflicts. During a rebellion by the Herero and Nama natives of a German African Colony in 1904, General Lothar von Trotha, the Commander tasked with eliminating the uprising, remarked against nonhumans one cannot conduct war humanely. This conflict resulted in the death of 66-75 percent of the entire native Herero population and 50 percent of the Nama population, by contrast, the German army lost only 676 soldiers in combat over the course of the conflict.
During the First World War, the pattern of civilian brutality continued, during the German invasion of Belgium in 1914, the Germans were recorded to have deliberately killed 6,427 Belgian and French civilians. These attacks were in response to a resistance from the civilian population. However, it has since shown that there was in fact no significant resistance from the population that would have warranted these levels of civilian casualties. As such, many officers willingly embraced National Socialist ideology in the 1930s, acting on his own initiative, the Defence Minister Werner von Blomberg had purged the Army of all its Jewish personnel in February 1934. On December 8,1938, the Army leadership had instructed all officers to be well versed in National Socialism. Starting in February 1939, pamphlets were issued that were required reading in the Army. In the last essay, the author, C. A, holberg wrote, The defensive battle against Jewry will continue, even if the last Jew has left Germany. Attitudes like the ones expressed above colored all the instructions came to Wehrmacht troops in the summer of 1939 as a way of preparing for the attack on Poland.
The order cast the war against the Soviet Union as one of ideological and racial differences, the order was formulated on Hitlers behalf in 1941 by the Wehrmacht command and distributed to field commanders. The enforcement of the Commissar Order led to thousands of executions, on 17 July 1941 the OKW declared that the Wehrmacht was to, ree itself from all elements among the prisoners of war considered Bolshevik driving forces. As such, all Soviet POWs considered to be together with all Jewish POWs were to handed over to the Einsatzgruppen to be shot. Between July–October 1941, between 580 000–600000 POWs in Wehrmacht custody were turned over to the SS to be killed
First mentioned in 1150, it was established as a fortress defending eastern approaches to Smolensk. In 1508, Vasily III sent Italian masters to build a fort there. Dorogobuzh was ravaged during the Time of Troubles, with its reduced to ten people in 1614. Between 1611 and 1668, it belonged to Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as a part of Smolensk Voivodeship, subsequently, it survived other foreign invasions and numerous fires. Dorogobuzh was occupied by the German Army during World War II first from October 5,1941 to February 15,1942, within the framework of administrative divisions, Dorogobuzh serves as the administrative center of Dorogobuzhsky District. As an administrative division, it is incorporated within Dorogobuzhsky District as Dorogobuzhskoye Urban Settlement, as a municipal division, this administrative unit has urban settlement status and is a part of Dorogobuzhsky Municipal District. Постановление №261 от30 апреля2008 г, «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц и территориальных единиц Смоленской области», в ред. Постановления №464 от27 июня2014 г, «О внесении изменений в реестр административно-территориальных единиц и территориальных единиц Смоленской области». Закон №107-з от20 декабря2004 г, Закона №86-з от31 октября2011 г. Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования, Опубликован, Вестник Смоленской областной Думы и Администрации Смоленской области, №13, часть II, стр.
Official website of Dorogobuzh Unofficial website of Dorogobuzh Mojgorod. ru
Gomel is the administrative centre of Gomel Voblast and with 526,872 inhabitants the second-most populous city of Belarus. There are at least six narratives of the origin of the city’s Belarusian name, one of the more plausible is that the name is derived from the name of the stream Homeyuk, which flowed into river Sozh near the foot of the hill where the first settlement was founded. Names of other Belarusian cities are formed along these lines, for example, the name Minsk is derived from the river Menka, Polatsk from the river Palata, and Vitsebsk from the river Vitsba. In historical sources from 1142 to the 16th century, the city is mentioned as Hom, Homiy and these forms are tentatively explained as derivatives of an unattested *gomŭ of uncertain meaning. The modern name for the city has been in use only since the 16th–17th centuries, during the Soviet period, another story about the citys name was popular, raftsmen on the river Sozh supposedly warned each other about the danger of running into sandy shallows by shouting «Ho.
A more recent narrative, propagated by some researchers, is that the name is derived from an ancient Belarusian greeting, «Dats u homel». Gomel was founded at the end of the 1st millennium AD on the lands of the Eastern Slavic tribal union of Radimichs and it lays on the banks of the Sozh river and the Homeyuk stream. Sozhs high right bank, cut through by canyons, provided a natural fortification, for some time, Gomel was the capital of the Gomel Principality, before it became part of the Principality of Chernigov. Gomel is first mentioned in the Hypatian Codex under the year of 1142 as being territory of the princes of Chernigov, under Oleg, Gomel went to the Principality of Novhorod-Siverskyi. The next ruler was Igor Svyatoslavich – the hero of The Tale of Igors Campaign, during this period, the town was a fortified point and the centre of a volost. In the 12th–13th centuries the area was not less than 40 ha. Archeological data have shown that the city was damaged during the Mongol-Tatar assault in the first half of the 13th century.
In 1335, the Gomel region was joined to the Great Duchy of Lithuania by Algirdas, during the Second Muscovite-Lithuanian War of 1500–1503 Lithuania tried to regain Gomel and other lands transferred to Moscow, but suffered defeat and lost one-third of its territory. In 1535, Lithuanian and Polish forces under Jerzy Radziwiłł, Jan Tarnowski and Andrzej Niemirowicz re-captured the city after the surrender of Moscows deputy, in the same year, the Great Duke of Lithuania Sigismund Kęstutaitis founded the Gomel Starostwo. According to the agreement of 1537, Gomel together with its volost remained a Lithuanian possession. In 1535–1565 Gomel is the centre of starostwo, and from 1565 onwards Gomel is in the Rechytsa Powiat of the Minsk Voivodeship, in 1560, the citys first coat of arms was introduced. In 1569, Gomel became part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, from this moment on, the city became the arena of numerous attacks and battles between Cossaks and the Polish-Lithuania Commonwealth. In 1572, Gomel Starostwo was given to B, at the beginning of the 1570s, Gomel was captured by the forces of Ivan the Terrible, but in 1576 it was re-captured by J.
According to the U. S. Insurgency is the organized use of subversion and violence to seize, nullify or challenge political control of a region. As such, it is primarily a struggle, in which both sides use armed force to create space for their political and influence activities to be effective. Counter-insurgency is normally conducted as a combination of military operations and other means, such as demoralization in the form of propaganda, psy-ops. Counter-insurgency operations include many different facets, paramilitary, economic, psychological, to understand counter-insurgency, one must understand insurgency to comprehend the dynamics of revolutionary warfare. Insurgents capitalize on societal problems, often called gaps, counter-insurgency addresses closing the gaps, when the gaps are wide, they create a sea of discontent, creating the environment in which the insurgent can operate. He defines this distinction as Maoist and post-Maoist insurgency, caldwell wrote, The law of armed conflict requires that, to use force, combatants must distinguish individuals presenting a threat from innocent civilians.
This basic principle is accepted by all disciplined militaries, in the counterinsurgency, disciplined application of force is even more critical because our enemies camouflage themselves in the civilian population. The third Marques of Santa Cruz de Marcenado is probably the earliest author who dealt systematically in his writings with counter-insurgency, Santa Cruz recognized that insurgencies are usually due to real grievances, A state rarely rises up without the fault of its governors. Consequently, he advocated clemency towards the population and good governance, to seek the peoples heart, the majority of counter-insurgency efforts by major powers in the last century have been spectacularly unsuccessful. This may be attributed to a number of causes and he showed as a prime example the French occupation of Spain during the Napoleonic wars. Whenever Spanish forces managed to constitute themselves into a fighting force. However, once dispersed and decentralized, the nature of the rebel campaigns proved a decisive counter to French superiority on the battlefield.
Counter-insurgency efforts may be successful, especially when the insurgents are unpopular, the Philippine–American War, the Shining Path in Peru, and the Malayan Emergency in Malaya have been the sites of failed insurgencies. Hart points to the experiences of T. E. Lawrence, in both the preceding cases, the insurgents and rebel fighters were working in conjunction with or in a manner complementary to regular forces. Such was the case with the French Resistance during World War II, the strategy in these cases is for the irregular combatant to weaken and destabilize the enemy to such a degree that victory is easy or assured for the regular forces. However, in many rebellions, one does not see rebel fighters working in conjunction with regular forces. Rather, they are home-grown militias or imported fighters who have no unified goals or objectives save to expel the occupier, according to Liddell Hart, there are few effective counter-measures to this strategy. So long as the insurgency maintains popular support, it will all of its strategic advantages of mobility and legitimacy in its own eyes