A department store is a retail establishment offering a wide range of consumer goods in different product categories known as "departments". In modern major cities, the department store made a dramatic appearance in the middle of the 19th century, permanently reshaped shopping habits, the definition of service and luxury. Similar developments were under way in Paris and in New York. Today, departments include the following: clothing, home appliances, cosmetics, gardening, sporting goods, do it yourself and hardware. Additionally, other lines of products such as food, jewelry, stationery, photographic equipment, baby products, products for pets are sometimes included. Customers check out near the front of the store, although some stores include sales counters within each department; some stores are one of many within a larger retail chain retailers. In the 1970s, they came under heavy pressure from discounters, have come under heavier pressure from e-commerce sites since 2010. Big-box stores and discount stores are comparable to historical department stores.
The origins of the departmental store lay in the growth of the conspicuous consumer society at the turn of the 19th century. As the Industrial Revolution accelerated economy expansion, the affluent middle-class grew in size and wealth. Urbanized social groups, sharing a culture of consumption and changing fashions, were the catalyst for the retail revolution; as rising prosperity and social mobility increased the number of people women, with disposable income in the late Georgian period, window shopping was transformed into a leisure activity and entrepreneurs, like the potter Josiah Wedgwood, pioneered the use of marketing techniques to influence the prevailing tastes and preferences of society. Department stores often featured post services, childcare services and other services that appealed to female shoppers. One of the first department stores may have been Bennett's in Derby, first established as an ironmonger in 1734, it still stands to trading in the same building. However, the first reliably dated department store to be established, was Harding, Howell & Co, which opened in 1796 on Pall Mall, London.
An observer writing in Ackermann's Repository, a British periodical on contemporary taste and fashion, described the enterprise in 1809 as follows: The house is one hundred and fifty feet in length from front to back, of proportionate width. It is fitted up with great taste, is divided by glazed partitions into four departments, for the various branches of the extensive business, there carried on. At the entrance is the first department, appropriated to the sale of furs and fans; the second contains articles of haberdashery of every description, muslins, gloves, &etc. In the third shop, on the right, you meet with a rich assortment of jewelry, ornamental articles in ormolu, french clocks, &etc.. The fourth is set apart for millinery and dresses; this concern has been conducted for the last twelve years by the present proprietors who have spared neither trouble nor expense to ensure the establishment of a superiority over every other in Europe, to render it unique in its kind. This venture is described as having all of the basic characteristics of the department store.
This pioneering shop was closed down in 1820. All the major British cities had flourishing department stores by the mid-or late nineteenth century. Women became the main customers. Kendals in Manchester lays claim to being one of the first department stores and is still known to many of its customers as Kendal's, despite its 2005 name change to House of Fraser; the Manchester institution dates back to 1836 but had been trading as Watts Bazaar since 1796. At its zenith the store had buildings on both sides of Deansgate linked by a subterranean passage "Kendals Arcade" and an art nouveau tiled food hall; the store was known for its emphasis on quality and style over low prices giving it the nickname "the Harrods of the North", although this was due in part to Harrods acquiring the store in 1919. Other large Manchester stores included Lewis's. In London, department stores were established in Oxford Street and Regent Street in the mid 19th-century; these were distinctly modern stores with lavish displays of imported goods Oriental shawls and furniture and served a wealthy clientele.
Harrods of London can be traced back to 1834, while the current store on Brompton Road on a site they acquired in 1849, was constructed between 1894 and 1905. Liberty & Co. gained popularity in thre 1870s for selling Oriental goods. Gamages was founded in London's High Holborn by Arthur Walter Gamage in 1878. In Bayswater, the draper, William Whiteley established a department store with more of a mass market appeal. Bainbridge's dates back to 1838, when Emerson Muschamp Bainbridge went into partnership with William Alder Dunn and opened a drapers and fashion shop in Newcastle's Market Street. In 1849 there were 23 separate departm
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design is one of the most popular green building certification programs used worldwide. Developed by the non-profit U. S. Green Building Council it includes a set of rating systems for the design, construction and maintenance of green buildings and neighborhoods that aims to help building owners and operators be environmentally responsible and use resources efficiently. Development of LEED began in 1993, spearheaded by Natural Resources Defense Council senior scientist Robert K. Watson; as founding chairman of the LEED Steering Committee, Watson led a broad-based consensus process until 2007, bringing together non-profit organizations, government agencies, engineers, builders, product manufacturers and other industry leaders. The LEED initiative was supported by a strong USGBC Board of Directors, chaired by Steven Winter from 1999 to 2003, active staff, including Nigel Howard. At that time, USGBC’s Senior Vice President of LEED, Scot Horst, became chair of the LEED Steering Committee before joining USGBC staff.
Early LEED committee members included USGBC co-founder Mike Italiano, architects Bill Reed and Sandy Mendler, builders Gerard Heiber and Myron Kibbe, engineer Richard Bourne. As interest in LEED grew, in 1996, engineers Tom Paladino and Lynn Barker co-chaired the newly formed LEED technical committee. From 1994 to 2015, LEED grew from one standard for new construction to a comprehensive system of interrelated standards covering aspects from the design and construction to the maintenance and operation of buildings. LEED has grown from six volunteers on one committee to 119,924 staff and professionals. LEED standards have been applied to 83,452 registered and certified LEED projects worldwide, covering around 13.8 billion square feet. Many U. S. federal agencies and states and local governments require or reward LEED certification. However, four states have banned the use of LEED in new public buildings, preferring other industry standards that the USGBC considers too lax. Unlike model building codes, such as the International Building Code, only members of the USGBC and specific "in-house" committees may add to, subtract from, or edit the standard, subject to an internal review process.
Proposals to modify the LEED standards are offered and publicly reviewed by USGBC's member organizations, which number 12,216. USGBC's Green Business Certification Inc. offers various accreditation to people who demonstrate knowledge of the LEED rating system, including LEED Accredited Professional, LEED Green Associate, since 2011, LEED Fellows, the highest designation for LEED professionals. GBCI certifies projects pursuing LEED. LEED has evolved since 1998 to more represent and incorporate emerging green building technologies; the pilot version, LEED New Construction v1.0, led to LEED NCv2.0, LEED NCv2.2 in 2005, LEED 2009 in 2009. LEED v4 was introduced in November, 2013; until October 31, 2016, new projects could choose between LEED 2009 and LEED v4. New projects registering after October 31, 2016 have been required to use LEED v4. LEED 2009 encompasses ten rating systems for the design and operation of buildings and neighborhoods. Five overarching categories correspond to the specialties available under the LEED professional program.
That suite consists of: Green Building Design & Construction LEED for New Construction LEED for Core & Shell LEED for Schools LEED for Retail: New Construction and Major Renovations LEED for HealthcareGreen Interior Design & Construction LEED for Commercial Interiors LEED for Retail: Commercial InteriorsGreen Building Operations & Maintenance LEED for Existing Buildings: Operations & MaintenanceGreen Neighborhood Development LEED for Neighborhood DevelopmentGreen Home Design and Construction LEED for Homes LEED forms the basis for other sustainability rating systems such as the Environmental Protection Agency's Labs21. To make it easier to follow LEED requirements, in 2009 USGBC helped BuildingGreen develop LEEDuser, a guide to the LEED certification process and applying for LEED credits written by professionals in the field. After four years of development, aligning credit across all LEED rating systems and weighing credits based on environmental priority, USGBC launched LEED v3, which consists of a new continuous development process, a new version of LEED Online, a revised third-party certification program and a new suite of rating systems known as LEED 2009.
Under LEED 2009, there are 100 possible base points distributed across six credit categories: "Sustainable Sites", "Water Efficiency", "Energy and Atmosphere", "Materials and Resources", "Indoor Environmental Quality", "Innovation in Design". Up to 10 additional points may be earned: four additional points may be received for Regional Priority Credits, six additional points for Innovation in Design. Buildings can qualify for four levels of certification: Certified: 40–49 points Silver: 50-59 points Gold: 60-79 points Platinum: 80 points and above The LEED 2009 performance credit system aims to allocate points "based on the potential environmental impacts and human benefits of each credit." These are weighed using the environmental impact categories of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Tools for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts. and the environmental-impact weighting
A storey or story is any level part of a building with a floor that could be used by people. The plurals are "stories", respectively; the terms "floor", "level", or "deck" are used in a similar way, except that it is usual to talk of a "14-storey building", but "the 14th floor". The floor at ground or street level is called the "ground floor" in many places; the words "storey" and "floor" exclude levels of the building that are not covered by a roof, such as the terrace on the top roof of many buildings. Houses have only one or two floors. Buildings are classified as low-rise, mid-rise and high-rise according to how many levels they contain, but these categories are not well-defined. A single-storey house is referred to in the United Kingdom, as a bungalow; the tallest skyscraper in the world, Burj Khalifa, has 163 floors. The height of each storey is based on the ceiling height of the rooms plus the thickness of the floors between each pane; this is around 14 feet total. Storeys within a building need not be all the same height—often the lobby is taller, for example.
Additionally, higher levels may have less floor area than the ones beneath them. In English, the principal floor or main floor of a house is the floor that contains the chief apartments. In Italy the main floor of a home is above the ground level, may be called the piano nobile; the attic or loft is a storey just below the building's roof. A penthouse is a luxury apartment on the topmost storey of a building. A basement is a storey below the main or ground floor. Split-level homes have floors. A mezzanine, in particular, is a floor halfway between the ground floor and the next higher floor. Homes with a split-level entry have the entire main floor raised half a storey height above the street entrance level, a basement, half a storey below this level. In Macy's Herald Square, there is a "one-and-a-half" floor between the second. There are multi-storey car parks known as parking garages. Floor numbering is the numbering scheme used for a building's floors. There are two major schemes in use across the world.
In one system, used in the majority of European countries, the ground floor is the floor at ground level having no number, identified sometimes as "G" or "0". The next floor up is assigned the number 1 and is the first floor, so on; the other system, used in the United States and Canada, counts the bottom floor as the first floor, the next floor up as the second floor, so on. In both systems, the numbering of higher floors continues sequentially as one goes up, as shown in the following table: Each scheme has further variations depending on how one refers to the ground floor and the subterranean levels; the existence of two incompatible conventions is a common source of confusion in international communication. In all English-speaking countries the storeys in a building are counted in the same way: a "seven-storey building" is unambiguous, although the top floor would be called "6th floor" in Britain and "7th floor" in America. Mezzanines may not be counted as storeys. In most of Europe, the "first floor" is the second level.
This scheme is used in many former British colonies, many Latin American countries, in Hawaii and in many of the Commonwealth nations. This convention can be traced back to Medieval European usage. In countries that use this system, the floor at ground level is referred to by a special name translating as "ground floor" or equivalent. For example, Erdgeschoss in Germany, piano terra in Italy, begane grond in the Netherlands, planta baja or planta baixa in Spain, beheko solairua in Basque, andar térreo in Brazil, rés-do-chão in Portugal, földszint in Hungary, parter in Romania and Poland, prízemie in Slovakia and pritličje in Slovenia. In some countries that use this scheme, the higher floors may be explicitly qualified as being above the ground level, such as in Slovenian "prvo nadstropje". In Spain, the level above ground level is sometimes called "entresuelo", elevators may skip it; the next level is sometimes called "principal". The "first floor" can therefore be three levels above ground level.
In Italy, in the ancient palaces the first floor is called piano nobile, since the noble owners of the palace lived there. In France, there are two distinct names for storeys in buildings which have two "ground floors" at different levels; the lower one is called rez-de-chaussée, the upper one is rez-de-jardin (lit. "adjacent to the gar
Toronto Eaton Centre
The Toronto Eaton Centre is a shopping mall and office complex in Downtown Toronto, Canada. It is managed by Cadillac Fairview, it was named after the Eaton's department store chain that once anchored it before the chain became defunct in the late 1990s. The Toronto Eaton Centre attracts the most visitors of any of Toronto's tourist attractions, it is North America's busiest shopping mall, due to extensive transit access, its downtown location and tourist traffic. With 48,969,858 visitors in 2015 alone, the centre sees more annual visitors than either of the two busiest malls in the United States, or Central Park in New York City; the number of visitors to the Toronto Eaton Centre in 2015 exceeds the total 2015 passenger counts at Toronto Pearson International Airport, Canada's largest and busiest airport. The main portion of the Toronto Eaton Centre complex is bounded by Yonge Street on the east, Queen Street West on the south, Dundas Street West on the north, to the west by James Street and Trinity Square.
The flagship location of the Hudson's Bay department store chain, part of the complex since Cadillac Fairview's purchase of the building in 2014, is connected to the rest of the complex by a skywalk over Queen Street West, itself is bounded by Yonge Street to the east, Queen Street West to the north, Richmond Street West to the south, Bay Street to the west. The main retail mall in the centre is organized around a long arcade, running parallel to Yonge Street; the Toronto Eaton Centre's interior passages form part of Toronto's PATH underground pedestrian network, the centre is served by two subway stations: Dundas and Queen on Line 1 Yonge–University. The complex contains four office buildings and the Ryerson University Ted Rogers School of Management. Additionally, the Eaton Centre is linked to a 17-storey Marriott hotel; the Sears Canada headquarters were inside an eight-storey Sears location within the Toronto Eaton Centre. The headquarters moved there from 222 Jarvis Street; the lower four floors of the Eaton Centre location housed a retail store while the upper four floors housed the headquarters.
Timothy Eaton founded a dry goods store on Yonge Street in the 19th century that revolutionized retailing in Canada, became the largest department store chain in the country. By the 20th century, the Eaton's chain owned most of the land bounded by Yonge, Queen and Dundas streets, with the notable exceptions of Old City Hall and the Church of the Holy Trinity; the Eaton's land, once the site of Timothy Eaton's first store, was occupied by Eaton's large Main Store, the Eaton's Annex and a number of related mail order and factory buildings. As the chain's warehouse and support operations were shifting to cheaper suburban locales in the 1960s, Eaton's wanted to make better use of its valuable downtown landholdings. In particular, the chain wanted to build a massive new flagship store to replace the aging Main Store at Yonge and Queen and the Eaton's College Street store a few blocks to the north. In the mid-1960s, Eaton's announced plans for a massive office and shopping complex that would occupy several city blocks.
Eaton's sought to demolish the Church of the Holy Trinity. The plan required the closing of a number of small city streets within the block: Albert Street, Louisa Street, Terauley Street, James Street, Albert Lane, Downey's Lane and Trinity Square. At one point the Old City Hall clock tower was to be demolished. After a fierce local debate over the fate of the city hall and church buildings, Eaton's put its plans on hiatus in 1967; the Eaton Centre plans were resuscitated in 1971, although these plans allowed for the preservation of Old City Hall. Controversy erupted anew, however, as the congregation of the Church of the Holy Trinity exhibited an increased willingness to fight the demolition plans for its church; the Eaton Centre plans were revised to save Old City Hall and the church, revised further when Holy Trinity's parishioners fought to ensure that the new complex would not block all sunlight to the church. These amendments to the plans resulted in three significant changes to the proposed centre from the 1960s concept.
First, the new Eaton's store was shifted north to Dundas Street, as the new store would be too large to be accommodated in its existing location on Queen Street as a result of the preservation of Old City Hall. This resulted in the mall being constructed with Eaton's and Simpson's acting as anchors at either end; the second significant change was the reduction in the size of the office component, so that the Eaton Centre project no longer represented an attempt to extend the City's financial district north of Queen Street, as the Eaton family had contemplated in the 1960s. The bulk of the centre was shifted east to the Yonge Street frontage, the complex was designed so that it no longer had any frontage along Bay Street. Old City Hall and the church were thus saved, as was the Salvation Army headquarters building by virtue of its location between the two other preserved buildings. At the time of the centre's opening in 1977, the complex was markete
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
WZMH Architects is a multinational architectural firm established in 1961 and based in Toronto, Canada. Known as Webb Zerafa Menkès Housden the company's name was changed to WZMH Architects in 2002; the firm has become known for its work with tall, landmark structures, major mixed-use development, institutional and hospitality projects, as well as renovation and retrofit projects involving heritage restoration, justice buildings and data centres. WZMH has enduring developer relationships with Oxford Properties, Brookfield Properties, Infrastructure Ontario, ELAD Group, Four Seasons Hotels and Resorts. In 2015, WZMH merged with pellow + associates, a firm known for its retail design, further expanding the firm's diverse portfolio. In 2016, WZMH Architects celebrated its 55th anniversary; the firm has earned many awards, including: Canada's Best Managed Companies 2015: 2015 Best Managed Winner Illuminating Engineering Society: 2015: IES Illumination Award of Merit - Quinte CourthouseInternational Council of Shopping Centre Awards: 2015: Gold ICSC within the New Development Category - Outlet Collection at Niagara and RBC WaterPark Place in Toronto Canadian Urban Institute: 2013: CUI Brownie Award in the Excellence in Project Development at the Building Scale category – Nova Scotia Power Corporate Headquarters Canada Green Building Council: 2013: Canadian Green Building Award- Nova Scotia Power Corporate Headquarters 2014: OAA Design Excellence Award- Nova Scotia Power Corporate Headquarters 2012: OAA Award for Design Excellence- Bay Adelaide Centre West Tower 222 Jarvis Street Sustainable Building Renewal, Toronto San Stefano Grand Plaza CSEC Long-Term Accommodation, Ottawa Durham Region Courthouse, Oshawa Quinte Courthouse, Ontario Canadian Space Agency, St. Hubert, Quebec Canadian Embassy, Poland Public Institution for Social Security Headquarters, Kuwait Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Abu Dhabi Nova Scotia Power Corporate Headquarters, Halifax Shanghai Securities Exchange Building, Shanghai BCC Data Centre, Ontario WaterPark Place, Toronto Bay Adelaide Centre, Toronto Royal Bank Plaza, Toronto Centennial Place, Calgary Scotia Plaza, Toronto CN Tower, Toronto Nile Plaza - Four Seasons Hotel, Cairo Caesars Windsor, Windsor Casino Rama, Ontario Nile Ritz-Carlton, Cairo Parkway Forest Re-Urbanization and Emerald City, Toronto The Crossways, Toronto Exchange Place, Boston Marketplace Center, Boston Company website