The terms anno Domini and before Christ are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin and means "in the year of the Lord", but is presented using "our Lord" instead of "the Lord", taken from the full original phrase "anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi", which translates to "in the year of our Lord Jesus Christ"; this calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus of Nazareth, with AD counting years from the start of this epoch, BC denoting years before the start of the era. There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 follows the year 1 BC; this dating system was devised in 525 by Dionysius Exiguus of Scythia Minor, but was not used until after 800. The Gregorian calendar is the most used calendar in the world today. For decades, it has been the unofficial global standard, adopted in the pragmatic interests of international communication and commercial integration, recognized by international institutions such as the United Nations.
Traditionally, English followed Latin usage by placing the "AD" abbreviation before the year number. However, BC is placed after the year number, which preserves syntactic order; the abbreviation is widely used after the number of a century or millennium, as in "fourth century AD" or "second millennium AD". Because BC is the English abbreviation for Before Christ, it is sometimes incorrectly concluded that AD means After Death, i.e. after the death of Jesus. However, this would mean that the approximate 33 years associated with the life of Jesus would neither be included in the BC nor the AD time scales. Terminology, viewed by some as being more neutral and inclusive of non-Christian people is to call this the Current or Common Era, with the preceding years referred to as Before the Common or Current Era. Astronomical year numbering and ISO 8601 avoid words or abbreviations related to Christianity, but use the same numbers for AD years; the Anno Domini dating system was devised in 525 by Dionysius Exiguus to enumerate the years in his Easter table.
His system was to replace the Diocletian era, used in an old Easter table because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. The last year of the old table, Diocletian 247, was followed by the first year of his table, AD 532; when he devised his table, Julian calendar years were identified by naming the consuls who held office that year—he himself stated that the "present year" was "the consulship of Probus Junior", 525 years "since the incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ". Thus Dionysius implied that Jesus' incarnation occurred 525 years earlier, without stating the specific year during which his birth or conception occurred. "However, nowhere in his exposition of his table does Dionysius relate his epoch to any other dating system, whether consulate, year of the world, or regnal year of Augustus. Among the sources of confusion are: In modern times, incarnation is synonymous with the conception, but some ancient writers, such as Bede, considered incarnation to be synonymous with the Nativity.
The civil or consular year began on 1 January but the Diocletian year began on 29 August. There were inaccuracies in the lists of consuls. There were confused summations of emperors' regnal years, it is not known. Two major theories are that Dionysius based his calculation on the Gospel of Luke, which states that Jesus was "about thirty years old" shortly after "the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar", hence subtracted thirty years from that date, or that Dionysius counted back 532 years from the first year of his new table, it has been speculated by Georges Declercq that Dionysius' desire to replace Diocletian years with a calendar based on the incarnation of Christ was intended to prevent people from believing the imminent end of the world. At the time, it was believed by some that the resurrection of the dead and end of the world would occur 500 years after the birth of Jesus; the old Anno Mundi calendar theoretically commenced with the creation of the world based on information in the Old Testament.
It was believed that, based on the Anno Mundi calendar, Jesus was born in the year 5500 with the year 6000 of the Anno Mundi calendar marking the end of the world. Anno Mundi 6000 was thus equated with the resurrection and the end of the world but this date had passed in the time of Dionysius; the Anglo-Saxon historian the Venerable Bede, familiar with the work of Dionysius Exiguus, used Anno Domini dating in his Ecclesiastical History of the English People, completed in 731. In this same history, he used another Latin term, ante vero incarnationis dominicae tempus anno sexagesimo, equivalent to the English "before Christ", to identify years before the first year of this era. Both Dionysius and Bede regarded Anno Domini as beginning at the incarnation of Jesus, but "the distinction between Incarnation and Nativity was not drawn until the late 9th century, when in some places the Incarnation epoch was identified with Christ's conception, i.e. the Annunciation on March 25". On the continent of Europe, Anno
Chernobyl New Safe Confinement
The New Safe Confinement is a structure built to confine the remains of the number 4 reactor unit at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, destroyed during the Chernobyl disaster in 1986. The structure encloses the temporary Shelter Object, built around the reactor after the disaster; the NSC is designed to prevent the release of radioactive contaminants from the existing shelter, protect the reactor from external influence, facilitate the disassembly and decommissioning of the reactor, prevent water intrusion. The NSC is a megaproject, part of the Shelter Implementation Plan and supported by the Chernobyl Shelter Fund, it was designed with the primary goal of confining the radioactive remains of reactor 4 for the next 100 years. It aims to allow for a partial demolition of the original sarcophagus, hastily constructed by Chernobyl liquidators after a beyond design-basis accident destroyed the reactor; the word confinement is used rather than the traditional containment to emphasize the difference between the containment of radioactive gases—the primary focus of most reactor containment buildings—and the confinement of solid radioactive waste, the primary purpose of the New Safe Confinement.
In 2015, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development stated that the international community was aiming to close a €100 million funding gap, with administration by the EBRD in its role as manager of the Chernobyl decommissioning funds. The total cost of the Shelter Implementation Plan, of which the New Safe Confinement is the most prominent element, is estimated to be around €2.15 billion. The New Safe Confinement accounts for €1.5 billion. The French consortium Novarka with partners Vinci Construction Grands Projets and Bouygues Travaux Publics designed and built the NSC. Construction was completed in the end of 2018; the original shelter, formally referred to as the Object Shelter and called the sarcophagus, was constructed between May and November 1986. It was an emergency measure to confine the radioactive materials within reactor 4 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant; the shelter was constructed under extreme conditions, with high levels of radiation, under extreme time constraints.
The Object Shelter was moderately successful in confining radioactive contamination and providing for post-accident monitoring of the destroyed nuclear reactor unit. The Object Shelter is supported by the damaged remains of the reactor 4 building; these are considered to be structurally unsound as a result of explosive forces caused by the accident. Three major structural members support the roof of the Object Shelter. Two beams referred to as B-1 and B-2, run in an east-west direction and support the roof beams and panels. A third, more massive member, the "Mammoth Beam", spans the largest distance across the roof from east to west and assists in supporting the roof beams and panels; the roof of the shelter consists of 1 metre diameter steel pipes laid horizontally north to south, steel panels that rest at an angle in the north-south direction. The Object Shelter was never intended to be a permanent containment structure, its continued deterioration has increased the risk of its radioactive inventory leaking into the environment.
Between 2004 and 2008, workers stabilized the roof and western wall of the shelter. However, construction of the NSC was necessary to continue confining the radioactive remains of ChNPP reactor 4. Further upgrades to the area in preparation for NSC construction were completed in 2010; these included road and rail connections, site services, facilities for workers, the installation of a long-term monitoring system. The NSC design is an arch-shaped steel structure with an internal height of 92.5 metres and a 12-metre distance between the centers of the upper and lower arch chords. The internal length of the arch is 245 metres, the external length is 270 metres; the dimensions of the arch were determined based on the need to operate equipment inside the new shelter and decommission the existing shelter. The overall span of the structure is 150 metres, consisting of 13 arches assembled 12.5 metres apart to form 12 bays. Vertical walls assembled around, but not supported by the existing structures of the reactor building seal the ends of the structure.
The arches are constructed of tubular steel members and are externally clad with three-layer sandwich panels. These external panels are used on the end walls of the structure. Internally, polycarbonate panels cover each arch to prevent the accumulation of radioactive particles on the frame members. Large parts of the arches were shop-fabricated and transported to the assembly site 180 metres west of reactor 4; each of the steel tubes is made of high-strength steel to reduce assembly weight. The steel used in the construction of the tubular members has a yield strength of no less than 2,500 kg/cm2. Warm, dry air will be circulated in the gap between inner and outer roof sections to prevent condensation, which will reduce corrosion and prevent water from dripping into the interior; the New Safe Confinement was designed with the following criteria: Convert the destroyed ChNPP reactor 4 into an environmentally safe system. Reduce corrosion and weathering of the existing shelter and the reactor 4 build
The emperor penguin is the tallest and heaviest of all living penguin species and is endemic to Antarctica. The male and female are similar in plumage and size, reaching 122 cm in height and weighing from 22 to 45 kg. Feathers of the head and back are black and delineated from the white belly, pale-yellow breast and bright-yellow ear patches. Like all penguins it is flightless, with a streamlined body, wings stiffened and flattened into flippers for a marine habitat, its diet consists of fish, but includes crustaceans, such as krill, cephalopods, such as squid. While hunting, the species can remain submerged up to 18 minutes, diving to a depth of 535 m, it has several adaptations to facilitate this, including an unusually structured haemoglobin to allow it to function at low oxygen levels, solid bones to reduce barotrauma, the ability to reduce its metabolism and shut down non-essential organ functions. The only penguin species that breeds during the Antarctic winter, emperor penguins trek 50–120 km over the ice to breeding colonies which can contain up to several thousand individuals.
The female lays a single egg, incubated for just over two months by the male while the female returns to the sea to feed. The lifespan is 20 years in the wild, although observations suggest that some individuals may live to 50 years of age. Emperor penguins were described in 1844 by English zoologist George Robert Gray, who created the generic name from Ancient Greek word elements, ἀ-πτηνο-δύτης, "without-wings-diver", its specific name is in honour of the German naturalist Johann Reinhold Forster, who accompanied Captain James Cook on his second voyage and named five other penguin species. Forster may have been the first person to see the penguins in 1773–74, when he recorded a sighting of what he believed was the similar king penguin but given the location, may well have been A. forsteri. Together with the king penguin, the emperor penguin is one of two extant species in the genus Aptenodytes. Fossil evidence of a third species—Ridgen's penguin —has been found in fossil records from the late Pliocene, about three million years ago, in New Zealand.
Studies of penguin behaviour and genetics have proposed that the genus Aptenodytes is basal. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA evidence suggests. Adult emperor penguins stand up to 110–130 cm tall; the weight varies by sex, with males weighing more than females. It is the fifth heaviest living bird species, after only the larger varieties of ratite; the weight varies by season, as both male and female penguins lose substantial mass while raising hatchlings and incubating their egg. A male emperor penguin must withstand the extreme Antarctic winter cold for more than two months while protecting his egg, he eats nothing during this time. Most male emperors will lose around 12 kg; the mean weight of males at the start of the breeding season is 38 kg and that of females is 29.5 kg. After the breeding season this drops to 23 kg for both sexes. Like all penguin species, emperor penguins have streamlined bodies to minimize drag while swimming, wings that are more like stiff, flat flippers; the tongue is equipped with rear-facing barbs to prevent prey from escaping.
Males and females are similar in colouration. The adult has deep black dorsal feathers, covering the head, throat, dorsal part of the flippers, tail; the black plumage is delineated from the light-coloured plumage elsewhere. The underparts of the wings and belly are white, becoming pale yellow in the upper breast, while the ear patches are bright yellow; the upper mandible of the 8 cm long bill is black, the lower mandible can be pink, orange or lilac. In juveniles, the auricular patches and throat are white, while its bill is black. Emperor penguin chicks are covered with silver-grey down and have black heads and white masks. A chick with all-white plumage was seen in 2001, but was not considered to be an albino as it did not have pink eyes. Chicks weigh around 315 g after hatching, fledge when they reach about 50% of adult weight; the emperor penguin's dark plumage fades to brown from November until February, before the yearly moult in January and February. Moulting is rapid in this species compared with other birds, taking only around 34 days.
Emperor penguin feathers emerge from the skin after they have grown to a third of their total length, before old feathers are lost, to help reduce heat loss. New feathers push out the old ones before finishing their growth; the average yearly survival rate of an adult emperor penguin has been measured at 95.1%, with an average life expectancy of 19.9 years. The same researchers estimated that 1% of emperor penguins hatched could feasibly reach an age of 50 years. In contrast, only 19% of chicks survive their first year of life. Therefore, 80% of the emperor penguin population comprises adults five years and older; as the species has no fixed nest sites that individuals can use to locate their own partner or chick, emperor penguins must rely on vocal calls alone for identification. They use a complex set of calls that are critical to individual recognition between parents and mates, displaying the widest variation in individual calls of all penguins. Vocalizing emperor penguins use two frequency bands si
The 21st century is the current century of the Anno Domini era or Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. It began on January 1, 2001, will end on December 31, 2100, it is the first century of the 3rd millennium. It is distinct from the century known as the 2000s which began on January 1, 2000 and will end on December 31, 2099; the first years of the 21st century have thus far been marked by the rise of a global economy and Third World consumerism, mistrust in government, deepening global concern over terrorism and an increase in the power of private enterprise. The Arab Spring of the early 2010s led to mixed outcomes in the Arab world; the Third Industrial Revolution which began around the 1980s continues into the present, is expected to transition into Industry 4.0 and the Fourth Industrial Revolution by as early as 2030. Millennials and Generation Z come of rise to prominence in this century. In 2016, the United Kingdom decided causing Brexit. Advances in technology such as ultrasound, prenatal genetic testing and genetic engineering is changing the demographics and has the potential to change the genetic makeup of the human population.
Because of sex selective abortion, fewer girls have been born in the 21st century compared to in past centuries because of son preference in East and South Asia. In 2014 only 47 percent of Indian births were of girls; this has led to an increase in bachelors in countries such as India. The first genetically modified children were born in November 2018 in China, beginning a new biological era for the human species and raising great controversy. Anxiety and depression rates are rising in many other parts of the world. However, suicide rates have fallen in Europe and most of the rest of the world so far this century, declining 29% globally between 2000 and 2018, despite rising 18% in the United States in the same period; the decline in suicide has been most notable among Chinese and Indian women, the elderly and middle-aged Russian men. The entire written works of mankind, from the beginning of recorded history to 2003, in all known languages, is estimated to be at five exabytes of data. Since 2003, with the birth of social media and "user-generated content", the same amount of data is created every two days.
The advancement of the sum total of human knowledge and information continues to grow at an exponential rate. Telecommunications in the early 21st century are much more advanced and universal than they were in the late 20th century. Only a few percent of the world's population were Internet users and cellular phone owners in the late 1990s. In the 2010s, artificial intelligence in the form of deep learning and machine learning became more prevalent, is prominently used in Gmail and Google's search engine, as well as in banking, the military and other niches. In 2017, 14% of the world's population still lacked access to electricity. In 2001, Dennis Tito became the first space tourist. Entrepreneurs such as Elon Musk and Richard Branson are working towards commercial space exploration and tourism, China and India have made substantial strides in their space program. On January 3, 2019, China landed a robotic spacecraft on the far side of the Moon, being the first to do so. War and most kinds of crime and violence have declined compared to the 20th century.
Malnourishment and poverty are still widespread globally, but fewer people live in the most extreme forms of poverty, relative to recorded history. In 1990 one-in-four people were malnourished, nearly 36% of the world's population lived in extreme poverty. If current trends hold, the United Nations projects the eradication of famine and extreme poverty by the end of this century; the Facebook–Cambridge Analytica data scandal draws international attention to the possible negative effects of social media on influencing citizen's views in regards to the 2016 United States presidential election. The world population was about 6.1 billion at the start of the 21st century and reached 7.7 billion by January 2019. It is estimated to reach about 8.6 billion by the year 2030, 9.8 billion by the year 2050. According to the United Nations World Urbanization prospects, 60% of the world's human population are projected to live in megacities and megalopolises by 2030, 70% by 2050, 90% by 2080. By 2040, more than 5 times the current global gross domestic product are expected to be invested in urban infrastructure and its use.
Life expectancy is increasing. A baby born in 2016 can on average expect to live 72 years. Ten million Britons are expected to live to 100 or older; however climate change remains an serious concern. Economically and politically the United States and Western Europe were dominant at the beginning of the century. In terms of purchasing power parity India's economy became larger than that of Japan around the year 2011; the ongoing impact of technological unemployment due to automation and computerization on job employment is massive: the rat
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
MySQL is an open-source relational database management system. Its name is a combination of "My", the name of co-founder Michael Widenius's daughter, "SQL", the abbreviation for Structured Query Language. MySQL is free and open-source software under the terms of the GNU General Public License, is available under a variety of proprietary licenses. MySQL was owned and sponsored by the Swedish company MySQL AB, bought by Sun Microsystems. In 2010, when Oracle acquired Sun, Widenius forked the open-source MySQL project to create MariaDB. MySQL is a component of the LAMP web application software stack, an acronym for Linux, Apache, MySQL, Perl/PHP/Python. MySQL is used by many database-driven web applications, including Drupal, phpBB, WordPress. MySQL is used by many popular websites, including Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. MySQL is written in C and C++, its SQL parser is written in yacc. MySQL works on many system platforms, including AIX, BSDi, FreeBSD, HP-UX, eComStation, i5/OS, IRIX, macOS, Microsoft Windows, NetBSD, Novell NetWare, OpenBSD, OpenSolaris, OS/2 Warp, QNX, Oracle Solaris, SunOS, SCO OpenServer, SCO UnixWare and Tru64.
A port of MySQL to OpenVMS exists. The MySQL server software itself and the client libraries use dual-licensing distribution, they are offered under a proprietary license. Support can be obtained from the official manual. Free support additionally is available in different IRC forums. Oracle offers paid support via its MySQL Enterprise products, they differ in price. Additionally, a number of third party organisations exist to provide support and services, including MariaDB and Percona. MySQL has received positive reviews, reviewers noticed it "performs well in the average case" and that the "developer interfaces are there, the documentation is very good", it has been tested to be a "fast and true multi-user, multi-threaded sql database server". MySQL was created by a Swedish company, MySQL AB, founded by David Axmark, Allan Larsson and Michael "Monty" Widenius. Original development of MySQL by Widenius and Axmark began in 1994; the first version of MySQL appeared on 23 May 1995. It was created for personal usage from mSQL based on the low-level language ISAM, which the creators considered too slow and inflexible.
They created a new SQL interface, while keeping the same API as mSQL. By keeping the API consistent with the mSQL system, many developers were able to use MySQL instead of the mSQL antecedent. Additional milestones in MySQL development included: First internal release on 23 May 1995 Version 3.19: End of 1996, from www.tcx.se Version 3.20: January 1997 Windows version was released on 8 January 1998 for Windows 95 and NT Version 3.21: production release 1998, from www.mysql.com Version 3.22: alpha, beta from 1998 Version 3.23: beta from June 2000, production release 22 January 2001 Version 4.0: beta from August 2002, production release March 2003. Version 4.01: beta from August 2003, Jyoti adopts MySQL for database tracking Version 4.1: beta from June 2004, production release October 2004. Version 5.0: beta from March 2005, production release October 2005. The developer of the Federated Storage Engine states that "The Federated Storage Engine is a proof-of-concept storage engine", but the main distributions of MySQL version 5.0 included it and turned it on by default.
Documentation of some of the short-comings appears in "MySQL Federated Tables: The Missing Manual". Sun Microsystems acquired MySQL AB in 2008. Version 5.1: production release 27 November 2008 Version 5.1 contained 20 known crashing and wrong result bugs in addition to the 35 present in version 5.0. MySQL 5.1 and 6.0-alpha showed poor performance when used for data warehousing – due to its inability to utilize multiple CPU cores for processing a single query. Oracle acquired Sun Microsystems on 27 January 2010; the day Oracle announced the purchase of Sun, Michael "Monty" Widenius forked MySQL, launching MariaDB, took a swath of MySQL developers with him. MySQL Server 5.5 was available. Enhancements and features include: The default storage engine is InnoDB, which supports transactions and referential integrity constraints. Improved InnoDB I/O subsystem Improved SMP support Semisynchronous replication. SIGNAL and RESIGNAL statement in compliance with the SQL standard. Support for supplementary Unicode character sets utf16, utf32, utf8mb4.
New options for user-defined partitioning. MySQL Server 6.0.11-alpha was announced on 22 May 2009 as the last release of the 6.0 line. Future MySQL Server development uses a New Release Model. Features developed for 6.0 are being incorporated into future releases. The general availability of MySQL 5.6 was announced in February 2013. New features included performance improvements to the query optimizer, higher transactional throughput in InnoDB, new NoSQL-style memcached APIs, improvements to partitioning for querying and managing large tables, TIMESTAMP column type that stores milliseconds, improvements to replication, better performance monitoring by expanding the data available through the PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA; the InnoDB storage engine included support for full-text search and improved group commit performance. The general availability of MySQL 5.7 was a
Saint Patrick's Day
Saint Patrick's Day, or the Feast of Saint Patrick, is a cultural and religious celebration held on 17 March, the traditional death date of Saint Patrick, the foremost patron saint of Ireland. Saint Patrick's Day was made an official Christian feast day in the early 17th century and is observed by the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Lutheran Church; the day commemorates Saint Patrick and the arrival of Christianity in Ireland, celebrates the heritage and culture of the Irish in general. Celebrations involve public parades and festivals, céilís, the wearing of green attire or shamrocks. Christians who belong to liturgical denominations attend church services and the Lenten restrictions on eating and drinking alcohol were lifted for the day, which has encouraged and propagated the holiday's tradition of alcohol consumption. Saint Patrick's Day is a public holiday in the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland, the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, the British Overseas Territory of Montserrat.
It is widely celebrated by the Irish diaspora around the world in the United Kingdom, United States, Argentina and New Zealand. Saint Patrick's Day is celebrated in more countries than any other national festival. Modern celebrations have been influenced by those of the Irish diaspora those that developed in North America. However, there has been criticism of Saint Patrick's Day celebrations for having become too commercialised and for fostering negative stereotypes of the Irish people. Patrick was a 5th-century Romano-British Christian bishop in Ireland. Much of what is known about Saint Patrick comes from the Declaration, written by Patrick himself, it is believed that he was born in Roman Britain in the fourth century, into a wealthy Romano-British family. His father was a deacon and his grandfather was a priest in the Christian church. According to the Declaration, at the age of sixteen, he was kidnapped by Irish raiders and taken as a slave to Gaelic Ireland, it says that he spent six years there working as a shepherd and that during this time he "found God".
The Declaration says that God told Patrick to flee to the coast, where a ship would be waiting to take him home. After making his way home, Patrick went on to become a priest. According to tradition, Patrick returned to Ireland to convert the pagan Irish to Christianity; the Declaration says that he spent many years evangelising in the northern half of Ireland and converted "thousands". Patrick's efforts against the druids were turned into an allegory in which he drove "snakes" out of Ireland, despite the fact that snakes were not known to inhabit the region. Tradition holds that he was buried at Downpatrick. Over the following centuries, many legends grew up around Patrick and he became Ireland's foremost saint. Today's St Patrick's Day celebrations have been influenced by those that developed among the Irish diaspora in North America; until the late 20th century, St Patrick's Day was a bigger celebration among the diaspora than it was in Ireland. Celebrations involve public parades and festivals, Irish traditional music sessions, the wearing of green attire or shamrocks.
There are formal gatherings such as banquets and dances, although these were more common in the past. St Patrick's Day parades began in North America in the 18th century but did not spread to Ireland until the 20th century; the participants include marching bands, the military, fire brigades, cultural organisations, charitable organisations, voluntary associations, youth groups, so on. However, over time, many of the parades have become more akin to a carnival. More effort is made to use the Irish language in Ireland, where the week of St Patrick's Day is "Irish language week". Since 2010, famous landmarks have been lit up in green on St Patrick's Day as part of Tourism Ireland's "Global Greening Initiative" or "Going Green for St Patrick´s Day"; the Sydney Opera House and the Sky Tower in Auckland were the first landmarks to participate and since over 300 landmarks in fifty countries across the globe have gone green for St Patricks day. Christians may attend church services, the Lenten restrictions on eating and drinking alcohol are lifted for the day.
Because of this, drinking alcohol – Irish whiskey, beer, or cider – has become an integral part of the celebrations. The St Patrick's Day custom of "drowning the shamrock" or "wetting the shamrock" was popular in Ireland. At the end of the celebrations, a shamrock is put into the bottom of a cup, filled with whiskey, beer, or cider, it is drunk as a toast to St Patrick, Ireland, or those present. The shamrock would either be swallowed with the drink or taken out and tossed over the shoulder for good luck. Irish Government Ministers travel abroad on official visits to various countries around the globe to celebrate St Patrick's Day and promote Ireland; the most prominent of these is the visit of the Irish Taoiseach with the U. S. President which happens on or around St Patrick's Day. Traditionally the Taoiseach presents the U. S. President a Waterford Crystal bowl filled with shamrocks; this tradition began when in 1952, Irish Ambassador to the U. S. John Hearne sent a box of shamrocks to President Harry S. Truman.
From on it became an annual tradition of the Irish ambassador to the U. S. to present the St Patrick's Day shamrock to an official in the U. S