click links in text for more info


Year 230 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Clementinus; the denomination 230 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. Emperor Alexander Severus decides, he increases taxes in order to maintain the war against the Sassanids and strengthen the defenses of the Roman Empire. King Ardashir I, ruler of the Persian Empire, invades the Roman province of Mesopotamia and unsuccessfully besieges the fortress town of Nisibis, his army threatens the border outposts of Cappadocia. Alexander Severus establishes his headquarters at Antioch, he attempts a diplomatic solution. Jobun becomes king of the Korean kingdom of Silla. July 21 – Pope Pontian succeeds Pope Urban I as the eighteenth pope. Patriarch Castinus succeeds Patriarch Ciriacus I as Patriarch of Constantinople. Seventy Bishops hold the Council of the Christian Church of Africa.

Marcus Aurelius Carus, Roman Emperor May 23 – Pope Urban I July 9 – Empress Dowager Bian, Chinese empress dowager of the Cao Wei state Naehae of Silla Zhong Yao, Chinese official and calligrapher of the Cao Wei state

Sandman (Marvel Comics)

Sandman is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. A shapeshifter endowed through an accident with the ability to turn himself into sand, he began as a villain and became an ally of Spider-Man; the character has been adapted into various other media incarnations of Spider-Man. In film, Thomas Haden Church portrays Sandman in Spider-Man 3. A creature based on "Sandman" appeared in the 2019 Marvel Cinematic Universe film Spider-Man: Far From Home, an illusion created by a series of drones operated by Mysterio. In 2009, Sandman was ranked as IGN's 72nd Greatest Comic Book Villain of All Time; the Sandman first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man #4, created by writer Stan Lee and artist Steve Ditko as an adversary of Spider-Man. The character returned in The Amazing Spider-Man #18 and #19, was soon depicted in other comics, such as The Incredible Hulk and The Fantastic Four; the Sandman served as the villain of the first issue of the Spider-Man spin-off series Marvel Team-Up, which gave him a more morally ambiguous depiction.

Writer Roy Thomas commented, "I've been pleased to see Sandman's gradual redemption, whose seeds I helped plant in that story. He just seemed to me like a character who might have that in him..." Subsequent stories stuck with the character's original depiction, but a decade the more sympathetic portrayal of the Sandman returned, starting with Marvel Two-in-One #86, in which the Sandman is given co-star billing with his nemesis the Thing. The Sandman was an ally of Spider-Man, as well as a reserve member of the Avengers and a member of Silver Sable's "Wild Pack" team of mercenaries. Besides being most notable as a Spider-Man supervillain, he has been depicted as a Fantastic Four antagonist in Stan Lee and Jack Kirby comic books along with being on the heroic side until being introduced as a tragic supervillain in the Spider-Man comics once again. William Baker was born in New York; when he was three years old, his father abandoned his mother. In these early years, she took her son to Coney Island beach.

He lost himself in sand sculptures, a craft he would use in secondary school under the encouragement of his teacher, Miss Flint. In preparatory school, a boy named Vic bullied Baker until he learned to fight using an opponents' motions against themselves, a technique he performed as if he "slipped through their fingers like sand". Vic and his buddies befriended Baker. In high school, William played on his school's football team. While playing football he adopted the nickname "Flint", after his former teacher. After Vic incurs a large gambling debt to a mobster, he begs Flint to fix a football game he bet on to pay off his debt. Flint is kicked off the team after the coach discovers his involvement; the coach taunts Baker. Flint hits his ex-coach, resulting in his expulsion from school and the beginning of his life of crime, his illegal activity increases in scope, turning him into a violent, bitter man. He ends up in prison on Ryker's Island where he meets his father, Floyd Baker, he does not tell him who he is.

He tells Floyd his nickname, a false surname, inspired by his former coach's taunts about not "making a mark" on the world. He uses the alias Flint Marko from that point on. After Floyd is released from prison, Marko escapes. Marko flees to a nuclear testing site on a beach near Savannah, Georgia where he comes into contact with sand, irradiated by an experimental reactor, his body and the radioactive sand bond, changing Marko's molecular structure into sand. Impressed, he calls himself the Sandman after his new powers. Marko clashes with Peter Parker/Spider-Man for the first time in Peter's high school. Spider-Man hands it over to the police; the Sandman escapes by getting through his window after turning himself to sand, but is recaptured by the Human Torch after the Torch lures the Sandman to a building by disguising himself as Spider-Man activating the sprinkler systems. After this Marko resurfaces as a member of the Sinister Six, led by Doctor Octopus, he battles Spider-Man inside an airtight metal box, activated when Spider-Man touches a card saying where the Vulture is, but the Sandman is defeated due to Spider-Man having stronger lungs than he does.

Alongside the Enforcers, he captures the Human Torch but succumbs to Spider-Man and the Human Torch. After Spider-Man defeats Flint numerous times, Flint diverts his attention to other superheroes, he teams with the Wizard, Paste Pot Pete and Medusa to form the Frightful Four to combat the Fantastic Four, which attacks during Reed and Sue's engagement party. The Fantastic Four, with the help of a few other superheroes, defeat the group. In another battle, in which he teams up with Blastaar and loses against the Four, he dons a diamond-patterned green costume designed by Wizard, he and Hulk dueled for the first time. Mandarin joins him in his next conflict against the Hulk. In time Sandman discovers—-starting with his hands—-that his body can transform into glass and back again, he takes over a medical research center, battling the Hulk again. He is cured of his cancer by radiation. Afterward, he allies himself with Hydro-Man to battle their mutual enemy

Adjusted RevPAR

Adjusted RevPAR, is a performance metric used in the hospitality industry. It is calculated by dividing the variable net revenues of a property by the total available rooms; the difference between ARPAR and other metrics is that it accounts for variable costs and additional revenues. Various formulas can be used to calculate ARPAR / Total Number of rooms available for sale x Occupancy / where VarCPOR is Variable Costs per Occupied Room The most used formula is: ARPAR = x Occupancy ARPAR accounts for variable costs and additional revenues, thus it reflects the profit versus top line revenue. GOPPAR is retroactive. ARPAR can be used in forecasts. There is no standard formula for CPOR in the industry and no standardization in regards to separating variable costs from fixed, which requires approximation when calculating VarCPOR. However, these calculations are only performed once. Due to the above, ARPAR of each individual property can not be compared to others and is intended for internal use only

Al-Kasom Regional Council

Al-Kasom Regional Council is one of two Negev Bedouin regional councils formed as a result of the split of the Abu Basma Regional Council on November 5, 2012. Al-Kasom regional council is in the northwestern Negev desert of Israel, it is made up of seven recognized Bedouin communities: Tirabin al-Sana, Umm Batin, al-Sayyid, Makhul and Drijat. The overall population is over 20,000. There are Bedouin living in unrecognized villages whose exact number is unknown; the al-Kasom Regional Council, as well as Neve Midbar Regional Council are the main arena for the implementation of the Prawer Plan, shelved in 2013. Prior to the establishment of Israel, the Negev Bedouins were a semi-nomadic pastoralist society undergoing a process of sedentariness since the Ottoman rule of the region. During the British Mandate period, the administration did not provide a legal framework to justify and preserve lands’ ownership. In order to settle this issue, Israel's land policy was adapted to a large extent from the Ottoman land regulations of 1858 as the only preceding legal frame.

Thus Israel nationalized most of the Negev lands using the state's land regulations from 1969 and designated most of it for military and national security purposes. The 1948 UN Partition Plan, accepted by the Jewish leaders, envisaged most of the Negev as part of a planned Arab state, with the Jewish State of Israel situated to the north in areas with an existing Jewish majority. However, after the rejection of the UN plan by the united Arab nations, their subsequent declaration of war on Israel, their eventual defeat in the 1948 Palestine war, the Negev became part of Israel and the Negev Bedouin became Israeli citizens; the new Israeli government continued the policy of sedentarization of Negev Bedouins imposed by the Ottoman authorities in the early 20th century, mirroring developments in nearby Arab nations. Early stages of this process included regulation of open lands used for grazing and re-location of Bedouin tribes. In the decades after the war of independence, the Israeli government was concerned about the allegiance of the Negev Bedouin to the new State, thus re-located two-thirds of the southern Bedouin population into a closed area under the authority of the IDF.

This situation was maintained until the late 1970s. Starting in the 1980s the civilian government took back control of the northern Negev Bedouin from the IDF and began to establish purpose-built townships for Bedouins in order to sedentarize and urbanize them, to allow for the provision of government services; the government promoted these towns as offering better living conditions, proper infrastructure and access to public services in health and sanitation. The new development towns constructed by the state in the 1980s absorbed a large proportion of the Negev Bedouin population but were unable to handle the entire Bedouin population, their reputation for crime and poor economy, together with a cultural preference for rural life, caused many Israeli Bedouin to shun these towns in favour of rural villages unapproved by the State. Today, the government estimates that about 60% of Bedouin citizens of Israel live in permanently planned towns, while the rest live in unrecognised villages spread throughout the Negev.

These villages are considered illegal under Israeli law, their legal status, coupled with their periodic demolition and evacuation by police, is the subject of considerable debate. In 2003, the government decided to establish a new regional council, known as the Abu Basma Regional Council, in order to oversee the resettlement and development of Bedouin communities in the area around Be'er Sheva and Arad; this was coupled by the formal recognition of a number of existing Bedouin villages within the council in order to encourage Bedouin to move from other unrecognised/illegal villages elsewhere in the Negev. The council was established by the Israeli Ministry of Interior on 28 January 2004. At the time, the regional council had a population of 30,000 Bedouins and a total land area of 34,000 dunams, making it the most populous regional council in the Southern District but the smallest in jurisdiction. There was considerable controversy within the Bedouin community regarding the establishment of this council.

The Regional Council of Unrecognized Villages argued that while the creation of the Abu Basma Regional Council would set a precedent for the transformation of unrecognized villages into urban ghettos by limiting their boundaries to the area of habitation and zoning most Bedouin grazing grounds. In September 2011, the Israeli government approved a five-year economic development plan called the Prawer plan. One of its implications is a relocation of some 30.000-40.000 Negev Bedouin from areas not recognized by the government to government-approved townships. The plan is based on a proposal developed by a team headed by Ehud Prawer, head of policy planning in the Prime Minister's Office; this proposal was based on the recommendations of the committee chaired by retired Supreme Court Justice Eliezer Goldberg. Maj.-Gen. Doron Almog was appointed as the head of the staff to implement the plan to provide status for the Bedouin communities in the Negev. Minister Benny Begin was appointed by the cabinet to coordinate public and Bedouin populati

The House I Live In (1945 film)

The House I Live In is a ten-minute short film written by Albert Maltz, produced by Frank Ross and Mervyn LeRoy, starring Frank Sinatra. Made to oppose anti-Semitism at the end of World War II, it received an Honorary Academy Award and a special Golden Globe Award in 1946. In 2007, this film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". Sinatra playing himself, takes a break from a recording session and steps outside to smoke a cigarette, he sees more than ten boys chasing a Jewish boy and intervenes, first with dialogue with a short speech. His main points are that we are "all" Americans and that one American's blood is as good as another's and that all our religions are to be respected equally; the song appeared in the musical revue Let Freedom Sing, which opened on Broadway on October 5, 1942. Brooks Atkinson wrote in The New York Times: "Although Mordecai Bauman does not sing it well, he sings it with earnest sincerity, without feeling that he must imitate youth by blasting the voice amplifying system and cutting a rug."

In the film, Sinatra sings the title song. His recording became a national hit; the music was written by Earl Robinson. Robinson was blacklisted during the McCarthy era for being a member of the Communist Party, he wrote campaign songs for the presidential campaigns of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Henry A. Wallace, and, in 1984, Jesse Jackson; the lyrics were written in 1943 by Abel Meeropol under the pen name Lewis Allan. In 1957, Meeropol adopted two boys and Robert, orphaned when their parents Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were executed in 1953. Meeropol was enraged; when the film premiered, he protested against the deletion of the verse referring to "my neighbors white and black". The song was covered in years by Paul Robeson, Mahalia Jackson, Josh White. Sam Cooke covered it. Kim Weston included it on her second post-Motown album This Is America. Sinatra continued to include it in his repertory for decades, he performed it during a state dinner at the White House during the Nixon administration, at the 1985 inaugural ceremonies of Ronald Reagan, at the ceremony marking the centenary of the Statue of Liberty that same year.

Bill Cosby used a recording of the song to open some of his shows in 2002. The song figures prominently in Arch Oboler's radio play The House I Live In, which aired on April 26, 1945. Don't Be a Sucker The House I Live In on IMDb The short film The House I Live In is available for free download at the Internet Archive Song Facts

Alice K├Ânig

Alice König lectures in Latin and Classical Studies and is Director of the Centre for the Literatures of the Roman Empire at the University of St Andrews. König studied for her BA and MPhil at King's College and her PhD at St. John's College, Cambridge, she was the chair of the research network for Literary Interactions under Nerva, Trajan & Hadrian, a British Academy funded project, is now co-running a research project on Visualising War: Interplay between Battle Narratives in Ancient and Modern Cultures. König is a member of the Young Academy of Scotland established by the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 2011, in 2018 she was elected as co-chair 2019-2020; the organisation provides mid-career professionals with a platform to challenge social issues in Scotland and the wider world. König is involved in YAS projects on Responsible Debate and the future of tertiary education in Scotland, she has written for The Scotsman, serves on the Royal Society of Edinburgh's Human Rights Committee, is a Community Ambassador for the charity Book Aid International.

König has appeared on the BBC Radio 4 In Our Time panel as an expert on "Agrippina the Younger", "Pliny the Younger" and "Vitruvius' De Architectura". König and Whitton, Christopher Roman Literature under Nerva and Trajan: literary interactions, AD 96-138 König, Alice'Reading Civil War in Frontinus' Strategemata: a case study for Flavian Literary Studies', in After 69 CE: Writing Civil War in Flavian Rome. Ed. / Lauren Donovan Ginsberg. Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, ISBN 978-3868211818 König, Alice, "Knowledge and power in Frontinus' On Aqueducts", in König, Jason.