Convoy Hi-81 was the designation for a formation of Japanese transports that carried soldiers bound for Singapore and the Philippines during World War II. The transports were escorted by a large force of surface combatants including the escort carriers Shinyo and Akitsu Maru which were sunk in the Yellow Sea by American submarines. Over the course of a four-day convoy battle in November 1944 nearly 7,000 Japanese were killed in action while the Americans sustained no casualties. Convoy Hi-81 was under the command of Rear Admiral Tsutomu Sato of the Eighth Escort Fleet in the escort ship Etorofu. Shinyo was commanded by Captain Shizue Ishii and the Akitsu Maru was serving as an aircraft ferry in the convoy; the other Japanese vessels known to have taken part in the mission was the seaplane tender Kiyokawa Maru, the destroyer Kashi, the escort ships Tsushima, Kume, Shonan, CD No. 9 and CD No. 61. There was the submarine chaser No. 156, five oilers, Arita Maru, Toa Maru, Hishidate Maru, Marii Maru, Otowasan Maru and three landing craft depot ships, Shinshu Maru, Kibitsu Maru and Mayasan Maru.
The landing craft depot ships were carrying hundreds of men and supplies of the Imperial Japanese Army 23rd Division from Manchuria and were directed to separate from the main convoy at Mako and reinforce the Japanese army engaged in the Philippines Campaign. The rest of the convoy would continue on to Singapore. Convoy Hi-81 left Imari Bay, Japan on November 14, 1944. Rear Admiral Sato led his fleet southwest into the Yellow Sea so as to travel south along the occupied Chinese coast and that of occupied French Indochina. After stopping for the night in Ukishima Channel, off the Gotō Islands, Hi-81 proceeded on but soon came under attack. United States Navy code breakers had informed Vice Admiral Charles A. Lockwood of the convoy only a few days prior to November 14 and he sent two submarine "wolfpacks" to the Yellow Sea. One was under the other under Commander Charles E. Loughlin. Underwood's pack included the USS Spadefish, the Peto and the Sunfish; the other three submarines were the Picuda and Barb.
Commander Loughlin's pack was the first to make contact with the Japanese. At about 11:50 am on November 15, the Queenfish was lined up for a torpedo attack on the carrier Akitsu Maru and six minutes the aircraft carrier was hit by two torpedoes; the torpedoes had hit aft and amidship on the port side, detonating the magazine and causing the vessel to keel over and sink in three minutes at position 33-17'N, 32-00'E. The attack killed 2,046 men. In response Captain Ishii launched some of his twenty-seven depth charge-equipped Nakajima B5N torpedo bombers to search for the Queenfish but she got away; the USS Barb, under Lieutenant Commander Eugene B. Fluckey, is credited with making an unsuccessful attack the same day on Junyo though she was not part of Convoy Hi-81 and was in company with three other ships, one a cruiser; because of this some American accounts cite Junyo as having been sunk. After the sinking of Akitsu Maru, on November 16 Rear Admiral Tsutomu headed for Strange Island off the coast of Korea to shelter there for the day.
Meanwhile, at Moji, Convoy Mi-27 left port with orders to catch up with Convoy Hi-81 and remain near it at all times. Mi-27 included five escorts and eight transports led by CD 134. None of these vessels would make it to the battle area in time. At 8:00 am on November 17, the Hi-81 proceeded on for the Shushan Islands near Shanghai. At 12:15 one American Boeing B-29 Superfortress was spotted at position 34-08'N, 125-39'E, it dropped a bomb on the convoy but missed and the aircraft was chased away by torpedo bombers from the Shinyo. The B-29 reported the convoy's position to command. Several hours at 4:15 pm the landing ship Mayasan Maru exploded directly in front of the Shinyo just as Captain Ishii was landing his last air patrol for the day, it had been hit by at least one torpedo from USS Picuda. Mayasan sank with a loss of 3,437 men killed. Twelve hours 200 kilometers off Saishu Island, Spadefish surfaced and attacked the Shinyo with six torpedoes. Four struck the carrier on the starboard at 11:03 pm, it caught fire.
At least 1,130 Japanese sailors went down with their ship. Kashi dropped several depth charges where the Spadefish was thought to be. An oil slick and other debris made the Japanese believe they had sunk Spadefish so the Kashi broke off the engagement, but Spadefish had escaped without serious damage. Only minor cracks were reported to have appeared on the submarine after the alleged "sinking" by Kashi. Commander Underwood surfaced an hour for another attack and as soon as his ship was out of the water the submarine chaser No. 156 was spotted. Spadefish fired four torpedoes. Commander Underwood submerged again; the Japanese were unaware that the Shinyo had been sunk and that men were in the water until sometime after 2:20 am on November 18 when the commander of Convoy Mi-27 ordered the CD 61 to locate and assist the Shinyo. The Tsushima was nearby and at 4:26 am her commander reported having sunk an enemy submarine with fifteen depth charges due to the sighting of an oil slick, it proved to be an inconclusive contact.
The Americans had sunk around 40,000 tons altogether. Due to the sinking of four ships and the loss of thousands of men, Admiral Sato stopped the convoy in Raffle's Island anchorage near Shanghai to wait for his escorts to finish their rescue operations, it wasn't until November 21 that the convoy headed for Mako, which they
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Inner Mongolia or Nei Mongol the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region, is one of the autonomous regions of the People's Republic of China, located in the north of the country. Its border includes most of the length of China's border with Mongolia; the rest of the Sino–Mongolian border coincides with part of the international border of the Xinjiang autonomous region and the entirety of the international border of Gansu province and a small section of China's border with Russia. Its capital is Hohhot; the Autonomous Region was established in 1947, incorporating the areas of the former Republic of China provinces of Suiyuan, Rehe and Xing'an, along with the northern parts of Gansu and Ningxia. Its area makes it the third largest Chinese subdivision, constituting 1,200,000 km2 and 12% of China's total land area, it recorded a population of 24,706,321 in the 2010 census, accounting for 1.84% of Mainland China's total population. Inner Mongolia is the country's 23rd most populous province-level division.
The majority of the population in the region are Han Chinese, with a sizeable titular Mongol minority. The official languages are Mandarin and Mongolian, the latter of, written in the traditional Mongolian script, as opposed to the Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet, used in the state of Mongolia. In Chinese, the region is known as "Inner Mongolia", where the terms of "Inner/Outer" are derived from Manchu dorgi/tulergi. Inner Mongolia is distinct from Outer Mongolia, a term used by the Republic of China and previous governments to refer to what is now the independent state of Mongolia plus the Republic of Tuva in Russia; the term Inner 内 referred to the Nei Fan 内藩, i.e. those descendants of Genghis Khan who granted the title khan in Ming and Qing dynasties and lived in part of southern part of Mongolia. In Mongolian, the region was called Dotugadu monggol during Qing rule and was renamed into Öbür Monggol in 1947, öbür meaning the southern side of a mountain, while the Chinese term Nei Menggu was retained.
Much of what is known about the history of Greater Mongolia, including Inner Mongolia, is known through Chinese chronicles and historians. Before the rise of the Mongols in the 13th century, what is now central and western Inner Mongolia the Hetao region, alternated in control between Chinese agriculturalists in the south and Xiongnu, Khitan, Jurchen and nomadic Mongol of the north; the historical narrative of what is now Eastern Inner Mongolia consists of alternations between different Tungusic and Mongol tribes, rather than the struggle between nomads and Chinese agriculturalists. Slab Grave cultural monuments are found in northern and eastern Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, north-western China, central-eastern and southern Baikal territory. Mongolian scholars prove. During the Zhou dynasty and western Inner Mongolia were inhabited by nomadic peoples such as the Loufan, Dí, while eastern Inner Mongolia was inhabited by the Donghu. During the Warring States period, King Wuling of the state of Zhao based in what is now Hebei and Shanxi provinces pursued an expansionist policy towards the region.
After destroying the Dí state of Zhongshan in what is now Hebei province, he defeated the Linhu and Loufan and created the commandery of Yunzhong near modern Hohhot. King Wuling of Zhao built a long wall stretching through the Hetao region. After Qin Shi Huang created the first unified Chinese empire in 221 BC, he sent the general Meng Tian to drive the Xiongnu from the region, incorporated the old Zhao wall into the Qin dynasty Great Wall of China, he maintained two commanderies in the region: Jiuyuan and Yunzhong, moved 30,000 households there to solidify the region. After the Qin dynasty collapsed in 206 BC, these efforts were abandoned. During the Western Han dynasty, Emperor Wu sent the general Wei Qing to reconquer the Hetao region from the Xiongnu in 127 BC. After the conquest, Emperor Wu continued the policy of building settlements in Hetao to defend against the Xiong-Nu. In that same year he established the commanderies of Wuyuan in Hetao. At the same time, what is now eastern Inner Mongolia was controlled by the Xianbei, who would on eclipse the Xiongnu in power and influence.
During the Eastern Han dynasty, Xiongnu who surrendered to the Han dynasty began to be settled in Hetao, intermingled with the Han immigrants in the area. On during the Western Jin dynasty, it was a Xiongnu noble from Hetao, Liu Yuan, who established the Han Zhao kingdom in the region, thereby beginning the Sixteen Kingdoms period that saw the disintegration of northern China under a variety of Han and non-Han regimes; the Sui dynasty and Tang dynasty re-established a unified Chinese empire, like their predecessors, they conquered and settled people into Hetao, though once again these efforts were aborted when the Tang empire began to collapse. Hetao was taken over by the Khitan Empire, founded by the Khitans, a nomadic people from what is no
Imperial Japanese Army
The Imperial Japanese Army was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945. It was controlled by the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office and the Ministry of the Army, both of which were nominally subordinate to the Emperor of Japan as supreme commander of the army and the navy. An Inspectorate General of Aviation became the third agency with oversight of the army. During wartime or national emergencies, the nominal command functions of the emperor would be centralized in an Imperial General Headquarters, an ad-hoc body consisting of the chief and vice chief of the Army General Staff, the Minister of the Army, the chief and vice chief of the Naval General Staff, the Inspector General of Aviation, the Inspector General of Military Training. In the mid-19th century, Japan had no unified national army and the country was made up of feudal domains with the Tokugawa shogunate in overall control, which had ruled Japan since 1603; the bakufu army, although large force, was only one among others, bakufu efforts to control the nation depended upon the cooperation of its vassals' armies.
The opening of the country after two centuries of seclusion subsequently led to the Meiji Restoration and the Boshin War in 1868. The domains of Satsuma and Chōshū came to dominate the coalition against the shogunate. On 27 January 1868, tensions between the shogunate and imperial sides came to a head when Tokugawa Yoshinobu marched on Kyoto, accompanied by a 15,000-strong force consisting of troops, trained by French military advisers, they were opposed by 5,000 troops from the Satsuma, Chōshū, Tosa domains. At the two road junctions of Toba and Fushimi just south of Kyoto, the two forces clashed. On the second day, an Imperial banner was given to the defending troops and a relative of the Emperor, Ninnajinomiya Yoshiaki, was named nominal commander in chief, in effect making the pro-imperial forces an Imperial army; the bafuku forces retreated to Osaka, with the remaining forces ordered to retreat to Edo. Yoshinobu and his closest advisors left for Edo by ship; the encounter at Toba–Fushimi between the imperial and shogunate forces marked the beginning of the conflict.
With the court in Kyoto behind the Satsuma-Chōshū-Tosa coalition, other domains that were sympathetic to the cause—such as Tottori and Hizen —emerged to take a more active role in military operations. Western domains that had either supported the shogunate or remained neutral quickly announced their support of the restoration movement; the nascent Meiji state required a new military command for its operations against the shogunate. In 1868, the "Imperial Army" being just a loose amalgam of domain armies, the government created four military divisions: the Tōkaidō, Tōsandō, San'indō, Hokurikudō, each of, named for a major highway. Overseeing these four armies was a new high command, the Eastern Expeditionary High Command, whose nominal head was prince Arisugawa-no-miya, with two court nobles as senior staff officers; this connected the loose assembly of domain forces with the imperial court, the only national institution in a still unformed nation-state. The army continually emphasized its link with the imperial court: firstly.
To supply food and other supplies for the campaign, the imperial government established logistical relay stations along three major highways. These small depots held stockpiled material supplied by local pro-government domains, or confiscated from the bafuku and others opposing the imperial government. Local villagers were impressed as porters to move and deliver supplies between the depots and frontline units; the new army fought under makeshift arrangements, with unclear channels of command and control and no reliable recruiting base. Although fighting for the imperial cause, many of the units were loyal to their domains rather than the imperial court. In March 1869, the imperial government created various administrative offices, including a military branch; the imperial court told the domains to restrict the size of their local armies and to contribute to funding a national officers' training school in Kyoto. However, within a few months the government disbanded both the military branch and the imperial bodyguard: the former was ineffective while the latter lacked modern weaponry and equipment.
To replace them, two new organizations were created. One was the military affairs directorate, composed of two bureaus, one for the army and one for the navy; the directorate drafted an army from troop contributions from each domain proportional to each domain's annual rice production. This conscript army integrated samurai and commoners from various domains into its ranks; as the war continued, the military affairs directorate expected to raise troops from the wealthier domains and, in June, the organization of the army was fixed, where each domain was required to send ten men for each 10,000 koku of rice produced. However, this policy put the imperial government in direct competition with the domains for military recruitment, not rectified until April 1868, when the government banned the domains from enlisting troops; the quota system never worked as intended an
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Japanese Fourteenth Area Army
The Japanese Fourteenth Army was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II. On July 28, 1944 it was reinforced and upgraded to a field army called the Japanese Fourteenth Area Army, to counter the imminent Allied invasion of the Philippines by combined American and Filipino troops; the Japanese 14th Army was formed on November 6, 1941, under the Southern Expeditionary Army Group for the specific task of invading and occupying the Philippines. It consisted of the IJA 16th Division, 48th Division, 56th Division, 65th Independent Mixed Infantry Brigade. In January 1942, the 48th Division was detached and reassigned to the Japanese Sixteenth Army for the invasion of the Netherlands East Indies, was replaced with Fourth Division; as the army was still fighting in the Philippines, its commanding officer, Lieutenant General Masaharu Homma, requested more reinforcements. The 10th Independent Garrison was sent to the Philippines as was the 21st Division Infantry Group, the First Field Artillery Headquarters to command the field artillery units.
The Fourth and Seventh Tank Regiments were part of the 14th Army as well as First, Eighth and 16th Field Artillery Regiments and the 9th Independent Field Artillery Battalion. This army was responsible for the Bataan Death March after the surrender of US and Filipino forces in Bataan, the 65th Independent Brigade was accused of the Mariveles Massacre; the 14th Army came under the direct control of Imperial General Headquarters in June, 1942. In August 1942, Homma was replaced by Lieutenant General Shizuichi Tanaka. In July, 1942, the IJA Fourth Division came under control of the 14th Army, as did the IJA 30th Division, assigned to the defense of Mindanao; as the war situation continued to deteriorate for Japan, Allied forces prepared to invade the Philippines, the 14th Army restructured its independent infantry brigades and reserves to form the new IJA 100th Division, IJA 102nd Division, IJA 103rd Division, IJA 105th Divisions. In March, 1944, the 14th Army reverted to the control of the Southern Expeditionary Army Group.
On July 28, 1944, the Japanese 14th Army became the Japanese 14th Area Army. Two more divisions arrived in August 1944 as reinforcements, in August, the Japanese 35th Army came under its control. On October 10, 1944, General Tomoyuki Yamashita assumed the command of the 14th Area Army to defend the Philippines. In the various battles of the Philippines campaign against combined American and Philippine Commonwealth armed forces in Leyte and parts of Luzon, the Japanese 14th Area Army suffered over 350,000 casualties, including all of the 18,000 men of the 16th Infantry Division in the Battle of Leyte. Troops of the 14th Area Army were responsible for the Palawan Massacre of December 14, 1944. Japanese 14th Area Army 1st Infantry Division 10th Infantry Division 19th Infantry Division 23rd Infantry Division 26th Infantry Division 103rd Infantry Division 105th Infantry Division 2nd Tank Division 4th Air Division IJA 1st Special Forces Division 68th Independent Infantry Brigade 55th Independent Mixed Brigade 58th Independent Mixed Brigade Japanese 35th Army 16th Infantry Division 30th Infantry Division 100th Infantry Division 102nd Infantry Division 54th Independent Mixed Brigade Japanese 41st Army 8th Infantry Division 39th Independent Mixed Brigade 65th Independent Infantry Brigade 9th Artillery Headquarters Breuer, William B..
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