People's Army of Vietnam
The People's Army of Vietnam known as the Vietnamese People's Army, is the military force of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The PAVN is a part of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces and includes: Ground Force, Air Force, Border Defence Force, Coast Guard. However, Vietnam does not have a separate Ground Army branch. All ground troops, army corps, military districts and specialised arms belong to the Ministry of Defence, directly under the command of the Central Military Commission, the Minister of Defence, the General Staff of the Vietnam People's Army; the military flag of the PAVN is the flag of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, with the words Quyết thắng added in yellow at the top left. During the French Indochina War, the PAVN was referred to as the Việt Minh. In the context of the Vietnam War, the army was referred to as the North Vietnamese Army; this allowed writers, the U. S. military, the general public, to distinguish northern communists from the southern communists, or Viet Cong.
However, both groups worked under the same command structure. The Viet Cong was considered a branch of the VPA by the North Vietnamese. In 2010 the PAVN undertook the role of leading the 1,000th Anniversary Parade in Hanoi by performing their biggest parade in history, it is recognized as one of the most battle-hardened and best trained militaries in Asia. The first historical record of Vietnamese military history dates back on the era of Hồng Bàng, the first recorded state in ancient Vietnam to have assembled military force. Since military plays a crucial role on developing Vietnamese history due to its turbulent history of wars against China, Cambodia and Thailand; the Southern expansion of Vietnam resulted with the destruction of Champa as an independent nation to a level that it didn't exist anymore. In most of its history, the Royal Vietnamese Armed Forces was regarded to be one of the most professional, battle-hardened and trained armies in Southeast Asia as well as Asia in a large extent.
The PAVN was first conceived in September 1944 at the first Revolutionary Party Military Conference as "armed propaganda brigades" to educate and mobilise the Vietnamese to create a main force to drive the French colonial and Japanese occupiers from Vietnam. Under the guidelines of Hồ Chí Minh, Võ Nguyên Giáp was given the task of establishing the brigades and the Armed Propaganda Unit for National Liberation came into existence on 22 December 1944; the first formation was made up of thirty one men and three women, armed with two revolvers, seventeen rifles, one light machine gun, fourteen breech-loading flintlocks. The United States' OSS agents, led by Archimedes Patti –, sometimes referred as the founding father of the PAVN due to his role, had provided ammunitions as well as logistic intelligence and equipments and they had helped training these soldiers, become the vital backbone of the Vietnamese military to fight the Japanese occupiers as well as the future wars; the group was renamed the "Vietnam Liberation Army" in May 1945.
In September, the army was again renamed the "Vietnam National Defence Army". At this point, it had about 1,000 soldiers. In 1950, it became the People's Army of Vietnam. Võ Nguyên Giáp went on to become the first full general of the VPA on 28 May 1948, famous for leading the PAVN in victory over French forces at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954 and being in overall command against U. S. backed South Vietnam at the Fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. On 7 January 1947, its first regiment, the 102nd'Capital' Regiment, was created for operations around Hanoi. Over the next two years, the first division, the 308th Division well known as the Pioneer Division, was formed from the 88th Tu Vu Regiment and the 102nd Capital Regiment. By late 1950 the 308th Division had a full three infantry regiments, when it was supplemented by the 36th Regiment. At that time, the 308th Division was backed by the 11th Battalion that became the main force of the 312th Division. In late 1951, after launching three campaigns against three French strongpoints in the Red River Delta, the PAVN refocused on building up its ground forces further, with five new divisions, each of 10–15,000 men, created: the 304th Glory Division at Thanh Hóa, the 312th Victory Division in Vinh Phuc, the 316th Bong Lau Division in the northwest border region, the 320th Delta Division in the north Red River Delta, the 325th Binh Tri Thien Division in Binh Tri Thien province.
In 1951, the first artillery Division, the 351st Division was formed, before Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954, for the first time in history, it was equipped by 24 captured 105mm US howitzers supplied by the Chinese People's Liberation Army. The first six divisions became known as Iron' divisions. In 1954 four of these divisions defeated the French Union forces at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, ending 83 years of French rule in Indochina. Soon after the 1954 Geneva Accords, the 330th and 338th Divisions were formed by southern Vietminh members who had moved north in conformity with that agreement, by 1955, six more divisions were formed: the 328th, 332nd, 350th in the north of the DRV, the 305th and the 324th near the DMZ, the 335 Division of soldiers repatriated from Laos. In 1957, the theatres of the war with the French were reorganis
Battle of Ban Me Thuot
The Battle of Ban Me Thuot was a decisive battle of the Vietnam War which led to the complete destruction of South Vietnam's II Corps Tactical Zone. The battle was part of a larger North Vietnamese military operation known as Campaign 275 to capture the Tay Nguyen region, known in the West as the Vietnamese Central Highlands. In March 1975 the People's Army of Vietnam 4th Corps staged a large-scale offensive, known as Campaign 275, with the aim of capturing the Central Highlands from the Army of the Republic of Vietnam in order to kick-start the first stage of the 1975 Spring Offensive. Within ten days, the North Vietnamese destroyed most ARVN military formations in II Corps Tactical Zone, exposing the severe weaknesses of the South Vietnamese military. For South Vietnam, the defeat at Ban Me Thuot and the disastrous evacuation from the Central Highlands came about as a result of two major mistakes. Firstly, in the days leading up to the assault on Ban Me Thuot, ARVN Major General Pham Van Phu ignored intelligence which showed the presence of several PAVN divisions around the district.
Secondly, President Nguyen Van Thieu's strategy to withdraw from the Central Highlands was poorly planned and implemented. In the end, it was the ordinary South Vietnamese soldiers and their families who paid the ultimate price, as North Vietnamese artillery destroyed much of the South Vietnamese military convoy on Route 7. At the beginning of 1975, members of the North Vietnamese Political Bureau paid close attention to the military situation in South Vietnam to plan for their next major offensive. On January 8, two days after the PAVN 4th Corps had captured Phuoc Long on the northern edges of South Vietnam's III Corps Tactical Zone, North Vietnamese leaders agreed to launch an all-out military offensive, in order to win the war; the North Vietnamese leaders expected the campaign would last two years, be completed in 1976, pave the way for final victory. Their key objectives were to bring military pressure closer to Saigon, annihilate as many South Vietnamese military units as possible, create favourable conditions on the battlefield so that combat forces could be deployed from their current localities.
Following extensive discussions on the fighting ability of the ARVN, the Political Bureau approved the General Staff's plan, which had selected the Central Highlands as the main battlefield for the upcoming offensive. The Central Highlands campaign was codenamed ‘Campaign 275’ and the goal was to capture the city of Ban Me Thuot. To achieve that objective, PAVN General Văn Tiến Dũng placed great emphasis on the principles of massed force and surprise to draw South Vietnamese forces away from the main objective. For the element of surprise to be successful, PAVN forces needed to launch strong diversionary attacks on Pleiku and Kon Tum, thereby leaving Ban Me Thuot exposed. Once the element of surprise had been achieved, the PAVN would mass their forces on Ban Me Thuot, prevent South Vietnamese reinforcements from retaking the city. In March 1975 the PAVN Central Highlands Front, under the command of General Hoang Minh Thao, were given the responsibility of carrying out Campaign 275 to capture key objectives in the Central Highlands.
Major General Vu Lang was the deputy commander, Colonel Dang Vu Hiep was appointed the Front's political commissar, Colonel Phi Trieu Ham was the deputy political commissar. The Central Highlands Front fielded four independent regiments. To support the aforementioned units, North Vietnam deployed the 273rd Armoured Regiment, two artillery units, three air-defence units, two combat engineer units, the 29th Communications Regiment. Between February 17 and February 19, 1975, PAVN field commanders in the Central Highlands Front held a conference to plan for their upcoming offensive. In order to plan their combat strategy, PAVN commanders assessed the potential obstacles faced by the PAVN and the strength of the ARVN in the Central Highlands. Following extensive discussions, PAVN commanders concluded that the ARVN in the Central Highlands could mobilise about 5–7 regiment-sized units to counter the upcoming offensive. In the worst-case scenario, if ARVN units were not tied up elsewhere, North Vietnamese commanders thought that the ARVN could mobilise between nine and twelve regiments.
North Vietnamese commanders believed the ARVN could deploy about one or two armoured brigades, three to five battalions of artillery, 80 aircraft per day to support the army. The North Vietnamese commanders within the Central Highlands Front discussed the possibility of the United States re-entering the conflict, which they believed would see the commitment of about 100 fighter-bombers from the United States Seventh Fleet. Aside from dealing with the ARVN formations which South Vietnam might have deployed, the question of where and when to strike was the main problem that concerned the North Vietnamese. After the strength of both armies had been taken into account, the Central Highlands High Command came up with two offensive options. In the first option, the PAVN could avoid the outlying ARVN installations and strike directly at their primary target of Ban Me Thuot. For the first option to be successful, the PAVN had to secure Highways 14, 19, 21 to isolate Ban Me Thuot, stop potential ARVN reinforcements.
The North Vietnamese favoured the first option, because it would give the ARVN 23rd Infantry Division and other support units little or no time to respond. At the same time, the first option would have enabled a quick victory without infl
173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team
The 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team is an airborne infantry brigade combat team of the United States Army based in Vicenza, Italy. It is the United States European Command's conventional airborne strategic response force for Europe. Activated in 1915, as the 173rd Infantry Brigade, the unit saw service in World War II but is best known for its actions during the Vietnam War; the brigade was the first major United States Army ground formation deployed in Vietnam, serving there from 1965 to 1971 and losing 1,800 soldiers. Noted for its roles in Operation Hump and Operation Junction City, the 173d is best known for the Battle of Dak To, where it suffered heavy casualties in close combat with North Vietnamese forces. Brigade members received including more than 6,000 Purple Hearts; the brigade returned to the United States in 1972, where the 1st and 2d Battalion, 503d Infantry, were absorbed into the 3d Brigade, 101st Airborne Division, the 3d Battalion, 319th Field Artillery was reassigned to Division Artillery in the 101st.
The remaining units of the 173d were inactivated. Since its reactivation in 2000, the brigade served five tours in the Middle East in support of the War on Terror; the 173d participated in the initial invasion of Iraq during Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003, had four tours in Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom in 2005–06, 2007–08, 2009–10, 2012–13. The brigade returned most from a deployment stretching from late 2013 to late 2014; the 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team has received 21 campaign streamers and several unit awards, including the Presidential Unit Citation for its actions during the Battle of Dak To during the Vietnam War. The 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team serves as the conventional airborne strategic response force for Europe, it was a subordinate unit of the U. S. Army's V Corps and after June 2013, subordinate to US Army Europe; the 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team consists of 3,300 soldiers in seven subordinate battalions as well as a headquarters company: Headquarters and Headquarters Company 1st Battalion, 503rd Infantry Regiment 2nd Battalion, 503rd Infantry Regiment 1st Battalion, 143rd Infantry Regiment, associated unit 1st Squadron, 91st Cavalry Regiment 4th Battalion, 319th Field Artillery Regiment 54th Brigade Engineer Battalion 173rd Support BattalionAll of these units are airborne qualified, making the 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team the only separate airborne brigade in the United States Army.
In August 2016 the 1st Battalion, 143rd Infantry Regiment became part of the brigade under the Army's Associated Unit Pilot Program. The 173rd Infantry Brigade was constituted on 5 August 1917 as an infantry brigade and organized on 25 August at Camp Pike, Arkansas, as an element of the 87th Division along with the 174th Infantry Brigade; the brigade deployed to France along with the rest of the division in September 1918, but it did not participate in any campaigns and never saw combat, instead being utilized as a pool of laborers and reinforcements for frontline units. Four months the brigade returned to the United States, was demobilized with the rest of the division in January 1919 at Camp Dix, New Jersey. On 24 June 1921, the unit was reconstituted as the Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 173rd Infantry Brigade, was assigned to the Organized Reserve Corps and the 87th Division at Shreveport, Louisiana, it was reorganized in December 1921 at Mobile, redesignated on 23 March 1925 as the HHC 173rd Brigade, redesignated as HHC 173rd Infantry Brigade on 24 August 1936.
During World War II, brigades were eliminated from divisions. The HHC 173rd Infantry Brigade was designated as the 87th Reconnaissance Troop in February 1942 and activated on 15 December 1942. Though the brigade in name did not exist during the war, the redesignation meant that it carried the lineage of the 87th Reconnaissance Troop, when the brigade was reactivated, it would include the troop's lineage and campaign streamers; the troop fought in three European campaigns. The maneuver battalions of the Vietnam era 173rd trace their lineage to the 503rd Parachute Infantry Regiment, which assaulted the fortress island of Corregidor in the Philippines by parachute and waterborne operations, thereby earning the nickname "The Rock". After the war, the troop reverted to reserve status and was posted at Birmingham, Alabama from 1947 until 1951. On 1 December 1951, the troop was inactivated and released from its assignment to the 87th Infantry Division. From 1961 to 1963, the Army began reorganizing its force so that each division would have a similar structure, which would vary depending on the type of division it was.
This move was called the Reorganization Objective Army Division plan. The plan eliminated regiments but reintroduced brigades to the Army's structure, allowing three brigades to a division; the reorganization allowed for the use of "separate" brigades which had no division headquarters and could be used for missions that did not require an entire division. The 173rd Brigade was selected to become a separate brigade and a special airborne task force, which could deploy and act independently, it was designed uniquely from other separate brigades. The 173rd was the only separate brigade to have support formations permanently assigned to it, though other separate brigades would receive support elements of their own a year later; the brigade was the only separate brigade to receive its own tank company, in the form of Company D, 16th Armor. Consi
II Corps (South Vietnam)
The II Corps was a corps of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam, the army of the nation state of South Vietnam that existed from 1955 to 1975. It was one of four corps in the ARVN, it oversaw the region of the central highlands region, north of the capital Saigon, its corps headquarters was in the mountain town of Pleiku. One notable ARVN unit of II Corps, the 3d Armored Cavalry Squadron, earned the Presidential Unit Citation; the 21st Tank Regiment was formed at Pleiku in 1972. The objective of the North Vietnamese forces during the third phase of the Nguyen Hue Offensive was to seize the cities of Kon Tum and Pleiku, thereby overrunning the Central Highlands; this would open the possibility of proceeding east to the coastal plains, splitting South Vietnam in two. The highlands offensive was preceded by NLF diversionary operations that opened on 5 April in coastal Bình Định Province, which aimed at closing Highway 1, seizing several ARVN firebases, diverting South Vietnamese forces from operations further west.
The North Vietnamese were under the command of Lieutenant General Hoang Minh Thao, commander of the B-3 Front. The Front included the 320th and 2nd PAVN Divisions in the highlands and the 3rd PAVN Division in the lowlands – 50,000 men. Arrayed against them in II Corps were the South Vietnamese 22nd and 23rd Divisions, two armored cavalry squadrons, the 2nd Airborne Brigade, all under the command of Lieutenant General Ngo Du, it had become evident as early as January that the North Vietnamese were building up for offensive operations in the tri-border region and numerous B-52 strikes had been conducted in the area in hopes of slowing the build-up. ARVN forces had been deployed forward toward the border in order to slow the PAVN advance and allow the application of airpower to deplete North Vietnamese manpower and logistics; the Bình Định offensive, threw General Du into a panic and convinced him to fall for the North Vietnamese ploy and divert his forces from the highlands. Tucker, Spencer C..
Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. Pp. 526–533. ISBN 1-57607-040-9
The M72 LAW is a portable one-shot 66-mm unguided anti-tank weapon. The solid rocket propulsion unit was developed in the newly formed Rohm and Haas research laboratory at Redstone Arsenal in 1959 the full system was designed by Paul V. Choate, Charles B. Weeks, Frank A. Spinale, et al. at the Hesse-Eastern Division of Norris Thermadore. American production of the weapon began by Hesse-Eastern in 1963, was terminated by 1983. In early 1963, the M72 LAW was adopted by the U. S. Army and U. S. Marine Corps as their primary individual infantry anti-tank weapon, replacing the M31 HEAT rifle grenade and the M20A1 "Super Bazooka" in the U. S. Army, it was subsequently adopted by the U. S. Air Force to serve in an anti-emplacement/anti-armor role in Air Base Defense duties. In the early 1980s, the M72 was slated to be replaced by the FGR-17 Viper. However, this program was canceled by Congress and the M136 AT4 was adopted instead. At that time, its nearest equivalents were the Swedish Pskott m/68 and the French SARPAC.
The increased importance of tanks and other armored vehicles in World War II caused a need for portable infantry weapons to deal with them. The first to be used were Molotov cocktails, satchel charges, jury-rigged landmines, specially designed magnetic hollow charges. All of these had to be used within a few meters of the target, difficult and dangerous; the U. S. Army introduced the first rocket-propelled grenade launcher. Despite early problems, it was copied by other countries. However, the bazooka had its drawbacks. Large and damaged, it required a well-trained two-man crew. Germany developed a one-man alternative, the Panzerfaust, having single-shot launchers that were cheap and requiring no special training; as a result, they were issued to Volkssturm home guard regiments. They were efficient against tanks during the last days of World War II. However, the Panzerfaust was not a rocket launcher but instead a recoilless rifle; the M72 LAW is a combination of the two World War II weapons. The basic principle is a miniaturized bazooka, while its light weight and cheapness rival the Panzerfaust.
The weapon consists of a rocket within a launcher consisting of one inside the other. While closed, the outer assembly serves as a watertight container for the rocket and the percussion-cap firing mechanism that activates the rocket; the outer tube contains the trigger, the arming handle and rear sights, the rear cover. The inner tube contains the channel assembly, which houses the firing pin assembly, including the detent lever; when extended, the inner tube telescopes outward toward the rear, guided by the channel assembly, which rides in an alignment slot in the outer tube's trigger housing assembly. This causes the detent lever to move under the trigger assembly in the outer tube, both locking the inner tube in the extended position and cocking the weapon. Once armed, the weapon is no longer watertight if the launcher is collapsed into its original configuration; when fired, the striker in the rear tube impacts a primer, which ignites a small amount of powder that "flashes" down a tube to the rear of the rocket and ignites the propellant in the rocket motor.
The rocket motor burns before leaving the mouth of the launcher, producing gases around 1,400 °F. The rocket propels the 66-mm warhead forward without significant recoil; as the warhead emerges from the launcher, six fins spring out from the base of the rocket tube, stabilizing the warhead's flight. The early LAW warhead, developed from the M31 HEAT rifle grenade warhead, uses a simple, but safe and reliable, piezoelectric fuze system. On impact with the target, the front of the nose section is crushed causing a microsecond electric current to be generated, which detonates a booster charge located in the base of the warhead, which sets off the main warhead charge; the force of the main charge forces the copper liner into a directional particle jet that, in relation to the size of the warhead, is capable of a massive amount of penetration. A unique mechanical set-back safety on the base of the detonator grounds the circuit until the missile has accelerated out of the tube; the acceleration causes the three disks in the safety mechanism to rotate 90° in succession, ungrounding the circuit.
The M72 LAW was issued as a prepackaged round of ammunition. Improvements to the launcher and differences in the ammunition were differentiated by a single designation; the original M72 warhead penetrated 200mm/8 inches of armor, while the improved M72A2 model boosts this to 300mm/12 inches. A training variant of the M72 LAW, designated the M190 exists; this weapon uses the 35-mm M73 training rocket. A subcaliber training device that uses a special tracer cartridge exists for the M72. A training variant used by the Finnish armed forces fires 7.62-mm tracer rounds. The US Army tested other 66-mm rockets based on the M54 rocket motor used for the M72; the M74 TPA had an incendiary warhead filled with TEA. The XM96 RCR had a CS gas-filled warhead for crowd control and was used with the XM191 quadruple-tube launcher. Once fired in combat, the launcher is required to be destroyed to prevent its use by the enemy as a booby-trap.
Operation Francis Marion
Operation Francis Marion was a 4th Infantry Division and 173rd Airborne Brigade operation that took place in Pleiku and the Kon Tum Provinces, lasting from 6 April to 11 October 1967. The operation was a continuation of the concluded Operation Sam Houston in the same general area. 4th Infantry Division commander MG William R. Peers planned a defense in depth against People's Army of Vietnam incursions from Base Areas 701 and 702 across the Cambodian border. Operation Francis Marion commenced on 6 April; the 1st Brigade, 4th Infantry Division deployed in an arc 20 km east of the Cambodian border along Highway 14B and the north-south line of U. S. Special Forces camps at Plei Djereng, Đức Cơ and Plei Me, with the 2nd Brigade held as a reserve force. Special Forces, CIDG units and the 4th Division's long-range reconnaissance teams would search the area west of this line to the Cambodian border; the Army of the Republic of Vietnam 23rd Division extended the screen south into Darlac Province and the 42nd Regiment extended it north into Kon Tum Province, split between Kon Tum city and Tân Cảnh Base Camp.
The operation saw isolated skirmishes in its first 2 weeks in mid-April Special Forces teams reported engaging a PAVN battalion in northern Darlac Province and several days they reported sighting 2 PAVN companies 70 km south of Plei Me. In response to these reports on 24 April MG Peers sent a 1st Brigade battalion task force into northern Darlac Province. On 28 April the 2nd Battalion, 8th Infantry Regiment patrolling north of Plei Me ambushed a group of PAVN killing 13 and the remainder fled into a fortified base camp; the 2/18th Infantry were unable to break through the PAVN defenses despite air and artillery strikes. The following morning, supported by 2 tanks and M113s they entered the camp but found it deserted; the force continued to advance, finding another base camp, soon overrun by the tanks firing canister rounds, by mid-afternoon the battle was over, 138 PAVN soldiers from the 95B Regiment had been killed for the loss of 1 U. S. killed. On searching the base the 2/8th Infantry found 42 weapons and ammunition and a notebook detailing PAVN objectives for the rainy season offensive, including the 2nd Brigade base at Landing Zone Oasis and the Special Forces camps at Plei Djereng, Đức Cơ and Plei Me.
On 1 May a U. S. company repulsed a battalion-size attack near Đức Cơ. A prisoner revealed that 2 battalions of the 66th Regiment had arrived in the area around Đức Cơ and they planned to attack the Special Forces on 6 June, before attacking Plei Me. Following 4 B-52 strikes southwest of Đức Cơ Camp, MG Peers sent the 1st Battalion, 8th Infantry in to search the area but they found no sign of PAVN activity. On 13 May following a further B-52 strike 15 km northwest of Đức Cơ Camp, the 1/8th Infantry went in to search the area ending at Landing Zone Jackson Hole, the 1st Brigade base on Highway 14B, with the 3rd Battalion, 12th Infantry Regiment moving parallel to it. On the morning of 18 May, Company B 1/8th Infantry patrolling in the densely jungled Ia Tchar Valley near the Cambodian border saw and pursued a lone PAVN soldier; the pursuit led the Company into an ambush by a large PAVN force and they formed a defensive perimeter while calling in air and artillery support, however the thick jungle canopy prevented aerial observation and absorbed much of the force of the incoming fire.
The Battalion commander sent Company A to assist but the thick jungle delayed their progress. Company B's 4th platoon radioed that they were being overrun and called in artillery fire directly on their position. Company A was moved by helicopter to Company B's position arriving just before sunset; the following morning Company A located Company B's 4th platoon, which had lost 19 killed, 1 missing and 7 wounded. The survivors said that after the PAVN overran the position they played dead while the PAVN executed those who moved; the rest of Company B lost had 24 wounded, while sweeps turned up 119 PAVN bodies. The PAVN were identified as being from the 32nd Regiment, which had last been seen in March 1967. On 18 May a U. S. unit set up a night defensive position in an abandoned PAVN base camp. Shortly after dark, the PAVN began mortaring the position and sent 3 assault waves against the position; the attack continued for several hours before the PAVN withdrew leaving 38 dead and 8 weapons, while U.
S. losses were 10 killed. Four B-52 strikes were made on the surrounding area in the next 24 hours to deter any further attacks. MG Peers moved the 3/12th Infantry into the Ia Tchar Valley to support the 1/8th Infantry and arranged for the 173rd Airborne Brigade to be moved in as reinforcements. On the morning of 24 May two companies of the 3/12th Infantry were about to break camp when they were hit by mortar fire and attacked by a battalion-sized force. After 2 hours of fighting, low cloud in the area cleared allowing air support to break up the attack. U. S. losses were 10 killed while PAVN losses were 4 captured. On 23 May it was decided to replace the 1/8th Infantry with the 3/8th Infantry. On 24 May as the 3/12th Infantry shuffled its companies, one understrength company was left alone to defend a hilltop landing zone when they were hit by a PAVN attack. Artillery fire was called in and a relief column sent and after an hour the PAVN withdrew leaving 37 dead, while U. S. losses were 4 killed.
On the morning of 26 May Company C, 3/8th Infantry was moving through thick jungle when it was hit by sniper fire killing the company commander and hitting every officer in the company with a Master Sergeant having to take command and form a defensive perimeter. Company B sent 3 platoons to support Company C, only 1 of, able to reach them, the others being stopped by intense f
Central Highlands, Vietnam
Tây Nguyên, translated as Western Highlands and sometimes called Central Highlands, is one of the regions of Vietnam. It contains the provinces of Đắk Nông, Gia Lai, Kon Tum, Lâm Đồng; this region is sometimes referred to as Cao nguyên Trung bộ, was referred to during the Republic of Vietnam as Cao nguyên Trung phần. The native inhabitants of the Central Highlands are the Degar peoples. Ethnic Vietnamese people arrived in the area during their "march to the south"; the Vietnamese now outnumber the indigenous Degars after state sponsored settlement directed by both the government of the Republic of Vietnam and the current Communist government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The Montagnards have fought against and resisted all Vietnamese settlers, from the anti-Communist South Vietnamese government, the Viet Cong, to the Communist government of unified Vietnam; the Champa state and Chams in the lowlands were traditional suzerains whom the Montagnards in the highlands acknowledged as their lords, while autonomy was held by the Montagnards.
After 1945, concept of "Nam tiến" and the southward expansion was celebrated by Vietnamese scholars. The Pays Montagnard du Sud-Indochinois was the name of the Central Highlands from 1946 under French Indochina. Up until French rule, the Central Highlands was never entered by the Vietnamese since they viewed it as a savage populated area with fierce animals like tigers, "poisoned water" and "evil malevolent spirits." The Vietnamese expressed interest in the land after the French transformed it into a profitable plantation area to grow crops on, in addition to the natural resources from the forests and rich earth and realization of its crucial geographical importance. An insurgency was waged by Montagnards in FULRO against South Vietnam and unified Communist Vietnam. A settlement program of ethnic Kinh Vietnamese by the governments of the Republic of Vietnam and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam was implemented and now a Kinh majority predominates in the highland areas. After mass demonstrations and protests during 2001 and 2004 by ethnic hill tribe minorities against the communist government, foreigners were banned from the Central Highlands for a period of time.
Tây Nguyên is a plateau bordering the lower part of northeastern Cambodia. Kon Tum Province shares a border with both Laos and Cambodia but Gia Lai Province and Đắk Lắk Province only share borders with Cambodia. Lâm Đồng Province is landlocked, thus has no international border. Tây Nguyên is not situated on a unique plateau, instead it lies on series of contiguous plateaus, namely Kon Tum Plateau at the height of 500 m, Kon Plông Plateau, Kon Hà Nừng Plateau, Pleiku Plateau with the height of around 800m, Mdrak Plateau of 500 m, Đắk Lắk Plateau of around 800m, Mơ Nông Plateau with the height of about 800–1000 m, Lâm Viên Plateau of 1500 m and Di Linh Plateau of about 900–1000 m. All of these plateau mounts. Tây Nguyên can be divided into 3 subregions according to its deviation in topography and climate, namely: North Tây Nguyên, Middle Tây Nguyên, South Tây Nguyên. Trung Tây Nguyên has lower altitude and therefore has a higher temperature from other two subregions. Below is a list of recognized ethnic groups in Vietnam that are indigenous to the Central Highlands and nearby areas.
They speak Austroasiatic languages of the Bahnaric, as well as Chamic languages. Population statistics are from the 2009 Vietnam Population Census. Katuic speakers Bru: Quảng Trị Province Cơ Tu: Quảng Nam Province Tà Ôi: Thừa Thiên-Huế Province and Quảng Trị Province Bahnaric speakers West Bahnaric Brâu: Kon Tum Province East Bahnaric Co: Quảng Ngãi Province North Bahnaric Xơ Đăng: Kon Tum Province and Quảng Nam Province Hrê: Quảng Ngãi Province Rơ Măm: Kon Tum Province Central Bahnaric Ba Na: Gia Lai Province and Kon Tum Province Giẻ Triêng: Kon Tum Province and Quảng Nam Province South Bahnaric Chơ Ro: Đồng Nai Province Cờ Ho: Lâm Đồng Province Mạ: Lâm Đồng Province X’Tiêng: Bình Phước Province Mnông: Đắk Lắk Province and Đắk Nông Province Chamic speakers Chăm: Ninh Thuận Province and Bình Thuận Province Chu Ru: Lâm Đồng Province Ê Đê: Đắk Lắk Province Gia Rai: Gia Lai Province Ra Glai: Ninh Thuận Province and Khánh Hòa ProvinceListed by province, from north to south as well as west to east: Quảng Trị Province: Bru, Tà Ôi Thừa Thiên-Huế Province: Tà Ôi Quảng Nam Province: Cơ Tu, Xơ Đăng, Giẻ Triêng Quảng Ngãi Province: Hrê, Co Kon Tum Province: Giẻ Triêng, Ba Na, Xơ Đăng, Rơ Măm, Brâu Gia Lai Province: Gia Rai, Ba Na Đắk Lắk Province: Ê Đê, Mnông Khánh Hòa Province: Ra Glai Đắk Nông Province: Mnông Lâm Đồng Province: Chu Ru, Mạ (Sou