Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state that controlled nearly all aspects of life via the Gleichschaltung legal process; the official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire and the German Empire; the Nazi regime ended. Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic, Paul von Hindenburg, on 30 January 1933; the NSDAP began to eliminate all political opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934 and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the offices and powers of the Chancellery and Presidency. A national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany.
All power was centralised in Hitler's person and his word became the highest law. The government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitler's favour. In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending and a mixed economy. Extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen; the return to economic stability boosted the regime's popularity. Racism antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime; the Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the master race, the purest branch of the Aryan race. Discrimination and persecution against Jews and Romani people began in earnest after the seizure of power; the first concentration camps were established in March 1933. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, liberals and communists were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. Christian churches and citizens that opposed Hitler's rule were oppressed, many leaders imprisoned.
Education focused on racial biology, population policy, fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed. Recreation and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased Germany on the international stage. Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, Hitler's hypnotic oratory to influence public opinion; the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. The Nazi regime dominated neighbours through military threats in the years leading up to war. Nazi Germany made aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if these were not met, it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Germany signed a non-aggression pact with the USSR, invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, launching World War II in Europe. By early 1941, Germany controlled much of Europe. Reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas and a German administration was established in the remainder of Poland.
Germany exploited labour of both its occupied territories and its allies. In the Holocaust, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, or shot. While the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 was successful, the Soviet resurgence and entry of the US into the war meant the Wehrmacht lost the initiative on the Eastern Front in 1943 and by late 1944 had been pushed back to the pre-1939 border. Large-scale aerial bombing of Germany escalated in 1944 and the Axis powers were driven back in Eastern and Southern Europe. After the Allied invasion of France, Germany was conquered by the Soviet Union from the east and the other Allies from the west, capitulated in May 1945. Hitler's refusal to admit defeat led to massive destruction of German infrastructure and additional war-related deaths in the closing months of the war; the victorious Allies initiated a policy of denazification and put many of the surviving Nazi leadership on trial for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials.
The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945, while common English terms are "Nazi Germany" and "Third Reich". The latter, adopted by Nazi propaganda as Drittes Reich, was first used in Das Dritte Reich, a 1923 book by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck; the book counted the Holy Roman Empire as the German Empire as the second. Germany was known as the Weimar Republic during the years 1919 to 1933, it was a republic with a semi-presidential system. The Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism, contentious relationships with the Allied victors of World War I, a series of failed attempts at coalition government by divided political parties. Severe setbacks to the German economy began after World War I ended because of reparations payments required under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles; the government printed money to make the payments and to repay the country's war debt, but the resulting hyperinflation led to inflated prices for consumer goods, economic chaos, food riots.
When the government defaulted on their reparations payments in January 1923, French troops occupied German industrial areas along the Ruhr and widespread civil unrest followed. The National Socialist German Workers' Party (National
German Army (1935–1945)
The German Army was the land forces component of the Wehrmacht, the regular German Armed Forces, from 1935 until it was demobilized and dissolved in August 1946. During World War II, a total of about 13 million soldiers served in the German Army. Germany's army personnel were made up of conscripts. Only 17 months after Adolf Hitler announced publicly the rearmament program, the Army reached its projected goal of 36 divisions. During the autumn of 1937 two more corps were formed. In 1938 four additional corps were formed with the inclusion of the five divisions of the Austrian Army after the Anschluss in March. During the period of its expansion under Hitler, the German Army continued to develop concepts pioneered during World War I, combining ground and air assets into combined arms forces. Coupled with operational and tactical methods such as encirclements and the "battle of annihilation", the German military managed quick victories in the two initial years of World War II, a new style of warfare described as Blitzkrieg for its speed and destructive power.
The infantry remained foot soldiers throughout the war. The motorized formations received much attention in the world press in the opening years of the war, were cited as the main reason for the success of the German invasions of Poland and Denmark, Belgium and Netherlands, Yugoslavia and the initial stages of Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union; however their motorized and tank formations accounted for only 20% of the Heer's capacity at their peak strength. The army's lack of trucks limited infantry movement during and after the Normandy invasion when Allied air-power devastated the French rail network north of the Loire. Panzer movements depended on rail, since driving a tank long distances wore out its tracks; the Oberkommando des Heeres was Germany's Army High Command from 1936 to 1945. In theory the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht served as the military General Staff for the German Reich's armed forces, coordinating the Wehrmacht operations. In practice OKW acted in a subordinate role as Hitler's personal military staff, translating his ideas into military plans and orders, issuing them to the three services.
However, as the war progressed the OKW found itself exercising increasing amounts of direct command authority over military units in the west. This created a situation where by 1943 the OKW was the de facto command of Western Theatre forces while the Army High Command was the same on the Eastern Front; the Abwehr was the Army intelligence organization from 1921 to 1944. The term Abwehr had been created just after World War I as an ostensible concession to Allied demands that Germany's intelligence activities be for defensive purposes only. After 4 February 1938, the Abwehr's name was changed to the Overseas Department/Office in Defence of the Armed Forces High Command. Nazi Germany used the system of military districts to relieve field commanders of as much administrative work as possible, to provide a regular flow of trained recruits and supplies to the field forces; the method OKW adopted was to separate the Field Army from the Home Command, to entrust the responsibilities of training, conscription and equipment to Home Command.
The German Army was structured in Army groups consisting of several armies that were relocated, restructured or renamed in the course of the war. Forces or allied states as well as units made up of non-Germans were assigned to German units. For Operation Barbarossa in 1941, the Army forces were assigned to three strategic campaign groupings: Army Group North with Leningrad as its campaign objective Army Group Centre with Smolensk as its campaign objective Army Group South with Kiev as its campaign objectiveBelow the army group level forces included Field armies –, panzer groups, which became army level formations themselves and divisions; the army used the German term Kampfgruppe which equates to the English'combat group' or battle group. These provisional combat groupings ranged from an Army Corps size such as Army Detachment Kempf to commands composed of several companies and platoons, they were named for their commanding officers. German operational doctrine emphasized sweeping pincer and lateral movements meant to destroy the enemy forces as as possible.
This approach, referred to as Blitzkrieg, was an operational doctrine instrumental in the success of the offensives in Poland and France. Blitzkrieg has been considered by many historians as having its roots in precepts developed by Fuller, Liddel-Hart and von Seeckt, having ancient prototypes practiced by Alexander, Genghis Khan and Napoleon. Recent studies of the Battle of France suggest that the actions of either Rommel or Guderian or both of them, ignoring orders of superiors who had never foreseen such spectacular successes and thus prepared much more prudent plans, were conflated into a purposeful doctrine and created the first archetype of blitzkrieg, which gained a fearsome reputati
4th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)
The 4th Panzer Division was an armored division in the German Army, the Wehrmacht, during World War II, established in 1938. It participated in the 1939 invasion of Poland, the 1940 invasion of France, the 1941 invasion of the Soviet Union, it remained on the Eastern Front under Army Group Centre, until it was trapped on the coast at Courland in the summer of 1944. It was evacuated by sea and returned to the main front in West Prussia in January 1945, it surrendered to the Soviets there at the end of the war. During the Polish campaign, one Jewish historian claims that the division engaged in a series of massacres against the civilian population and POWs; the 4th Panzer Division was formed in Würzburg, Bavaria, on 10 November 1938 as the first of a second wave of new armoured divisions in Germany following the creation of the original three tank divisions in 1935. Alongside the 4th Panzer Division the 5th was formed at Oppeln, now Opole in Poland, five days later. Würzburg had been the garrison town for the 2nd Panzer Division which had moved its headquarters to Vienna after the Anschluss of Austria in March 1938.
At the beginning of the Invasion of Poland, the division was one of the first to cross the border in the operational area of Army Group South. Equipped with 341 tanks, including 183 Panzer I, 130 Panzer II, 12 Panzer IV and 16 PzBef; the division lacked some infantry and anti-tank units.. After supporting 1st Panzer, the division took part in the break-through of the Polish lines near Kłobuck, the Poles withdrew. Three days the 4th Panzer Division continued its move towards Warsaw, it tried to take the city by surprise. At 17.00, the forces of the 4th Panzer Division supported by the 31st Infantry Division attempted an assault on Warsaw's western borough of Ochota. The assault was repulsed and the German forces suffered heavy casualties; the following day, the division was reinforced with artillery and the Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler motorised infantry regiment, began another assault towards Ochota and Wola. Well-placed Polish anti-tank guns and barricades erected on main streets repulsed this assault.
On several occasions, the lack of armament on the Polish side was made up for by ingenuity. One of the streets leading towards the city centre was covered with turpentine from a nearby factory; when German tanks approached, the liquid was set on fire, the tanks were destroyed without a shot being fired. The German forces had to retreat. After the failed assault on Warsaw, 4th Panzer Division was withdrawn westward and took part in the Battle of the Bzura, where it supported a German counter-attack. Polish-Jewish historian, Szymon Datner, stated that on 18 September, in the village of Śladów, units of the 4th Panzer Division shot or drowned 252 prisoners of war and 106 civilians in the Vistula. After that it was withdrawn to the Niederrhein. During the Battle of France in 1940, the division came under the command of Erich Hoepner's XVI Panzer Corps, part of von Kleist's Panzer Group in the 6th Army commanded by Walther von Reichenau. After a blitzkrieg assault through Liege and Charleroi, it reached the area of Bethune, where it fought against the British Expeditionary Force in what became known as the battle of Dunkirk.
However, due to Adolf Hitler's orders, it did not manage to capture Dunkirk itself. In early June 1940, the division managed to cross a large part of France in several days. By the time that the cease fire was signed, it had reached Grenoble unopposed. After several months of occupation duty in France, in late November, the 4th Division was withdrawn to Würzburg, where it was reorganized and reinforced; the 36th Panzer Regiment was detached and assigned to the newly formed 14th Panzer Division, while the 103rd Artillery Regiment was reinforced with a third battalion. The division was moved to East Prussia and to the area of Brześć Litewski in occupied Poland, where it was assigned to the XXIV Panzer Corps under Geyr von Schweppenburg. On 22 June 1941, it took part in the opening stages of Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union. During the first day, the division managed to drive a wedge into the Soviet positions and reached Kobryń some 65 kilometres behind the lines; the division spearheaded one of the pincer moves to surround and destroy a large Soviet force in the battle of Minsk, where the German army took 300,000 prisoners.
After the battle of Homel it reached Kiev. In September 1941, the division was attached to Army Group Centre, preparing to take part in the battle of Moscow; the assault started on 30 September 1941, the division captured Orel in early October but was ambushed on the road to Mtsensk by 1st Guards Rifle Corps on the 6th of that month. Attempts by the outclassed Panzers to maneuver round the Soviet flanks were defeated with heavy loss as the soviet T-34s savaged the underarmored Mark IV tanks, reducing much of the divisional armor to burned out, smoking wreckage by end of day; the advance resumed with growing loss and in late October Heinz Guderian concentrated most of the 2nd Panzer groups' remaining tanks into a single brigade under the 4th Panzer division, the spearhead of the XXIV Panzer Corps. By mid-November it was down to 50 tanks but still ground on reaching Tula, as the southern arm of a pincer which tried to surround the Soviet capital; the Germans formations were paralysed when the autumn rains set in, turning the only road to Tula into a stretch of mud.
Bogged down German tanks were attacked by Soviet aircraft. With the onset of frost in early November, the Germans could use the roads again, but faced the problem of not being equipped for winter warfare. Warm clo
Hungary is a country in Central Europe. Spanning 93,030 square kilometres in the Carpathian Basin, it borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, Slovenia to the west. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union; the official language is Hungarian, the most spoken Uralic language in the world, among the few non-Indo-European languages to be spoken in Europe. Hungary's capital and largest city is Budapest; the territory of modern Hungary was for centuries inhabited by a succession of peoples, including Celts, Germanic tribes, West Slavs and the Avars. The foundations of the Hungarian state were established in the late ninth century CE by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád following the conquest of the Carpathian Basin, his great-grandson Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting his realm to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a regional power, reaching its cultural and political height in the 15th century.
Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Hungary was occupied by the Ottoman Empire. It came under Habsburg rule at the turn of the 18th century, joined Austria to form the Austro–Hungarian Empire, a major European power; the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed after World War I, the subsequent Treaty of Trianon established Hungary's current borders, resulting in the loss of 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Following the tumultuous interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a socialist republic spanning four decades; the country gained widespread international attention as a result of its 1956 revolution and the seminal opening of its previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989, which accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. On 23 October 1989, Hungary became a democratic parliamentary republic.
Hungary is an OECD high-income economy and has the world's 58th largest economy by PPP. It ranks 45th on the Human Development Index, owing in large part to its social security system, universal health care, tuition-free secondary education. Hungary's rich cultural history includes significant contributions to the arts, literature, sports and technology, it is the 13th most popular tourist destination in Europe, attracting 15.8 million international tourists in 2017, owing to attractions such as the largest thermal water cave system in the world, second largest thermal lake, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest natural grasslands in Europe. Hungary's cultural and academic prominence classify it as a middle power in global affairs. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and has been part of the Schengen Area since 2007, it is a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe, the Visegrád Group.
The "H" in the name of Hungary is most due to early founded historical associations with the Huns, who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Byzantine Greek Oungroi. According to an explanation,the Greek name was borrowed from Old Bulgarian ągrinŭ, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the collective name for the tribes who joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars; the Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of ország. The word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri; the first element magy is from Proto-Ugric *mäńć-'man, person' found in the name of the Mansi people. The second element eri,'man, lineage', survives in Hungarian férj'husband', is cognate with Mari erge'son', Finnish archaic yrkä'young man'; the Roman Empire conquered the territory west of the Danube between 35 and 9 BC. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century, Pannonia was part of the Roman Empire, located within part of Hungary's territory.
Around AD 41–54, a 500-strong cavalry unit created the settlement of Aquincum and a Roman legion of 6,000 men was stationed here by AD 89. A civil city grew in the neighbourhood of the military settlement and in AD 106 Aquincum became the focal point of the commercial life of this area and the capital city of the province of Pannonia Inferior; this area now corresponds to the Óbuda district of Budapest, with the Roman ruins now forming part of the modern Aquincum museum. Came the Huns, a Central Asian tribe who built a powerful empire. After Hunnish rule, the Germanic Ostrogoths and Gepids, the Avar Khaganate, had a presence in the Carpathian Basin. In the 9th century, East Francia, the First Bulgarian Empire and Great Moravia ruled the territory of the Carpathian Basin; the freshly unified Hungarians led by Árpád, settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895. According to linguistic evidence, they originated from an ancient Uralic-speaking population that inhabited the forested area between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains.
As a federation of united tribes, Hungary was established in 895, some 50 years after the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843, before the unification of the Anglo-Saxon king
25th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)
The 25th Panzer Division, nicknamed'Mondschein', was a German tank formation during World War II. It was one of the many under strength Panzer divisions the Germans formed during the last years of the war. The'Rhineland-Westphalia 25th Panzer' was formed in Norway on 15 May 1941 as the'Schützenverband Oslo', It was created to spearhead the possible invasion of Sweden and a full Panzer Division was not considered necessary for this task; when the Russian campaign did not end in 1941 as planned, the Verband was re-designated the 25th Panzer Division on 25 February 1942, although there was little increased strength to the original numbers of the Verband. Divisional staff were formed in Eberswalde Germany, arrived in Oslo, Norway on 5 March. Existing units were renamed, new ones formed in order to get the new division to actual divisional strength, although it remained well under when it moved to France in September 1943. Soon after its creation in February, the division engaged with Norwegian Partisans near Rjukan, in late August sailed to Denmark to take part in Operation Tivoliasflug, the disarming of the Danish Army.
After being transferred to Northern France in September/October for training exercises, the division was sent east, arrived on the Eastern front in early November 1943. In October 1943, the division was transferred to the Eastern Front and was attached to the 4th Panzer Army under Army Group North Ukraine. Commanded by General der Panzertruppe Georg Jauer, the division arrived on the Ukrainian Front on 8 November. At that time, the 4th Panzer Army was in serious trouble due to Soviet attacks which had captured Kiev and the Red Army was in a position to encircle the whole 4th Panzer Army. Being thrown straight into the battle by the High Command, the 25th Panzer Division drove forward but was halted by the advancing Soviet 7th Guards Tank Corps that had just captured Zhitomir; as the month went on, the situation changed with the arrival of the elite 1st SS Division, along with the 1st and 7th Panzer Divisions, under the command of 48th Panzer Corps. These were battle hardened, full-strength units that drove north west to retake Zhitomir where the 25th became involved in heavy fighting.
To counter this assault, the Russians attacked with the 7th Guards Tank Corps and a huge tank battle ensued, although not on the same scale seen at Kursk a few months previously. The heavy fighting continued until the end of November. Although suffering heavy losses due to inexperience, the division had played a significant role in halting a major Soviet advance east of Fastov, as well as participating in the counterattacks against the Kiev Salient. At the start of the new year in 1944, the division had lost all offensive capabilities. In April 1944, the division was sent to Aalborg in Denmark to rebuild and where they absorbed the main forces of Panzer Division Norway as much needed reinforcements. By now, the hard-pressed Wehrmacht, which were now fighting on two fronts, was only able to raise a skeleton Panzer division. In September 1944, the situation was so bad on the Eastern front that although under strength, the division was sent again to battle the Red Army at the Vistula crossings in Poland and in the defense of Warsaw parts of it were involved in the suppression of the Warsaw Uprising.
On 6 November 1944, after months of bitter fighting, the division was reinforced once more. Remnants of other brigades and battalions were absorbed, along with 25 Panther tanks which were much needed. In January 1945, after the defense of Warsaw, the division could only field a total of around 68 tanks and self-propelled anti-aircraft guns: 5 Panzer IV, 15 Panzer IV/70, 21 Jagdpanzer IV/48, 23 Panther tanks and 4 Flakpanzer IV; the 25th and 19th Panzer Divisions counterattacked but were ineffective and were forced to retreat back the Oder River. By the end of January, the division had lost 622 men killed, 2,318 wounded, 6,030 missing, a total of 8,970 casualties in only six weeks. After the retreat to the Oder River in January 1945, the division lost nearly all its tanks and had suffered irreplaceable losses. In April, the division was transferred to Vienna in Austria, posted north of the Danube river to protect the Austrian oil fields. By this time the 25th Panzer Division could no longer be classed as a viable fighting force.
Down to 45 operational Panzers and manpower falling everyday, the division reluctantly fought on at Prottes, Hohenruppersdorf and Schrick ending the war in Austria. Alongside the 11th Panzer Division, the 25th surrendered to the advancing Americans; the quality of the equipment was mixed since the division was issued with outdated French tanks, such as the Renault R35, Hotchkiss H39 and Char B1 and different models of the panzer tanks. Some German Tiger tanks were reportedly in operation with the 25th; the artillery regiment had modern artillery pieces, but was the size of a battalion and so could only give limited fire support. The reconnaissance battalion had no armoured cars, it was made up of motorcycles. At its height in the Summer of 1943, the division stood at a strength of 21,000 men and fielded 14 Panzer II tanks, 62 Panzer IIIs, 26 Panzer IVs, 40 Hotchkiss H39, 15 Somua S35, 15 self-propelled assault guns such as the StuG III. Generalleutnant Johann Haarde, 25 February 1942 Generalleutnant Adolf von Schell, 1 January 1943 General der Panzertruppe Georg Jauer, 15
Bad Nauheim is a town in the Wetteraukreis district of Hesse state of Germany. As of 2012, Bad Nauheim has a population of 30,788; the town is 35 kilometres north of Frankfurt am Main, on the east edge of the Taunus mountain range. It is a world-famous resort, noted for its salt springs, which are used to treat heart and nerve diseases. A Nauheim or "effervescent" bath, named after Bad Nauheim, is a type of spa bath through which carbon dioxide is bubbled; this bath was one of several types of hydrotherapy used at Battle Creek Sanitarium and it was used at Maurice bathhouse, in Bathhouse Row in the early 1900s, during the heyday of hydrotherapy. The Konitzky Foundation, a charitable foundation and hospital for those without means, was founded in 1896 and its building occupies a central place next to the Kurpark. On September 29, 1945 General Dwight D. Eisenhower reassigned General Patton from his beloved 3rd Army, the army he led from the Normandy landings, to Czechoslovakia as Eisenhower could no longer keep General Patton in position as the Military Governor of Bavaria.
General Patton was assigned to command the Fifteenth Army a group of historians given status as an Army, with its headquarters in Bad Nauheim. On December 9, 1945, General Patton left Bad Nauheim for a hunting trip near Mannheim; the Grand Hotel in Bad Nauheim was the location of the Gestapo-led internment of around 115 Americans who were working in the U. S. Embassy in Berlin, December 1941; the group would leave Bad Nauheim on May 12, 1942. In addition, during World War II Adolf Hitler had a command complex in nearby Langenhain-Ziegenberg called Adlerhorst, "the Eagle's Nest". Bad Nauheim was used as a residential area for American occupation forces after World War II. Despite its proximity to Frankfurt am Main and Hitler's command complex, Bad Nauheim was spared from Allied bombing. American occupants from that time were told that President Roosevelt had loved the town so much from his days there that he ordered it spared; the novel The Good Soldier by Ford Madox Ford is set in part at Bad Nauheim.
1945–1948: Adolf Bräutigam 1948–1954: Krafft-Helmut Voss 1954–1960: Fritz Geißler 1960–1981: Herbert Schäfer 1981–1993: Bernd Rohde 1993–1999: Peter Keller 2000–2005: Bernd Rohde 2005–2011: Bernd Witzel 2011-2017: Armin Häuser since September 2017: Klaus Kreß In the old town center of Friedberg, town next to Bad Nauheim, is the barn at the gate to the castle. The gate, the'Burgpforte', was used by Elvis Presley as the motif of a record cover for his 1959 #1 hit record'A Big Hunk o' Love'. Presley lived in Bad Nauheim itself during his time with the United States Army in Friedberg. There is an annual Elvis festival in the city, starting in 2002. Other famous people who have stayed in the town include Jamshetji Nusserwanji Tata – founder of Tata Group of Companies, the Irish novelist and man of letters Patrick Augustine Sheehan holidayed at the Hotel Augusta Victoria in Bad Nauheim 6–23 September 1904, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the Saudi Arabian football team during the 2006 FIFA World Cup, General George S. Patton, who celebrated his sixtieth birthday in the grand ballroom of the Grand Hotel and Albert Kesselring, Nazi General who died there in 1960.
Holger Geschwindner, basketball player Rainer Philipp, hockey player Klaus Hentschel and historian of science Caroline Link and Oscar - winner Andreas Maier, writer Sina-Valeska Jung, actress Julian Dudda, professional football player Before the Holocaust there was an on-and-off Jewish presence in Bad Nauheim since around 1303. Before the Holocaust nearly 400 Jews lived in the town. On Kristallnacht the schoolhouse was desecrated and ransacked as well as Jewish stores and the synagogue. Many Jews were taken that night to concentration camps; some were let out. Of those let out many were rearrested. By the end of the Holocaust there were just three Jews remaining in Bad Nauheim. For the most part those who were not murdered had left the country; this complex is recognized as the largest center of Art Nouveau in Germany. Freie Waldorfschule Wetterau Ernst-Ludwig-Schule St. Lioba Gymnasium Stadtschule an der Wilhelmskirche Stadtschule Am Solgraben Bad Nauheim is twinned with: Oostkamp, Belgium Bad Langensalza, Germany Chaumont, France Buxton, United Kingdom Manitowoc, United States Official website Bad Nauheim at Curlie
1st Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)
The 1st Panzer-Division was an armoured division in the German Army, the Wehrmacht, during World War II. The division was one of the original three tank divisions established by Germany in 1935, it took part in pre-war occupations of Austria and Czechoslovakia and the invasions of Poland in 1939 and Belgium and France in 1940. From 1941 to 1945, it fought on the Eastern Front, except for a period in 1943 when it was sent for refitting to France and Greece. At the end of the war, the division surrendered to US forces in Bavaria; the 1st Panzer Division was formed on 15 October 1935 from the 3rd Cavalry Division, was headquartered in Weimar. It was one of three tank divisions created at the time, the other two being the 2nd and 3rd Panzer Division. Earlier in the year, Germany had renounced the Treaty of Versailles, which had forbidden the country, among other things, from having tank forces, a treaty Germany had violated from the start by secretly developing tanks and operating a covert tank school in the Soviet Union.
The division consisted of two panzer regiments organized into a brigade, a motorized infantry brigade, a reconnaissance battalion, a divisional artillery regiment, supporting ancillary formations. The division was equipped with the sub-standard light Panzer I and Panzer II, with the more powerful Panzer III arriving in late 1936. While the Pz I saw service in large numbers in Poland in 1939, the division was still using its Panzer II's in 1941. In 1938, the division participated in the Anschluss of Austria and the occupation of the Sudetenland in 1938 and the subsequent invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1939. In September 1939, the 1st Panzer Division took part in the invasion of Poland, reaching the outskirts of Warsaw after eight days. After Warsaw the division was moved to support the 18th Infantry Division before returning to Germany in November 1939, after the Polish surrender. In May 1940, the 1st Panzer Division was part of the invasion of France and Belgium, it took part in the battles of Sedan and Dunkirk before swinging south to participate in the attack on the Weygand Line.
It occupied Belfort before the surrender of France. During the battle of France, the division suffered low casualties, having just under 500 men killed in action; the 1st Panzer Division remained in France until September 1940. It supplied a substantial number of units to the new 18th Panzer Divisions. From 22 June 1941, it took part of Operation Barbarossa, crossing the former German-Lithuanian frontier as part of the Army Group North and the 4th Panzer Group; the division was involved in heavy fighting and, by mid-August, had only 44, of the 155 tanks it had started out with less than two month earlier, left in serviceable condition. It continued to advance towards Leningrad until early October when it was transferred to the Army Group Centre to take part in the advance on Moscow; the division advanced within 32 kilometres on Moscow before being forced to retreat during the Soviet counterattack. The division was part of the defence of the Rzhev Salient during early 1942 being short on tanks and fighting predominantly as infantry until being resupplied during Spring.
The 1st Panzer Division was engaged in the defence of the supply lines of the 9th Army in the centre of the Eastern Front. It suffered heavy casualties during the defence against repeated Soviet attacks in the Winter of 1942–43 before being transferred back to France in January 1943 for refitting. After months in northern France, the division was sent to occupied Greece in June 1943 because of the perceived threat of an Allied landing there. Instead, the landing took place in Sicily and the division participated in the disarming of Italian forces in Greece when the former defected from the Axis in September 1943; the 1st Panzer Division was brought up to full strength again in October when it received a substantial number of Panther and Tiger I tanks and returned to the Eastern Front again shortly thereafter. The 1st Panzer Division was engaged in the southern sector of the Eastern Front to serve alternately within the 1st and 4th Panzer Army as an emergency force, it was thrown from crisis location to crisis location as the German front lines retreated, taking part in battles at Kiev and Cherkassy.
The latter battle saw the division attempting to break through to the cauldron but falling just short. By March 1944, the division had been reduced to just over 25 percent of its nominal strength. Retreating further westwards, the division was part of the Kamenets-Podolsky pocket and, from there, took part in the defence of eastern Poland and Hungary, it was engaged in defensive operations around Lake Balaton and took part in the unsuccessful attempt to break through to the Siege of Budapest and once more suffered heavy losses. The final month of the Second World War saw the division engaged in the defence of Styria. From there, it retreated westwards to surrender to US forces rather than Soviet ones crossing the demarcation line between the two, it surrendered on 8 May 1945 in southern Bavaria and most of its soldiers were released from captivity soon after. The commanders of the division: 10 January 1935 – 30 September 1937: General der Kavallerie Maximilian von Weichs 10 January 1937 – 2 November 1939: Generalleutnant Rudolf Schmidt 2 November 1939– 17 July 1941: Generalleutnant Friedrich Kirchner 17 July 1941 – 1 January 1944: Generalleutnant Walter Krüger 1 January 1944 – 19 February 1944: Generalmajor Richard Koll 19 February 1944 – 25 September 1944: Generalmajor Werner Marcks 25 September 1944 – 8 May 1945: Generalleutnant Eberhard Thunert The organisation of the di