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24-bit computing

In computer architecture, 24-bit integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are 24 bits wide. 24-bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. Notable 24-bit machines include the CDC 924 – a 24-bit version of the CDC 1604, CDC lower 3000 series, SDS 930 and SDS 940, the ICT 1900 series, the Datacraft minicomputers/Harris H series; the term SWORD is sometimes used to describe a 24-bit data type with the S prefix referring to sesqui. The IBM System/360, announced in 1964, was a popular computer system with 24-bit addressing and 32-bit general registers and arithmetic; the early 1980s saw the first popular personal computers, including the IBM PC/AT with an Intel 80286 processor using 24-bit addressing and 16-bit general registers and arithmetic, the Apple Macintosh 128K with a Motorola 68000 processor featuring 24-bit addressing and 32-bit registers. The eZ80 is a microprocessor and microcontroller family, with 24-bit registers and therefore 24-bit linear addressing, binary compatible with the 8/16-bit Z80.

The 65816 is a microprocessor and microcontroller family with 16-bit registers and 24-bit bank switched addressing. It is binary compatible with the 8-bit 6502; the range of unsigned integers that can be represented in 24 bits is 0 to 16,777,215. The range of signed integers that can be represented in 24 bits is −8,388,608 to 8,388,607. Several fixed-point digital signal processors have a 24-bit data bus, selected as the basic word length because it gave the system a reasonable precision for the processing audio. In particular, the Motorola 56000 series has three parallel 24-bit data buses, one connected to each memory space: program memory, data memory X, data memory Y. Engineering Research Associates designed a series of 24-bit drum memory machines including the Atlas, its commercial version the UNIVAC 1101, the ATHENA computer, the UNIVAC 1824 guidance computer, etc; those designers selected a 24-bit word length because the Earth is 40 million feet in diameter, an intercontinental ballistic missile guidance computer needs to do the Earth-centered inertial navigation calculations to an accuracy of a few feet.

Catena, a term used for a 24-bit unit of data on the Bull Gamma 60 computer

Faroese Americans

Faroese Americans are Americans of Faroese descent or Faroe Islands-born people who reside in the United States. The Faroe Islands are a group of eighteen islands between Iceland and Norway, they are a part of the Kingdom of Denmark. There are 50,000 Faroese people living in the Faroe Islands today, it is not known. The Faroe Islands were settled by the Norse around 800AD, remained in contact with Iceland and Scandinavia throughout the Viking Era; this was a part of the same movement that brought the Norse to North America around 1000AD. Unlike many European countries, the Faroe Islands did not industrialize and were not experiencing population pressures to immigrate to the United States. In fact, the opposite was occurring. Due to shipping restrictions and monopolistic control of goods traveling to the Faroe Islands, there was a famine noted with a lack of grain going to the Faroe Islands from Denmark. Additionally, Danish laws were created that barred the poor from marriage to keep the population low.

Faroese American immigration differs from that of most groups of Europeans. Faroese Americans did not come to the United States in large groups, but instead came as individuals. Men immigrated to the United States due to work as sailors. Women immigrated to the United States through marriage to Americans; because of the individual style of immigration and the smaller numbers, there is not as cohesive a Faroese American community, as there is for many other immigrant groups to the United States. Some Faroese Americans converted to Mormonism and Seventh-day Adventism, so moved to Denmark to be a part of the larger Mormon and Seventh Day Adventist communities there. From Denmark, some further immigrated to the United States in larger groups, as was common for Danish emigration; however few people overall left the Faroe Islands. Faroese ethnic identity is rooted in a strong sense of place and family connections. Faroese people have a strong tradition of hospitality, which includes inviting distant family members they have never met to stay at their house or for a complete meal.

In the Faroe Islands, many people keep in touch with distant relatives so far as third cousins, so family connections are important. A striking difference between Faroese and standard American culture is the strong tradition for hospitality. Faroese Americans traveling back to the Faroe Islands have been surprised to be welcomed into the homes of distant family members whom they have never met. Invitations for "coffee" includes rye bread and all of the traditional toppings, such as cold cut meats, pickled or dried fish, Skerpikjøt; because the Faroe Islands are a part of the Kingdom of Denmark, Faroese people have Danish citizenship. This means that in old census records, Faroese Americans would identify themselves as having Danish citizenship. Compounding this issue, Denmark created some laws that forced Faroese people to adopt a consistent last name during the 1800s, the new last names were Danish. Common are Jensen and Joensen, which are indistinguishable from Danish last names. Therefore, it is an difficult task to estimate the number of Faroese Americans based on census records.

Additionally, handwritten records may be mis-transcribed as the Fiji Islands, the Virgin Islands, the Azores Islands, Rhode Island, Fayal Island, the Island of Fohr, or others. Additionally, spelling mistakes for villages from the Faroe Islands makes it difficult to determine immigration; this makes handwritten records incomplete concerning the Faroe Islands. Instead, passenger lists should be explored. Research in Faroese and American achieves is ongoing. There is evidence that Faroese Americans settled across the United States, did not refine themselves to the areas settled by many Scandinavian Americans. In context, this makes a lot of sense, as Faroese Americans immigrated as individuals, had different skill sets than Scandinavian Americans, seafaring abilities. Additionally, around the 1850s, the Faroe Islands started to develop their own national identity, so many Faroese Americans may not have identified with Scandinavian Americans that they would feel the need to live amongst them. However, there is anecdotal evidence that many Faroese Americans settled in Colorado and the West Coast.

Some Faroese Americans have retained their language, but it has been difficult until more accessible technology to keep the language with the next generation, so many descendants of Faroese Americans do not speak Faroese. Hans Skálagarð, painter

Conway polynomial (finite fields)

In mathematics, the Conway polynomial Cp,n for the finite field Fpn is a particular irreducible polynomial of degree n over Fp that can be used to define a standard representation of Fpn as a splitting field of Cp,n. Conway polynomials were named after John H. Conway by Richard A. Parker, the first to define them and compute examples. Conway polynomials satisfy a certain compatibility condition, proposed by Conway between the representation of a field and the representations of its subfields, they are important in computer algebra where they provide portability among different mathematical databases and computer algebra systems. Since Conway polynomials are expensive to compute, they must be stored to be used in practice. Databases of Conway polynomials are available in the computer algebra systems GAP, Macaulay2, SageMath, at the web site of Frank Lübeck. Elements of Fpn may be represented as sums of the form an−1βn−1 +... + a1β + a0 where β is a root of an irreducible polynomial of degree n over Fp and the aj are elements of Fp.

Addition of field elements in this representation is vector addition. While there is a unique finite field of order pn up to isomorphism, the representation of the field elements depends on the choice of the irreducible polynomial; the Conway polynomial is a way of standardizing this choice. The non-zero elements of a finite field form a cyclic group under multiplication. A primitive element, α, of Fpn is an element. Representing the non-zero field elements as powers of α allows multiplication in the field to be performed efficiently; the primitive polynomial for α is the monic polynomial of smallest possible degree with coefficients in Fp that has α as a root in Fpn. It is irreducible; the Conway polynomial is chosen to be primitive, so that each of its roots generates the multiplicative group of the associated finite field. The subfields of Fpn are fields Fpm with m dividing n; the cyclic group formed from the non-zero elements of Fpm is a subgroup of the cyclic group of Fpn. If α generates the latter the smallest power of α that generates the former is αr where r = /.

If fn is a primitive polynomial for Fpn with root α, if fm is a primitive polynomial for Fpm by Conway's definition, fm and fn are compatible if αr is a root of fm. This necessitates; this notion of compatibility is called norm-compatibility by some authors. The Conway polynomial for a finite field is chosen so as to be compatible with the Conway polynomials of each of its subfields; that it is possible to make the choice in this way was proved by Werner Nickel. The Conway polynomial Cp,n is defined as the lexicographically minimal monic primitive polynomial of degree n over Fp, compatible with Cp,m for all m dividing n; this is an inductive definition on n: the base case is Cp,1 = x − α where α is the lexicographically minimal primitive element of Fp. The notion of lexicographical ordering used is the following: The elements of Fp are ordered 0 < 1 < 2 <... < p − 1. A polynomial of degree d in Fp is written adxd − ad−1xd−1 +... + da0 and expressed as the word adad−1... a0. Two polynomials of degree d are ordered according to the lexicographical ordering of their corresponding words.

Since there does not appear to be any natural mathematical criterion that would single out one monic primitive polynomial satisfying the compatibility conditions over all the others, the imposition of lexicographical ordering in the definition of the Conway polynomial should be regarded as a convention. Algorithms for computing Conway polynomials that are more efficient than brute-force search have been developed by Heath and Loehr. Lübeck indicates. Holt, Derek F..

The Wars of the Roses (adaptation)

The Wars of the Roses was a 1963 theatrical adaptation of William Shakespeare's first historical tetralogy, which deals with the conflict between the House of Lancaster and the House of York over the throne of England, a conflict known as the Wars of the Roses. The plays were adapted by John Barton, directed by Barton himself and Peter Hall at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre; the production starred David Warner as Henry VI, Peggy Ashcroft as Margaret of Anjou, Donald Sinden as the Duke of York, Paul Hardwick as the Duke of Gloucester, Janet Suzman as Joan la Pucelle, Brewster Mason as the Earl of Warwick, Roy Dotrice as Edward IV, Susan Engel as Queen Elizabeth and Ian Holm as Richard III. The plays were politicised, with Barton and Hall allowing numerous contemporaneous events of the early 1960s to inform their adaptation; the production was a huge critical and commercial success, is regarded as revitalizing the reputation of the Henry VI plays in the modern theatre. Many critics feel The Wars of the Roses set a standard for future productions of the tetralogy which has yet to be surpassed.

In 1965, the BBC adapted the plays for television. The broadcast was so successful that they were shown again, in a differently edited form, in 1966. In 1970, BBC Books published the play scripts along with extensive behind-the-scenes information written by Barton and Hall, other members of the Royal Shakespeare Company who worked on the production; the most significant initial alteration to the original text was to conflate the four plays into a trilogy. This was not unprecedented, as adaptations from the seventeenth century onwards had employed truncation when staging the sequence the Henry VI trilogy. In 1681, John Crowne adapted 2 Henry VI and 3 Henry VI into a two-part play called Henry the Sixth, The First Part and The Misery of Civil War. Henry the Sixth comprised Acts 1–3 of 2 Henry VI, with material added by Crowne himself, focusing on the death of Gloucester, whilst Misery adapted the last two acts of 2 Henry VI and a shortened version of 3 Henry VI. In 1699, Colley Cibber's The Tragical History of King Richard the Third used scenes from 3 Henry VI as a form of prologue to rest of the play, establishing a tradition still in use in filmic adaptations of Richard III.

In 1723, Theophilus Cibber's King Henry VI: A Tragedy used Act 5 of 2 Henry VI and Acts 1 and 2 of 3 Henry VI. In 1817, J. H. Merivale's Richard Duke of York. Robert Atkins adapted all three plays into a single piece for a performance at The Old Vic in 1923 as part of the celebrations for the tercentenary of the First Folio. In 1957 at The Old Vic, Douglas Seale directed a production of the trilogy under the title The Wars of the Roses. Adapted by Barry Jackson, the trilogy was again altered to a two-part play. John Barton's adaptation would divide the plays up in a new way; the first play featured a shortened version of 1 Henry VI and half of 2 Henry VI. The second play featured the second half of 2 Henry VI and a shortened version of 3 Henry VI; this was followed by a shortened version of Richard III as the third play. In all, 1,450 lines written by Barton were added to 6,000 lines of original Shakespearean material, with a total of 12,350 lines removed. Barton defended the controversial decision to cut from and add to the text on the grounds that the Henry VI plays "are not viable as they stand," arguing they needed to be adapted "in the interests of audience accessibility."

As an example of the alterations, in the original text, the character of the Duke of Exeter appears only in 1 Henry VI, whereas in The Wars of the Roses, he appears throughout all three plays, as a constant ally of Henry VI and the House of Lancaster. Numerous characters were removed, such as Warwick's father, the Earl of Salisbury, a major character in 2 Henry VI, some of the battle scenes were amalgamated to cut down on stage combat. In his introduction to the published script of the plays, Peter Hall defended Barton's edits, arguing "there is a difference between interfering with the text of the mature Shakespeare and with the text of the Henry VI's; these plays are not only apprentice work. In tandem with Barton, Hall argued the plays didn't work in unedited form. Shakespeare's voice is heard sporadically, his vision and intense in some scenes, is swamped by the mass of Tudor history in others. All the same, I was doubtful about publishing our version. Our production was perceived with a knowledge of the whole text.

If we cut an important passage, we only did so in the conviction that its values were being expressed in other ways. What follows is what we found meaningful in the 1960s in Shakespeare's view of history, its values are ephemeral, its judgements are of the decade which produced it and us. Although some scholars were critical of Barton's edits, others praised them, arguing they improved on the originals. G. K. Hunter, for example, critical of the production itself, praised the editing, commenting that Barton was able to "cut away the superflu

Young America City Hall

Young America City Hall is a historic building in Norwood Young America, United States. It is a private residence; the building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on January 4, 1980. Built in 1909 for the city of Young America, which merged with the neighboring city of Norwood in 1997, it was converted into a single-family home by 2000; the 4,000 square feet structure retains its original bell tower, tin ceilings, ticket window as well as original hardwood floors in what was converted to a basketball court. The most recent owners planned to live on the second floor and convert the main floor into a youth center, but the plans fell through when they needed to move for work. In its present layout, the structure includes four bedrooms, living room and formal dining room, all on the upper level, as well as four bathrooms. A partial loft was added which includes a library with a gas fireplace, a recreation room and recording studio. In May 2010 the structure was being offered for sale at a price of $449,900

Porches (Lagoa)

Porches is a civil parish/freguesia in the municipality of Lagoa in Portugal, about 10 km east of the city of Lagoa. The population in 2011 was 2,011, in an area of 15.64 km². It was elevated to the status of a town on July 12, 2001. Perched on a hill on the edge of the oldest east-west road in the Algarve is the small town of Porches. Vestiges of continuous occupation going back as far as the Neolithic Age have been found in the area of the freguesia. A menhir, found in this area and dated to sometime between 5000 and 4000 BC, is now in the entrance garden of the Convent of Saint Joseph in Lagoa. According to historical sources, the actual settlement of Porches was in the middle of the 16th century, built by a group of settlers who came from an older urbanization called Porches Velho, situated within the freguesia but closer to the coast. Porches Velho had been occupied during the Roman period, in 1253 it was a sizeable town, seat of a judicial district and with a strong medieval castle; the area of Porches is well known for its wine, but for its clay pits and pottery workshops and its current inhabitants still make pottery, continuing to keep this art alive.

Pottery had been re-introduced to the area when the artists Patrick Swift and Lima de Freitas set up Porches Pottery in 1968, which still produces handpainted pottery. With the increase in tourism the prosperity of the Porches pottery industry has returned, both traditional designs and new artistic styles are produced; the Atlantic coastal border of the Porches District is home to a thriving beach tourist industry, with numerous beaches and rocky areas with caves and arches. Fort of Our Lady of the Rock known as Porches castle, with its Marian shrine. Church of Our Lady of the Incarnation Beach of Our Lady of the Rock New Beach Porches Pottery