The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc 1,500 km long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the third-longest mountain range in Europe after the Ural Mountains with 2,500 km and Scandinavian Mountains with 1,700 km. They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species; the Carpathians and their foothills have many thermal and mineral waters, with Romania having one-third of the European total. Romania is home to the second-largest surface of virgin forests in Europe after Russia, totaling 250,000 hectares, most of them in the Carpathians, with the Southern Carpathians constituting Europe's largest unfragmented forested area; the Carpathians consist of a chain of mountain ranges that stretch in an arc from the Czech Republic in the northwest through Slovakia, Poland and Ukraine Serbia and Romania in the southeast.
The highest range within the Carpathians is the Tatras, on the border of Slovakia and Poland, where the highest peaks exceed 2,600 m. The second-highest range is the Southern Carpathians in Romania, where the highest peaks exceed 2,500 m; the divisions of the Carpathians are in three major sections: Western Carpathians—Austria, Czech Republic, Poland and Hungary Eastern Carpathians—southeastern Poland, eastern Slovakia and Romania Southern Carpathians—Serbia and RomaniaThe term Outer Carpathians is used to describe the northern rim of the Western and Eastern Carpathians. The most important cities in or near the Carpathians are: Bratislava and Košice in Slovakia, Kraków in Poland, Cluj-Napoca and Braşov in Romania, Uzhhorod in Ukraine. In modern times, the range is called Karpaty in Czech and Slovak and Карпати in Ukrainian, Карпати / Karpati in Serbian, Carpați in Romanian, Karpaten in German, Kárpátok in Hungarian. Although the toponym was recorded by Ptolemy in the second century of the Christian era, the modern form of the name is a neologism in most languages.
For instance, Havasok was its medieval Hungarian name. Sources, such as Dimitrie Cantemir and the Italian chronicler Giovanandrea Gromo, referred to the range as "Transylvania's Mountains", while the 17th-century historian Constantin Cantacuzino translated the name of the mountains in an Italian-Romanian glossary to "Rumanian Mountains"; the name "Carpates" is associated with the old Dacian tribes called "Carpes" or "Carpi" who lived in a large area from the east, north-east of the Black Sea to Transylvanian plains on the present day Romania and Moldova. The name Carpates may be from the Proto Indo-European root *sker-/*ker-, from which comes the Albanian word karpë, the Slavic word skála via a Dacian cognate which meant mountain, rock, or rugged; the archaic Polish word karpa meant "rugged irregularities, underwater obstacles/rocks, rugged roots, or trunks". The more common word skarpa means other vertical terrain; the name may instead come from Indo-European *kwerp "to turn", akin to Old English hweorfan "to turn, change" and Greek καρπός karpós "wrist" referring to the way the mountain range bends or veers in an L-shape.
In late Roman documents, the Eastern Carpathian Mountains were referred to as Montes Sarmatici. The Western Carpathians were called Carpates, a name, first recorded in Ptolemy's Geographia. In the Scandinavian Hervarar saga, which relates ancient Germanic legends about battles between Goths and Huns, the name Karpates appears in the predictable Germanic form as Harvaða fjöllum. "Inter Alpes Huniae et Oceanum est Polonia" by Gervase of Tilbury, has described in his Otia Imperialia in 1211. Thirteenth- to fifteenth-century Hungarian documents named the mountains Thorchal, Tarczal, or less Montes Nivium; the northwestern Carpathians begin in southern Poland. They surround Transcarpathia and Transylvania in a large semicircle, sweeping towards the southeast, end on the Danube near Orşova in Romania; the total length of the Carpathians is over 1,500 km and the mountain chain's width varies between 12 and 500 km. The highest altitudes of the Carpathians occur; the system attains its greatest breadth in the Transylvanian plateau and in the southern Tatra Mountains group – the highest range, in which Gerlachovský štít in Slovakia is the highest peak at 2,655 m above sea level.
The Carpathians cover an area of 190,000 km2, after the Alps, form the next-most extensive mountain system in Europe. Although referred to as a mountain chain, the Carpathians do not form an uninterrupted chain of mountains. Rather, they consist of several orographically and geologically distinctive groups, presenting as great a structural variety as the Alps; the Carpathians, which attain an altitude over 2,500 m in only a few places, lack the bold peaks, extensive snowfields, large glaciers, high waterfalls, numerous large lakes that are common in the Alps. It was believed that no area of the Carpathian range was covered in snow all yea
A field army is a military formation in many armed forces, composed of two or more corps and may be subordinate to an army group. Air armies are equivalent formation within some air forces. A field army is composed of 100,000 to 150,000 troops. Particular field armies are named or numbered to distinguish them from "army" in the sense of an entire national land military force. In English, the typical style for naming field armies is word numbers, such as "First Army". A field army may be given a geographical name in addition to or as an alternative to a numerical name, such as the British Army of the Rhine, Army of the Niemen or Aegean Army; the Roman army was among the first to feature a formal field army, in the sense of a large, combined arms formation, namely the sacer comitatus, which may be translated as "sacred escort". The term is derived from the fact that they were commanded by Roman emperors, when they acted as field commanders. While the Roman comitatensis is sometimes translated as "field army", it may be translated as the more generic "field force" or "mobile force".
In some armed forces, an "army" has been equivalent to a corps-level unit. Prior to 1945, this was the case with a gun within the Imperial Japanese Army, for which the formation equivalent in size to a field army was an "area army". In the Soviet Red Army and the Soviet Air Forces, an army was subordinate in wartime to a front, it contained at least three to five divisions along with artillery, air defense and other supporting units. It could be classified as either tank army. In peacetime, a Soviet army was subordinate to a military district. Modern field armies are large formations which vary between armed forces in size and scope of responsibility. For instance, within NATO a field army is composed of a headquarters, controls at least two corps, beneath which are a variable number of divisions. A battle is influenced at the field army level by transferring divisions and reinforcements from one corps to another to increase the pressure on the enemy at a critical point. NATO armies are commanded by a general or lieutenant general.
Armeeoberkommando Military unit Military history List of numbered armies
The Petsamo–Kirkenes Offensive was a major military offensive during World War II, mounted by the Red Army against the Wehrmacht in 1944 in northern Finland and Norway. The offensive defeated the Wehrmacht's forces in the Arctic, driving them back into Norway, was called the "Tenth Shock" by Stalin, it expelled German forces from the northern part of Norway and seized the nickel mines of Pechenga/Petsamo. In the aftermath of the failed German-Finnish offensive, Operation Silver Fox, in 1941, the frontlines in the Arctic had seen little change. Environmental and supply conditions in the remote, nearly roadless region made it difficult, if not impossible, to undertake major military operations, as far as land warfare was concerned, the Arctic had become a backwater. Considerable German forces were deployed in the sector to protect the Finnish nickel mines of Petsamo, which were of importance to German armour plate fabrication, to guard the coast of northern Norway against an Allied landing operation.
After the armistice between the Soviet Union and Finland on 4 September 1944, the Petsamo region again became part of the Russian SFSR, the Finnish government agreed to remove the remaining German troops from its territory by 15 September. During the retreat of the Wehrmacht 20th Mountain Army, called Operation Birke, the decision was made by the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht to withdraw from northern Norway and Finland in Operation Nordlicht. During the preparations for this operation, the Russians went over to the offensive on the Karelian Front; the Stavka decided to move against the German forces in the Arctic in late 1944. The operation was to be undertaken jointly by the Karelian Front under the command of General Kirill Meretskov and the Northern Fleet under Admiral Arseniy Golovko; the main operations were to be conducted by the 14th Army, in the Arctic since the beginning of the war. Meretskov was provided with several units specially configured to meet the requirements for operations in the far north.
The 126th and 127th Rifle Corps consisted of light infantry with a number of ski troops and naval infantry. The Soviets had 30 engineer battalions, numerous horse- and reindeer-equipped transportation companies, two battalions equipped with US-supplied amphibious vehicles for river crossings. In addition, the Soviets massed thousands of mortars and artillery pieces, 750 aircraft, 110 tanks, making Soviet forces far superior to the Germans. Soviet preparations, which had lasted for two months, had not gone unnoticed by the Germans; the capable General Lothar Rendulic, who served as both head of the 20th Mountain Army and overall theater commander, was well aware of the threat posed by the upcoming offensive. Prior to the start of the Soviet drive, the defending Germans had been ordered to abandon Petsamo on 15 October, Kirkenes by the beginning of November; the offensive can be divided into three phases: the breakthrough of the German position, the pursuit to Kirkenes, the battle for Kirkenes, including the southward pursuit that followed it.
During the offensive several amphibious landings were conducted by naval army units. The Germans' intended withdrawal was hampered by Hitler's strict orders to Rendulic to evacuate all supplies from the Petsamo region before abandoning it. Despite intensive planning before the offensive, the initial attack on 7 October met with problems. Poor visibility made slowing the assault. Blowing up the bridges behind them, the Germans retreated; the Soviets pursued, over the following days conducted several amphibious landings to cut off the German forces. On 10 October the Germans shifted the 163rd Division, withdrawing from Finland to Norway, to the Petsamo region to bolster their defenses. On 13 October the Soviets were poised to attack German forces around the town of Petsamo, units of the 126th light Rifle Corps were able to establish a roadblock on the only escape route; the Soviets captured Petsamo on 15 October, but due to supply problems had to halt the offensive for three days. For the rest of the campaign the Soviets advanced after the withdrawing Germans along the coast of Norway, with the Soviets trying to block and cut off German units on their retreat.
But because of constant supply shortcomings and German delaying efforts, which forced sizable forces to be detached to road reconstruction, the Soviets were not able to achieve success and the Germans escaped with the bulk of their forces intact. The Germans abandoned Kirkenes on 25 October and on 29 October Meretskov halted all operations except reconnaissance; the Soviet offensive ended with a victory for the Red Army, but the Wehrmacht 20th Mountain Army performed an orderly retreat with the bulk of its forces intact as it did against Finnish forces during their retreat through Lapland carried out at the same time. Soviet failure to inflict clear defeat on the withdrawing Germans was due to the supply issues caused by efficient German destruction of road connections in the area. With the only road available being out of service due to damage and mines, both supplies and heavy equipment, like artillery, could not be transported to front lines in sufficient quantities while lighter equipped forces were at a disadvantage against armed German forces.
The Soviet commander Meretskov was promoted to Marshal of
Bar, Vinnytsia Oblast
Bar is a town located on the Riv River in the Vinnytsia Oblast of central Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Bar Raion, is part of the historic region of Podolia. Population: 16,409 Bar was named for Bari in Italy by the Polish Queen Bona Sforza in 1537. Bar is a traditional name and a most used name for the city at present time; the city was a small trade outpost Rov on the Riv River from the 13th to 15th centuries, it was described as Rov for the first time in 1401. In 1537 the Polish Queen Bona Sforza renamed the settlement to Bar in 1537, after her hometown of Bari in Italy and in 1630s Guillaume Le Vasseur de Beauplan built a fortress there and described Bar in his book: "Description d'Ukranie". In 1540, the Polish King Sigismund I; the fortress was resisted all assaults. But during the Khmelnytsky Uprising of 1648 it was captured by the Cossacks led by Maxym Kryvonis and damaged. In 1672 the Town of Bar was captured by the Ottoman Empire and became a seat of the local administration.
On November 12, 1674, the town and the fortress were recaptured by the forces of John III of Poland after four days of siege. But the Ottomans recaptured the city in 1675 and retained it until 1686, it was ravaged by Turks and Poles in turn between 1686 and 1699. On February 29, 1768, the Bar Confederation was founded by the magnates Adam Krasiński, Bishop of Kamenets, Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł, Casimir Pulaski, Moritz Benyowszki and Michał Krasiński in the fortress. After the Second Partition of Poland, the town fell under Russian Empire rule and was part of Podolia Governorate. After 1922, the Town of Bar was part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. Since 1991, following the fall of the Soviet Union, it has been part of independent Ukraine; the city of Bar was comprehensively described in the doctorate thesis by Mykhailo Hrushevsky: Bar Community: Historical Outlines in the 15th to 18th centuries. The international conference on the Town of Bar history will be held in Bar on September 26, 2014.
There is a monument of Mykhailo Hrushevsky in Bar city. Bar was shortly described in a book titled: "Geographic Dictionary of Polish Kingdom and other Slavic places," published by Filip Sulimierski i Władysław Walewski in Warsaw in Poland in 1885. Bar was comprehensively described in the History of towns and villages of Ukrainian SSR encyclopedia dictionary by the Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences in 1972. Bar was described in the Electronic Jewish Dictionaries and other information resources in Israel in 2016; the history of Bar is discussed in the Ukrainian mass media. 1401 – First written note about Bar as Rov settlement 1540 – Sigismund I the Old gave the Magdeburg Rights to the Bar market town, Bernard Pretwicz became a starosta of Bar and founded a fortress for the operation against the Tatars 1542 – Stanisław Bagieński became a head of fortress in Bar. 1565 – Wojciech Starzechowski began to build the stone made fortress in Bar. The 1,000 florins from the King’s Treasury in Poland were assigned for construction.
1566 – Edict of Sigismund I the Old to adapt the new regulation on the fortress building in Bar 1576 – Stefan Batory issued a decree in which the three nearby situated suburbs were included into Bar 1637 – 1648 – The arsenal of the Polish King’s artillery was established in Bar. August, 1648 – During the Khmelnytsky Uprising, Maxym Kryvonis captured Bar after which a power over the city was shifting from one side to another. 1672 – 1699 – Bar was captured by Selim I Giray, a Crimean Khan. November 12, 1674 – The town and the fortress were re-captured by the forces of John III of Poland after four days of siege. 1675 – 1686 – Bar was re-captured by Ottoman Empire again. 1686 – 1699 – Bar was re-captured by the John III of Poland and by Ottoman Empire for many times. February 29, 1768 – The Bar Confederation was signed in Bar that divided Poland. 1793 – 1921 After the Second Partition of Poland, the Bar was as a part of Podolia Governorate in Russian Empire and Ukrainian People's Republic. 1921 – 1991 – part of the Soviet Union 1922 – all towns in Ukraine including Bar became to be classified as urban-type settlements as part of the Soviet administrative reform.
1938 – the urban-type settlement of Bar became a city of district significance Since 1991 – Bar is a city in Ukraine. All the historical facts and findings are collected and archived in the history museum in Bar, Ukraine. Evidences of Chernyakhov culture were found at the western part of Bar city. An exposition about the Polish Queen Bona Sforza and the Bar's city history attracts a number of domestic and foreign visitors A Ukrainian culture exhibit, includes exhibits on Ukrainian clothes, ceramics and iron artifacts; the museum has a collection of the icons and ancient artifacts, related to the various religions in Bar. There is an exposition about related historical events; the literature data about the City of Bar history periods are collected in the research article. The international conferences on the City of Bar history are conducted regularly; the Bar Fortress was built in 1537 and re-designed by Guillaume Le Vasseur de Beauplan. in the 1630s, The Polish Bar Confederation was formed here.
It now exists only as ruins, but it still is of interest to Ukrainian and foreign tourists, academics from various universities, locals. The site is surrounded b
Battle of Kiev (1941)
The First Battle of Kiev was the German name for the operation that resulted in a large encirclement of Soviet troops in the vicinity of Kiev during World War II. This encirclement is considered the largest encirclement in the history of warfare; the operation ran from 7 August to 26 September 1941 as part of Operation Barbarossa, the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union. In Soviet military history, it is referred to as the Kiev Strategic Defensive Operation, with somewhat different dating of 7 July – 26 September 1941. Much of the Southwestern Front of the Red Army was encircled but small groups of Red Army troops managed to escape the pocket, days after the German panzers met east of the city, including the headquarters of Marshal Semyon Budyonny, Marshal Semyon Timoshenko and Commissar Nikita Khrushchev. Kirponos was killed while trying to break out; the battle was an unprecedented defeat for the Red Army, exceeding the Battle of Białystok–Minsk of June–July 1941. The encirclement trapped 452,700 soldiers, 2,642 guns and mortars and 64 tanks, of which scarcely 15,000 escaped from the encirclement by 2 October.
The Southwestern Front suffered 700,544 casualties, including 616,304 killed, captured or missing during the battle. The 5th, 37th, 26th, 21st and the 38th armies, consisting of 43 divisions, were annihilated and the 40th Army suffered many losses. Like the Western Front before it, the Southwestern Front had to be recreated from scratch. After the rapid progress of Army Group Centre through the central sector of the Eastern front, a huge salient developed around its junction with Army Group South by late July 1941. On 7-8 July 1941 the German forces managed to breakthrough the fortified Stalin Line in the southeast portion of Zhytomyr Oblast, which ran along the 1939 Soviet border. By 11 July 1941 the Axis ground forces reached the Dnieper tributary Irpin River; the initial attempt to enter the city right away was thwarted by troops of the Kiev ukrep-raion and counter offensive of 5th and 6th armies. Following that the advance on Kiev was halted and main effort shifted towards the Korosten ukrep-raion where was concentrated the Soviet 5th Army.
At the same time the 1st Panzer Army was forced to transition to defense due to counteroffensive of the Soviet 26th Army. A substantial Soviet force, nearly the entire Southwestern Front, positioned in and around Kiev was located in the salient. By end of July the Soviet front lost some of its units due to critical situation of the Southern Front caused by the German 17th army. While lacking mobility and armor due to high losses in tanks at the Battle of Uman on 3 August 1941, they nonetheless posed a significant threat to the German advance and were the largest single concentration of Soviet troops on the Eastern Front at that time. Both Soviet 6th and 12th armies were encircled at Uman where some 102,000 Red Army soldiers and officers were taken prisoners. On 30 July 1941, the German forces resumed their advance onto Kiev with the German 6th army attacking positions between the Soviet 26th army and the Kiev ukrep-raion troops. On 7 August 1941 it was halted again by the Soviet 5th, 37th, 26th and supported by the Pinsk Naval Flotilla.
With a help of local population around the city of Kiev along the 45 km frontline segment were dug anti-tanks ditches and installed other obstacles, established 750 pillboxes, planted 100,000 of mines. Some 35,000 soldiers were mobilized from local population along with some partisan detachments and couple of armored trains. On 19 July Hitler issued Directive No. 33 which would cancel the assault on Moscow in favor of driving south to complete the encirclement of Soviet forces surrounded in Kiev. However, on 12 August 1941, Supplement to Directive No. 34 was issued, it represented a compromise between Hitler, convinced the correct strategy was to clear the salient occupied by Soviet forces on right flank of Army Group Center in the vicinity of Kiev before resuming the drive to Moscow, Halder and Guderian, who advocated an advance on Moscow as soon as possible. The compromise required 2nd and 3rd Panzer Groups of Army Group Centre, which were redeploying in order to aid Army Group North and Army Group South be returned to Army Group Centre, together with the 4th Panzer Group of Army Group North, once their objectives were achieved.
The three Panzer Groups, under the control of Army Group Center, would lead the advance on Moscow. Halder, chief of staff of the OKH, Bock, commander of Army Group Center, were satisfied by the compromise, but soon their optimism faded as the operational realities of the plan proved too challenging. On 18 August, OKH submitted a strategic survey to Hitler regarding the continuation of operations in the East; the paper made the case for the drive to Moscow, arguing once again that Army Groups North and South were strong enough to accomplish their objectives without any assistance from Army Group Center. It pointed out that there was enough time left before winter to conduct only a single decisive operation against Moscow. On 20 August, Hitler rejected the proposal based on the idea that the most important objective was to deprive the Soviets of their industrial areas. On 21 August Jodl of OKW issued a directive, which summarized Hitler's instructions, to Brauchitsch commander of the Army; the paper reiterated that the capture of Moscow before the onset of winter was not a primary objective.
Rather, that the most important missions before the onset of winter were to seize the Crimea, the industrial and coal region of the Don.
50th Army (Soviet Union)
The 50th Army was a Soviet field army during World War II. It was deployed on the southwest approaches to Moscow. Encircled and destroyed by German Second Panzer Army in the opening stages of Operation Typhoon, enough of the army escaped that it could be reinforced to defend the city of Tula in November, it was at this time that the 50th came under the command of Lt. Gen. Ivan Boldin, who continued in command until February, 1945. During most of its career the army was small and accordingly served in secondary roles, it finished the war in East Prussia, under the command of Lt. Gen. Fyodor Ozerov, as part of 3rd Belorussian Front; the Army became active on Aug. 16, 1941 along the Desna River as part of the newly-forming Bryansk Front. The Army's first commander, Major General Mikhail Petrov, issued his Combat Order No. 1 on that date. In it, he recorded the composition of the 50th Army as follows: 217th Rifle Division 258th Rifle Division 260th Rifle Division 269th Rifle Division 279th Rifle Division 280th Rifle Division 55th Cavalry Division Artillery regiments of 2nd and 20th Rifle Corps 753rd and 761st Antitank Regiments 86th Separate Antiaircraft Battalion 10th Separate Armored Car Battalion 5th Separate Sapper BattalionExcept for the 217th which formed in late June, all of these rifle divisions had formed in July, as few as four weeks earlier.
Bryansk Front was under the command of Gen. Andrey Yeryomenko. During the balance of August and most of September he ordered his forces, including the fresh 50th Army, into repeated clashes with the German XLVII Motorized Corps over its possession of a bridgehead over the Desna anchored on the towns of Pochep and Pogar; this was an attempt to disrupt 2nd Panzer Army as it prepared to strike southwards towards Kiev. These operations had little effect on the German forces and severely weakened the Front just as it was to face its greatest test; as of Sept. 30, strength returns for 50th Army showed 61,503 personnel, 780 guns and mortars, but only 7 tanks. It was still one of the stronger armies before Moscow, but not so strong. On Sept. 30, 1941, the 2nd Panzer Army launched Operation Typhoon in the 50th Army's sector. On the third day it had penetrated the weak 13th Army and a day reached Oryol; the 50th Army was bypassed. On Oct. 2, Major I. Shabalin, the head of the army's political section, wrote:"A continuous rumble of enemy artillery can be heard, masses of their aircraft are flying overhead – our antiaircraft guns are shooting at them constantly.
It is clear we are facing a major assault along our whole front, in many sectors our troops have been pushed back." On Oct. 7, Major General Petrov was given temporary command of Bryansk Front after Yeryomenko was wounded. Major General Arkady Yermakov, leading an operational group within the Front, took up command of 50th Army until late November; the pocketed forces were split in two when 17th Panzer Division and 167th Infantry Division linked up on Oct. 10, with 50th Army in the northern pocket, but the eastern perimeter was only lightly held so the army was never cut off from the main front. On that date, General Weichs, commander of German 2nd Army, reported that "a strong part of the Red Fiftieth Army... could not be prevented from escaping." General Guderian of the 2nd Panzer Army further reported that his forces were committed to containing breakouts from the southern pocket and had nothing available to help with the northern one. The 50th was able to fall back beyond Bryansk without catastrophic losses.
By late October 50th Army had fallen back towards the city of Tula and repaired its strength. Three depleted divisions, the 293rd, 413th and 239th, arrived from the front, each with between 500 and 1,000 men, who were exhausted and with little equipment. Within two months these divisions reinforced to authorized strength. With the disruption of Bryansk Front, 50th Army was reassigned to Western Front. Army Group Center's supplies had been adequate for the encirclement phases of Typhoon, as the autumn rains turned the roads to mud, Guderian was forced to postpone his drive on Tula until Oct. 23. The town of Chern fell on the 25th. A battlegroup, forcing its way up the one available highway, got within 5 km of the city on Oct. 29 and tried to take it off the march, but the defenders were prepared and drove the panzers off with strong antitank and antiaircraft fire. 50th Army was in a much better position for supplies, with munitions coming directly from Tula's factories. In mid-November General Yermakov came under investigation by the Special Department of the NKVD led by Viktor Abakumov, was accused of dereliction of duty during the Bryansk encirclement.
He was executed. In late November Lieutenant General Ivan Boldin was summoned to Moscow and offered command of the army to direct the continued defense of this crucial city. Boldin was a popular hero for having led a group of 1,650 men back from the frontier to Soviet lines near Smolensk during July and early August, he had been acting as deputy commander of Western Front until being wounded in another breakout in October. Boldin admitted that defending the city against Guderian was a challenging task to undertake, but although Tula was outflanked by the beginning of December, it never fell. In conjunction with 10th Army, the 50th Army went on the offensive and drove Guderian's forces back from the southern approaches to Moscow. In the initial phase, elements of the 50th overran one battalion of the elite Grossdeutschland Regiment. In December, more divisions were added to the army: four rifle divisions
Order of battle for Operation Barbarossa
This is the order of battle for Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II. It was fought between the Soviet Forces; the operation started on June 22, 1941, ended on December 5, 1941, at the conclusion of Operation Typhoon. Commanded by Field marshal Wilhelm von Leeb Commanded by Field marshal Fedor von Bock Commanded by Field marshal Gerd von Rundstedt The "Main Command of the Armed Forces of the USSR" was formed on 23 June from the existing People's Commissariat for Defence. Commander in Chief: Marshal Semyon Timoshenko Josef Stalin Deputy Commander-in-Chief: Army General Georgy Zhukov Chief of the General Staff: Army General Georgy Zhukov Marshal Boris Shaposhnikov General Colonel Markian Popov The front was the Leningrad Military District until 24 June. General Colonel Fyodor Isodorovich Kuznetsov Source:Baltic Special Military District until 22 June. General Colonel Dmitry Grigorevich Pavlov Western Special Military District until 22 June. General Colonel Mikhail Kirponos Kiev Special Military District until 22 June.
General Colonel Ivan Tyulenev The directive issued to the Luftwaffe for Barbarossa ordered that Luftflotte 2, under the command of Albert Kesselring was to be the strongest Air Fleet. Kesselring was assigned to supporting Army Group Centre, to capture Minsk and Moscow. Kesselring was given Fliegerkorps II and the 1st Anti-Aircraft Corps. Army Group South was supported by Luftflotte 4, containing Fliegerkorps V and Fliegerkorps IV; the Air Fleet and Army Group were responsible for capturing Kiev, the Crimea and the Caucasus oilfields. Army Group North was supported by Luftflotte 1, Luftflotte 5. Luftflotte 5 conducted operations in the Arctic near Murmansk. Luftflotte 1 supported operations in and over Leningrad. Luftflotte 1 contained Fliegerkorps I under the command of Helmuth Förster; the Romanian Air Force was considered weak by the OKL, therefore unlikely to play a great role in the ground fighting. Far more attention was given by the OKW to preparing the Romanian Army. Hitler, on 18 June 1941, declared that the primary mission of the Romanian air arm was to defend Romania and the Romanian oilfields.
Only when those forces were sufficient, could they divert the remaining forces to ground support operations for Barbarossa. On 21 June 1941, it possessed a balanced fleet of 53 Squadrons. On the 22 June, there was 82 bombers in service. Total strength amounted to 380 aircraft. Only 30 of the Romanian fighters were Bf 109s, of the E model. However, this small force did not remain inferior in numbers for along. Despite a weak inter-war economy, the aircraft industry was run efficiently, they were able to produce some capable aircraft. Unlike the army that stagnated, it was able to garner the cream of the Romanian officer corps. With the right support and modern equipment, it was able to grow in number and match its enemies in quality. In air defence and ground support operations it performed well, but failed in strategic bomber and naval operations owing to a lack of doctrine. Within a few weeks of Barbarossa beginning, it was able to put up 1,061 aircraft, including 400 trainers; the modern combat aircraft were focused into one unified Air Combat Command, or GAL, while the obsolete types were given the Romanian Fourth Army, operating under the German Army Group South.
Since 1935, Soviet military aviation had been divided between the navy. The VVS KA had been split into four different organisations owing to faulty conclusions drawn from the Winter War. Owing to a lack of coordination in close support operations with the Red Army, the entire VVS KA was subordinated to the field armies; the existence of too many different branches under separate commands in Soviet air power caused coordination problems. Most Soviet bomber units could not coordinate with fighter aviation they did not have fighter escort for long periods; the total strength of the VVS amounted to 61 divisions. Five brigades were included; the Front Air Forces were divided into Districts and the home defence, the PVO. This element had 40.5 per cent of the Soviet air strength. The Army Air Forces comprised 43.7 per cent of the VVS' strength. The liaison squadrons were a collection of individual squadrons assigned to different army corps of the ground army, they comprised only 2.3 per cent. The Soviet order of battle: Bergström, Christer.
Barbarossa - The Air Battle: July–December 1941, London: Chevron/Ian Allan, 2007. ISBN 978-1-85780-270-2. Plocher, Hermann; the German Air Force versus Russia, 1941. United States Air Force Studies, Washington, 1968. ISBN 978-0-405-00044-7 Plocher, Hermann; the German Air Force versus Russia, 1942. United States Air Force Studies, Washington, 1968. ISBN 978-0-405-00045-4 Statiev, Alexander. Antonescu's Eagles against Stalin's Falcons: The Romanian Air Force, 1920-1941, in'The Journal of Military History', Volume 66, No. 4, pp. 1085–1113 Gla